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'8681 'AXI 


Vol. XXXII.— No. 


( $3 a Year, in Advance 
( Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

An Important Nortyern Town. 

We give on this page an erlraving of one of 
the representative towns oithe Sacramento 
valley, Red Bluff, the countyieat, and largest 
town of Tehama county. Unn another page 
may be found an article writtel by a resident 
of the county, giving some inerestiDg state- 
ments about the area, resource and develop- 
ment of the county. In connqtion with the 

substantial business blocks, a number of fac- 
tories and mills, including several carriage and 
wagon factories, harness shops, marble works, 
gas works and water works; in fact, all the 
trades and professions are well represented. 
The water supply is a credit to the town, the 
main supply being taken from Antelope 
creek, on the east side of the river, across 
which it is carried in iron pipes, having a dis- 
tributing capacity of 1,000,000 gallons in 24 

annual dividends, of from 10 to 12 per cent 

The yards, factory and planing mill of the 
Sierra Flume and Lumber Company, which has 
added so much to the prosperity of Red Bluff, 
are situated, as shown in the engraving, on the 
east side of the river, being connected with the 
town by a long wagon bridge, across which a 
Bide-track extends from the railroad right into 
the yards, enabling the company to ship lum- 

municipal development. Many of them are no 
doubt destined to be cities of high rank, for the 
development of the vast and rich area of Cali- 
fornia will call for a number of centers of trade 
and manufacture. We rejoice in the growth of 
sturdy young towns ; they are exponents of the 
progress of the country surrounding them. A 
grand metropolis like San Francisco is a credit 
to a commonwealth, but a metropolis is not the 
only need. We need plenty of' interior towns. 

engraving we present a description of the townhours. This can be largely increased by the 
written for the Rural Press, by Mr. Chas. EL e U-equipped pumping works located on the 
Heaton: Vver on the north side of town. There is a 

Red Bluff is situated on the California 
Oregon railroad about 15 miles from the north- 
ern boundary, and is distant about 250 miles 
from San Francisco. It contains about 4000 in- 
habitants, and lays claim, along with several 
other towns, of being the coming metropolis of 
Northern California. The town, which is in- 
corporated, has a fine location, being built 
upon a high plateau overlooking the Sacramento 
on the west side. It is tastefully laid off, con- 
tains a great many handsome residences and 
fine public buildings. 

Red Bluff is the great wool market of North- 
ern California, the total shipments from there 
for the past year having amounted to 2,500,000 
pounds. It is a very prosperous young city, 
though it has suffered greatly from several de- 
structive fires, the greatest occurring in 1882, 
when the property destroyed amounted to half 
a million dollars. The town contains many 

ove factory (established in 1864) that gives 
aployment to about 40 persons, mostly women 
Id girls, and manufactures between 3000 and 
^)0 gloves each season, requiring nearly 2000 
^ssed hides. The employes receive $1.50 per 
^en for closing up the gloves, and the pay- 
^amounts to about $4000 a month. There are 
s ^ral weekly and daily newspapers published, 
£ i>he place also boasts seven churches and 12 
ir Vnal societies. The educational institu- 
ti^consist of a fine public school, the Red 
Bl^cademy — a school of high grade, and the 
Ao «ny of our Lady of Mercy. All the 
8cn i rank high and are open to both sexes. 
TheUjk f Tehama, incorporated in 1874, is 
locali n a g ne bnilding on the main street. 
It hipaM.up capital of $300,000, represented 
by 3<Uhareg, at jioo eacn T t na s a surplus 
of $0%, and an undivided profit of $12,500. 
During ex i s t 6 nce it has paid out 21 semi- 


ber without handling it more than once after it 
is taken from the flume. About 3,000,000 feet 
of lumber per annum is used in the manufacture 
of doors, sash and blinds. A sample of the 
work in this line may be seen in the doors and 
windows of the well-known Phelan block, in 
San Francisco, which were manufactured at 
this place. The trade of the company in lum- 
ber and other products extends to all parts of 
the world. The pay-roll at this place amounts 
to over $4000 per month, and more than 100 
men find employment the year round in the 
different departments. The citizens of Red 
Bluff build high hopes on having a woolen mill 
established at this place; and, considering the 
excellent water facilities and other inducements 
for such an enterprise, their expectations will 
no doubt some day be realized. 

The growth attained by Rod Bluff and the 
progressive spirit which has ministered to it, as 
described by our contributor, can also be ob- 
served in the recent history of many California 
towns. They are models of health and vigor in 

We shall always be glad to minister to their 
growth by making them and their advantages 
better known, as we have done in this case with 
Red Bluff. 

Beet Sugar Wins us Fame in New Zeal- 
and. — The Auckland Weekly News contains an 
illustrated article describing the Beet Sugar 
Works at Alvarado and asks why a similar 
enterprise cannot be started in New Zealand. 
It is satisfactory to see that the enterprise 
which has been carried to success with such 
zeal and patience by Mr. Dyer and his associates 
is attracting such wide attention. It seems to 
us that the lesson to be drawn is that it ought 
to receive more attention from California cap- 
italists, now that the pioneer work has been 
done and success has been reached. 

State Horticultural Societt. — The meet- 
ing of this society on June 25th was well at- 
tended, and the discussion on apple growing 
was interesting. We are obliged to defer the 
publication of our report until next week. 



[Joly 3, 1886 


Correspondents are alone responsible for their opinions. 

Solano County Notes. 

Editors Press :— The weather i3 very pleas- 
ant, the thermometer ranging from 80° to 90°; 
nights cool and pleasant. The hay crop is 
about gathered in and not a drop of rain on it, 
something unusual. What little grain there 
was in this neighborhood is thrashed, and 
turned out 45 to 50 bushels per acre. 

The prospect for shipping fruit Kast is not so 
bright as it was some time ago. Fifteen car- 
loads have been sent from Winters and about 
the same amount from Vacaville, and the mar- 
ket is broke. Some have quit shipping and 
gone to drying apricots. The amount sent EaBt 
is not more than three men could send from 
Pleasant valley, and if three little orchards 
will break the market it is certainly not very 
strong. Some say that Porter put the price of 
fruit down so as tn break up Earl, who is ship- 
ping from Vacaville now; others, that the fruit 
was put up in poor condition and a little of it 
went a long ways. Be that as it may, the pros- 
pect is not bright at present. 

I saw some peaches and apricots to-day 
which were put up 10 days ago to ship E»Bt, 
but were not sent. They looked very well, 
but tasted as though they had been picked from 
a tree that was half dead and could not ma- 
ture the fruit. They also tasted strong of the 
paper in which they were wrapped. 

There is another thing which makes a vast 
difference in the sale of fruit, and that is the 
manner in which it is packtd. At a recent 
meeting of the "Fruit growers' Association at 
Winters it was proposed to have a man ap- 
pointed as fruit inspector. He said that one 
man could not go all through the district and 
oversee the packing. Then it was proposed to 
open some of the boxes at the cars and see 
what shape the fruit was in, but one man ob- 
jected and said no one should open his fruit, 
and so the proposition was dropped. But some- 
thing of that kind must be done, or shipping 
fruit Eist will never be a success. Some fruit 
that was brought to Winters was full of bird 
pecked holes, some too ripe and some so small 
that it rolled out of the baskets at the corners. 
This kind of fruit should not be sent, as it will 
not only be a loss to the owner but is liable to 
damage other fruit. 

Some apricots have been sold the past week 
for If cents per pound, and i think plenty cculd 
be bought at H and two cents per pound. A 
canner was here from Los Gatos two weeks ago, 
but could not get any then at two cents per 

Drying Apricots. 

In answer to "Subscriber" in regard to dry- 
ing apricots and prunes, I would say the apri- 
cots should be thoroughly ripe but not soft. As 
for sulphuring apparatus, it depends upon the 
amount that one has to sulphur. I sulphured 
some yesterday by putting the sieves on some 
fruit boxes, covering them with a wagon sheet, 
set the sulphur on tire in a pan and put it under 
the fruit. A cheap way, and a good one, would 
be to get some wire cloth, coarse enough to be 
stout, make some frames three inches wide on 
the sides, and 30 by 36 inches wide and long. 
Then make a box about six feet high to fit the 
sieves. Nail some cleats IS inches from the 
bottom, io set the first sieve on. There should 
be about 12 sieves for what four men could cut. 
Put in the first sieve, spread the fruit on it, 
about two inches deep; then another, and so 
on until you have all in that you want in. 

Then take an old iron vessel (a frying-pan is 
good), put in some pieces of burlap sack, and 
about a teacupful of sulphur on it and light 
it. Set it under the fruit and shut it up tight 
from 25 to 35 minutes. 

The amount of sulphur put on does not mat- 
ter, as what is not burnt one time can be used 
at another. There should be a hole in the top 
of the box to give draft. If the top trays do 
not sulphur enough, leave it open a little while. 

After using the sieves awhile the fruit will 
stick to the wire. Take a rag swab, dip it in 
melted lard and rub it over the wire. 

When the fruit has been in long enough turn 
it on to trays or boards and set it up edgewise. 
The length of time required to dry in the sun 
depends on how hot are the days, and how 
damp the nights. It should be taken up before 
it gets too hard to wash with the fingers. 

If the fruit ia to be boxed when dried it 
should be put into baskets and dipped two or 
three times into boiling water, and then be 
poured iuto a pile, covered with some canvas or 
sacks and left to sweat 12 hours, then packed 
in a box and pressed, which can be easily done 
with a long scantling. About 25 pounds are 
put into the boxes. 

Drying Prunes. 

The French prune, or, as it is called here, 
"petty prune," should be left upon the tree 
until very ripe, the longer the better, only if 
left too long the nights get so cool that they 
will not dry. It is said that in France they 
leave the prune on the tree until it drops off of 
its ow| accord; but Mr. J. M. Pleasants, who 
ha* had considerable experience with prunes, 
'ays that he left one tree to see how long before 
they would drop off, but the longer they were 
1 the more they did not drop. The dipping 

solution that Mr. Pleasants uses is one pound 
of lye to 15 gallons of water; dip while the 
water is scalding hot. The hotter the weather 
the better after they are put out to dry; some- 
times they have to be dipped a second time; 
it depends on the fruit. In some localities and 
some years the skin is much harder to cut than 
others. A man has to judge of that when the 
fruit is drying. When dried they should be 
treated the same as apricots. G. 
Vacaville, June SO, 1886. 


Kids With Neck Swellings. 

Editors Press: — We are having some 
trouble with kids born with swellings on their 
necks. We had 12 kids thus affected last year 
and are having a few cases this year. It is not 
proving as serious as feared, but might become 
so. Some of those having the neck swellings 
last year died, others got well. I am told that 
lambs are also similarly affected, but in a lone 
experience in goat breeding I never saw any- 
thing of the kind until last year.— Goat 

Our correspondent is fortunate in not having 
suffered from the trouble before, because it has 
long bothered the sheep and goat-breeder, and 
for a long time was thought to be beyond treat- 
ment because it was congenital. There will be, 
of course, cases in which there can be no help 
for the lamb or kid, because of its being still 
born, or so low in vitality that it will not take 
up the burden of life. On the other hand there 
will be many cases which will readily yield to 
treatment, as we shall Bhow below. 

Although the disease has existed for a long 
time, its nature was not discovered nor effective 
remedies hit upon until about 25 years ago. So 
far as we know the late H. S. Randall, the well- 
known sheep-grower and writer upon sheep hus- 
bandry, is entitled to the credit of pointing out 
the nature of the disease, and making its cure 
known to the public. We shall quote from 
" Randall's Practical Shepherd " on this point 
presently. First, as to the 

Nature of the Disease. 

Our correspondent states that he ia told by 
a doctor that it is not "goitre," as that disease 
is known in the human subject. That is true, 
yet it also possesses resemblances to that disease 
which justify the use of the same term with a 
modification, and Randall calls it "congenital 
goitre or bronchocele," and he gives the follow- 
ing characteristics which distinguish it from 

1. That it was so often congenital; 2. That 
it so frequently affected the progeny of parents 
that were not themselves subjects of the disease 
or known ever to have been subjects of it; and 
3. That it should so often affect young animals, 
and so comparatively rarely affect grown ones. 
The additional anomalies disclosed by the facts 
stated in the text (if they are facts) are the 
following: — 4. The very sudden and sponta- 
neous disappearance of the supposed goitrous 
enlargement; 5. Its sudden disappearance on 
the application of camphor, and the apparent 
equal power possessed by camphor and iodine 
to cause its absorption. 

We will give now Mr. Randall's description 
of the Beat of the disease, and the steps by 
which a satisfactory treatment was arrived at: 

Congenital Goitre or Swelled Neck. 

The thyroid glands are small, soft, spongy 
bodies on each side of the upper portion of the 
trachea (windpipe). Lambs are sometimes 
born with them enlarged to once or twice the 
size of an almond, and they then have the feel- 
ing of a firm, separate body, lying between the 
cellular tissue and the muscles of the neck. 
Tbe lamb thus affected is generally small and 
lean, or if it is large and plump it has a soft, 
jelly-like feeling, as if its muscular tissues were 
imperfectly developed. In either case the bones 
are unnaturally small. It ia excessively weak 
— the plump, soft ones being often unable to 
stand, and usually dying soon after birth. The 
others perhaps linger a little longer — sometimes 
several days — but they perish on the least 
exposure. So far as my observations have 
extended this condition always, to a greater or 
lesser extent, accompanies the glandular en- 
largement under consideration; but it also 
appears without it, and, as I shall presently 
show, sometimes to a highly destructive extent. 

Having early adopted the view that the 
preservation of the life of a lamb, which is 
incapable of attaining that full structural de- 
velopment on which the vigor of the constitu- 
tion depends, is a loss instead of a gain — and 
being specially averse to tolerating in a breed- 
ing flock any animal even suspected of being 
capable of carrying along and transmitting a 
hereditary diBease — I never have applied any 
remedy whatever for "swelled neck." 1 have 
seen very little of it for the last few years; but 
events in 1862, presently to be mentioned, 
have surrounded the subject with new interest, 
and now I regret that I have not experimented 
more fully in order to ascertain the precise 
nature of the malady. 

I have learned some new facts in relation to 
it. Two or three lambs which I saw, in 1862, 
decidedly affected by it, but not as weak or 
as attenuated in the bony structures as usual, 
very rapidly threw off all appearance of the 
goitrous enlargement of the glanda; and they 

thenceforth grew about as rapidly and appeared 
about as strong as ordinary lamba. I aaw 
another such case in 1863. I made no mem- 
orandum of the facts at the time, but my 
impression is that in all these instances the 
enlargement of the thyroid glanda disappeared 
within the space of as short a period aa a fort- 
night. An intelligent friend informed me that 
having some goitrous lambs in his flock last 
spring, he placed a bandage round the neck of 
each over the thyroid glands, and wet it a few 
times a day with camphor (dissolved in alcohol). 
The swelling, he thinks, disappeared in less 
time than a fortnight. Mr. Daniel Kelly, Jr., 
of Wheaton, Illinois, who is represented to be 
a highly successful flock-master, states, in an 
article in the Rural New Tartar, that the 
disease is frequent among his lambs; that he 
binds a woolen cloth about their necks and 
keeps it wet " with spirits of camphor or the 
tincture of iodine;" that " there is little, if 
any, difference in the effectiveness of these 
tinctures;" that either "is sure to cure them." 

These facts would Beem to add to the number 
of anomalous features of the malady, when they 
are compared with those which appear in the 
human subject of goitre, if, indeed, it is the 
same malady; and they suggest some doubts of 
the latter fact. But fortunately no question 
affecting the practical treatment of the disease 
is to be settled by the determination of that 
identity. It would now seem that mere evap- 
orants and external stimulants rapidly control 
it. Should the fact be found otherwise, in the 
case of a lamb worth saving, the application of 
iodine would undoubtedly remove the glandular 
enlargement. It might be applied to the parts 
with a little less trouble in tUe form of an 
ointment, composed of one part by weight of 
hydriodate of potash to seven parts of lard. 

Dr. Law's Opinion. 

In his "Farmers' Veterinary Adviser" Prof. 
James Law draws a closer resemblance to 
goitre, and gives this paragraph: 

Goitre, a diseased enlargement of the thyroid 
body, situated beneath the throat, is common 
in animals and in man, wherever the water 
is charged with the products of magne- 
sian limestone. Hence its frequency on the 
limestone formations of New York and Penn- 
sylvania. Weakness from disease, poor feed- 
ing, abuse, overwork, etc., aggravate the af- 
fection. In solipeds there are two distinct 
swellings, one on each aide, but in othei ani- 
mals, and above all in swine, the swelling is 
single and in the median line. At first it is 
soft and even doughy, but afterward it be- 
comes firm, tense and resistant, and if cut into 
may be even gritty. In lambs it may form a 
great engorgement from the jaw to the breast- 
bone, and the whole produce of the year may 
be still born or die soon after birth. 

Treatment. — Give rainwater and iodine freely, 
both internally, on an empty stomach, and over 
the swelling. Persist in this for months. 
Weak solutions of iodine may be thrown iuto 
the tumor by a hypodermic syringe, or the nutri- 
ent bloodvessels may be tied. 

The destruction of lambs by goitre may be 
obviated by giving the ewes rainwater, good 
feeding and plenty of exercise in the open air 
during the winter. 

Swellings an Impediment in Parturition. 

In his excellent work on "Veterinary Obstet- 
rics," George Fleming mentions a case de- 
scribed by Pflug who was called to attend a goat 
in difficult labor and on manual exploration dis- 
covered that the firat foetus was in normal posi- 
tion, but that on each side of the head in the 
parotideal regions and toward the larynx were 
two large swellings (congenital scrofula) which 
prevented the passage of the young creature. 
By manipulation, pressure on the tumors — 
which were as large as a small fist — first on one 
side and then the other, with gentle traction, 
the kid was released. Two other kids which 
were in proximity to the first were also artifi- 
cially delivered. 

This last described case is evidently from a 
different cause than the foregoing, and where 
the trouble comes from 8crofula it is of course 
serious, aa it arguea dangerous impurity in the 
blood of the Hock and it should be most care- 
fully weeded out. The awellinga which our 
correspondent deacribea as noticed in hi8 flock 
are less serious and will no doubt yield readily 
to the. treatment described by Mr. Randall, ex-:ows' teats. A writer in Howard's Dairyman 
cept when the animal is too far gone to b<,_,j ve8 ^ e following, which aeems quite practica- 
worth saving. We ahouW like to have experi^ . .. NVar ta are quite common on C0W8 - ud . 

around Cape Horn; subsequently fresh blood 
was obtained in the same way by other im- 
portations. It was not until Lately that any 
animals were brought here from the Eaat. 
Hence it ia interesting to notice the characteris- 
tics of this herd for comparison with our East- 
ern herds, the blood elements in both being in 
many instances the same. 8enseleaa require- 
ment of fashiou, or favorites oreated by auction 
prices, have had no influence upon this herd, 
which is the sole outcome of grand cowa croased 
on the beat bulls, with constant, long-continued 
weeding out of poor ones aa judged by a butter 

We find the blood that made Cooma8aie, Jer- 
sey Belle of Scituate, Wary Anne of St. Lam- 
bert, and the Signal family of our -Atlantic 
coast; and the BIoook* family here — a family 
unknown at the East, »ut leading here. Look- 
ing over the breeder:' certificates, we notice 
that Duke 76, Victor, /ertumnua and Welcome 
have contributed thei blood. 

The bull Jack Low-, whose sire Forget-me- 
not was a son of Farner's Glory, ia out of Beu- 
lah de Gruchy, with i record of 22 lba. two oz. 
in seven days, aa r«ported by Mr. Corneliua 
Wellington of MasBichusetts. This bull is long- 
bodied, medium higit, well ribbed, with great 
capacity, combined .with fine neck and cow- 
like head ; in color a silver gray shading to 
black, and altogeth r a very striking picture of 
a Jersey bull. On cannot well help thinking 
that from the loins-of Farmer's Glory there will 
come daughters w-ose butter qualities will en- 
hance their good ooks. I hey certainly have 
the requisites of (Tin, size and vigor. 

Victor of Verb Buena, imported before reg- 
istration was retired on the island, is the sire 
of several daughera with tests of over 16 lba. 
iu seven da>s. -t is a pity that his pedigree is 
not known, for ^ could but add laurels to some 
family. I fane it would be found that he is 
of the Coomas ; family, for his get resemble it 
most striking/. Coomassie of Y. B., his 
daughter, out f a Vertumnus cow, is one of 
the finest youi; cows we ever saw, and Fairy 
of Y. B. is a j>od second. 

Mon Plaisirs one of the show cows of the 
herd, having Iready earned distinction in the 
show-ring, an would, in my estimation, stand 
high in an Eitern show-ring; but beyond good 
looks she hafquality, for she has a test of 18 
lbs. 12 cz. ii seven days on grass. She has 
been bred tr\Villiam of Scituate, whose aire, 
Black Defia-e, wa8 a double grandaon of Jer- 
sey Belle oBcituate, famous as the first Jersey 
to make 25 ,, s. of butter in seven days, and 
still held I all breeders to be the ideal type of 
a Jersey pw. 

Princei of Yerba Buena strikes the eye as we 
pass, andt is hard to decide her place in the 
herd. S: is of the desired type, and her rec- 
ord of 1 -pounds in seven days makes her stand- 
ard. SI is bred to a son of Rimeo de Bonair, 
the Stie Pogis 3.1-Victor Hugo bull, well 
known > your readers. Her daughter, Alta of 
Y. B., da fair to be a chief attraction. 

On U fields, as we pass to the pasture, the 
men a- plowing, seeding and harrowing in the 
grain. This they say they have been doing 
since ». 1, and will continue bo long aa the 
soil ip!i «»t. 

Wifind the pastures green, the grass grow- 
ing w\' considerable strength, for the animals, 
witho exception, are fat and sleek. The 
milchows have large udders, that milk out; 
and " cannot doubt that for milk-flow the 
wint feed of California is unsurpassed. Young 
heifo show great development of udder. We 
saw large number of attractions, of which we 
recsSylvia of Y. B., a yearling heifer by Sil- 
ver loud'a Son (he by Forget-me-not, dam Sil- 
vcr'oud, the famous Jonathan Smith cow), 
th ••••«•• should like to own ourselves. 

tti of Y. B., Yesso of Y. B. and Millbrook 
Pic strike us as larger than animals of the 
sa'- age East; they have size, vigor and ca- 
p. ty, but preserve the symmetrical figure and 
g.-eful lines of this breed. 

his herd won 12 prizes at the California 
,' teFair, 1885, beside herd-prizes in each class 
I izes being given to herda over two years and 
der); also sweepsfakea and apecial prizes. 

Warts on Cowb' Teats. 

A reader aaks about removing warts from 

ence and observation on this point. 

A California Jersey Ranch. 

A correspondent who signs himself "Veri 
writes for the Country Qentleman the follcg 
account of his visit to Henry Pierce's "\ba 
Buena Ranch:" 

The ranch is situated about 10 miles f- of 
the town of San Jose, at the foothills, ant'm- 
prises about 3000 acres of field and pure 
land. It is stocked with horses and -tie. 
These run out of doors each day of th'-'ar, 
and have green feed daily. There are b;* for 
the atorage of feed and for shel er ircep- 
tionally bad weather. The principal rd is 
Jersey cattle, the foundation of which * laid 
in the sixties, when the first importat- was 
made directly from the Island of Jersey »nip 

dera ; also the large, rough, bleeding ones that 
appear on various partB, and have been known 
to grow to a large size. They are often very 
troublesome when the cow is in milk, aa theae 
cauae pain from being pulled out of tbe root by 
the hand of the milker. Take a pair of aharp 
scissors and clip them off near the skin, then 
dress with chromic acid, one part, and pure 
water four parts — it should be kept in the dark 
— take a stick aa large as a pencil and tie a small 
fine rag on one end; dip in the acid and apply 
to the cut surface once a day or once every two 
days until the wart is level with the skin. This 
must be washed off before milking. If properly 
done there will be no mark. It is equally as 
good on the human subject. In treating the 
large warts it ia not beat to cut them much, if 
at all, as it makes tbem very painful. Apply 
the acid carefully so that all the surface is wet, 
and when a black acab ia formed remove it care- 
fully and renew the application until it ia near 
the akin, then atop and the apace will heal nice- 
ly without leaving a mark." 

July 3, 1886.] 

fACIFie f^URAb f RESS 

JIJhe (^arde^. 

Testing Seeds, Etc. 

Editors Press: — I left Pennsylvania last 
October and came here to settle. Besides farm- 
ing I am trying to garden some in the valley of 
Ballard where I can irrigate. On December 
10th I sowed radish, onions, lettuce and celery 
seed; all grew but the celery. I have sowed 
twice since, but cannot see any of it growing. 

I planted potatoes on February loth, but they 
were frozen down twice. The last time, on 
April 4th, when the thermometer was at 30° 
just before sunrise. I would like to get a little 
information through the Press, how to test 
seed for its power to germinate. Second, which 
would be the best way to start celery and cauli- 
flower seeds ? I believe my first two sowings 
were covered too deep. The last sowing I only 
sprinkled a little wood ashes over. 

I also put sweet potatoes into the ground to 
start plan's, but I cannot see any of them com- 
ing up. Maybe they need a different treatment 
here than in the East. Hoping to find answer 
in the Pacific Rural Press. 

Christian Ernst Schneider. 

Ballard, Cat. 

We hope some of our correspondents will 
give their experience with the plants named. 
As for testing seeds, the following from an 
Eastern exchange may be of service: 

The plan of testing seeds by seedmen before 
sending them out is more and more appreciated. 
In fact, before ordering the year's supply, seed- 
men now generally test samples — at least the 
better class of them do. It is no less essential 
that buyers test seeds before planting. This is 
fairly accomplished by placing the seeds be- 
tween folds of flannel or blotting-paper, and 
keeping them moist and at a temperature of 
65 to 70° Fahrenheit. 

For testing seeds in a large and critical way, 
however, many different plans have been de- 
vised. Perhaps the most complete, insuring 
proper warmth and at the same time constant 
moisture, is that of a prominent seed firm of 
England. It may easily be applied to the test- 
ing of seeds on the farm, where a considerable 
number of samples is required to be tested. 
The arrangement consists of a wooden frame 
with sloping glass cover, inside of which is fixed 
a shallow tank of water. In this tank are 
placed bricks of the ordinary size and of a 
porous nature, the surface of which stands well 
above the water, but in a position to absorb 
sufficient moisture to cause germination; and 
on these bricks the seeds being tested are 

The surfaces of the bricks are divided into 
spaces sufficient to contain one test of from 200 
to 300 seeds, and numbered for the sake of ac- 
curacy in registration. The temperature is 
kept at about 70° Fahrenheit, and at this point 
tests of clovers and some of the grass seeds can 
be completed in from two to three days. Its 
advantages are that seeds can be watched in 
the actual process of germination, and non- 
germinating seeds examined for the cause. The 
ease with which a humid atmosphere and even 
temperature can be obtained and preserved 
when the bricks are once heated is apparent. 
The regular supply of the exact amount of 
moisture without its having to be applied by 
hand at almost haphazard, as in the case of 
tests in soil, and speed, accuracy and simplicity 
in working, are also apparent. 

Vegetables for Shipment. 

The shipment of vegetables overland during 
the period of cheap freights was immense and 
at other times the amount shipped is quite an 
item. We believe it may be greatly increased 
and we hope the gentlemen named to present 
the subject at the next Horticultural Conven- 
tion in Sacramento are preparing their essays. 
The overland fruit train from Sacramento car- 
ried a car and a half of "garden sass." We 
find the following in the Los Angeles Herald: 

There is much said about the money-making 
in oranges, lemons and grapes, in Los Angeles, 
but the Chinamen are supposed to be making 
more money out of common plebeian cabbages 
than any orange-grower or vigneron in the 
country. There is an enormous demand for 
cabbage for shipment to the East. This flood 
runs at the full from January to April inclusive, 
but there is more or less of this demand at all 
seasons of the year. The supply is at all times 
less than the demand, and the only way of reg- 
ulating the price is the San Francisco market. 
Commission men and shippers here have to send 
to that city to fill their Eastern orders, but they 
pay a little more for the home product than 
for that supplied at San Francisco. The Los 
Angeles cabbage is greatly preferred by the 
Eastern dealers, hence our merchants would 
rather fill their orders at home, even if it cost 
them a little moro. 

The price at present is $1.50 per hundred or 
$30 a ton. In this climate there is no trouble 
to grow two crops of cabbage per year. Big 
Drummond heads will weigh 15 to 20 pounds 
each, and the smaller, more compact sorts pre- 
ferred for shipping, will certainly average all 
of five pounds each. They are planted about 

two feet apart, which will give 10,000 to the 
acre. This is 25 tons to the crop, or 50 tons a 
year, off an acre of good ground. The gross 
results of such a crop are $1500 an acre. Is is 
not probable that, even with white labor, the 
care of the two crops would come to more than 
.§500, leaving a net profit of §1000 an acre. It 
is said that some of the Chinese make that 

Cauliflower will pay as well if not better than 
cabbage. It is not shipped in ouantity for the 
simple reason that it is not to be had. In small 
lots it has been sent as far as Omaha, and it 
has gone there in perfect condition. It is said 
that Vick of Rochester, New York, had an im- 
mense patch of cauliflower caught in the freeze- 
up in Florida last winter, where be has grown 
it for some years past for the New York mar- 
ket. He is supposed to have a representative 
in this city now studying up Southern Califor- 
nia as a field for a similar enterprise. 


The Climate of the Sacramento Valley. 

Sergeant Barwick, Observer of the U. S. Sig- 
nal Corps at Sacramento and Meteorologist to 
the State Board of Agriculture, has prepared 
for the latter body a very valuable special re- 
port on the " Meteorology and Climatology of 
the Great Valleys and Foothills of California," 
including records of observation covering from 
15 to 36 years. From Sergeant Bai wick's report 
we compile certain statistics and descriptive 
matter as our space will admit. 

Yearly and Seasonal Rainfall, Etc. 

The instructive tabulated information below 
gives the rainfall at Sacramento annually — that 
is, from January to December of each year — 
for 33 years. Also, the rainfall by seasons, be- 
ginning with September 1st of one year and end- 
ing with August 31bt of the next year, the wet- 
test season being 1861-2 — 35.56 inches; the 
driest that of 1863-4 — 7 87 inches; the wettest 
calendar year being 1880 — 31.99 inches; the 
driest being 1877 — 8.44 inches; the mean aver- 
age seasonal rainfall for 32 years being 19.076 
inches; the mean average for the year, or the 
mean annual average, being 19.529 inches. The 
difference between the mean average rainfall, 
calculating from January 1st to December 31st 
of each year, and from September 1st of one 
year to August 31st of next year, is .453 of an 
inch in favor of the calendar year: 




Total No. 
of Days 
Rain Fell. 



No. of 

1 >;i\ S. 

i8 S3 .... 




20. 06 















12 91 









15 00 








1 860 




22 09 






16. 10 


1862. . . . 




35- 56 


1863 .... 













11. 15 



22. 51 









30 03 















16. 64 





13- 57 















18 20 












23 3 1 


















2 3-45 



24 86 












26 47 






26 57 












18. 11 



34- 92 









16 58 






Totals s . . 

644 47 





19- 529 




*Mean for thirty-three years. 
+Mean for thirty-two seasons. 
♦Up to April i, 1886. 

Average Annual and Seasonal Temper- 

The statement below shows the average tem- 
perature at Sacramento for each year for 33 
years; for the spring, summer and autumn for 
33 years, and the average winter temperature 
for 32 years. The coldest year, inferring from 
the average temperature, was that of 1880 — 
57.5°; the warmest was 1864 — 62.8° — the mean 
average for the past 33 years being 60.2°, show- 
ing the coldest to have been 2. 1' below the 
mean average, while the warmest year being 
that of 1864, when it was 2.6° above the mean 
average for 33 years. By careful study of the 
following table, one is struck by the slight 
difference between the coldest and warmest 
year, as compared with a 33 years average, gen- 
erally not more than 3°. That is, we might 
safely say that the average temperature of any 
year is not likely to vary more than 3° from 
60°, either way, between the hottest and cold- 

est year, as compared with the mean average 
temperature for the past 33 years : 

3 S 

3 1 

3 S 


3 a 



*d = 

•3 3 

•a = 

1 § 

3 £ 

e 3 



K "a 
c n. 

- yq 


3 c 
? 1 

3 £ 

- -1 




74.. 3 






72 4 





72. 2 





60. 1 

71 O 
/ j..y 

40. y 



71. <; 







70. "3 






6l. I 






60. 3 

4 u -i> 

60. 1 


69 8 


49- 5 







■J / 

a8 "3 




47. 1 






ACi 8 





73. 1 


48 Q 



59 7 









4.8 7 










72. 1 








a8 t 
4 0, / 





59 9 










70. A 





7 T -3 

62. 1 




6 3-3 











































71. 1 








45 4 




69 8 














2029 . 9 


Averages .... 






*The Winter tables are for the Winters from 1852 
-3 to 1885-6, both inclusive. 
+Mean for thirty-three years. 
JMean for thirty-three years. 

General Remarks. 

The climate of the Sacramento valley and 
foothills being of great interest just at present 
and since the holding of the citrus fair, Janu- 
ary 11, 1886, I thought it a very appiopriate 
time to reprint abortion of an article by the 
late lamented the Honorable B. B. Redding, 
published in the State Agricultural Society's 
Report for 1878. The subject spoken of above 
is on the general climatic condition of the 
Sacramento valley and foothills, from Redding 
on the north to Sumner on the south, and is as 

From Redding, in the northern end, to Sum- 
ner, at its southern extremity, is a distance of 
350 miles. The mean annual average temper- 
ature of Redding is 64°. The lowest point to 
which the thermometer has fallen since a record 
has been kept was 27°, in December, 1876. [In 
all probability it fell lower than that since the 
above article was written, for in 1883 it fell to 
19° at Red Bluff. — Sergeant Barwick.] Sum- 
ner, at the southern end .of the valley, has an 
annual average temperature of 68°, and an aver- 
age rainfall of four inches. The lowest point to 
which the thermometer has fallen at this place 
was also 27°, on the same day, in December, 1876. 
[In December, 1883 (since the above was writ- 
ten), the temperature fell to 25°, according to 
the railroad weather reports. — Sergeant Bar- 
wick.] There is a remarkable uniformity in 
the climate throughout the Sacramento valley. 
In it, a difference of 5° of latitude, between 35° 
30' and 40° 30', only lowers the annual average 
temperature 4. 15°. The difference of the annual 
average temperature between corresponding de- 
grees of latitude in the Atlantic States, at an 
equal distance from the ocean, is more than 8°. 
It has been found that the foothills of the Sierra, 
up to a hight of about 2500 feet, have appar- 
ently the same temperature as places in the val- 
ley having the same latitude. It has also been 
found that with increased elevation there is an 
increase of rainfall over those places, in the val- 
ley having the same latitude, as, for illustration, 
Sacramento, with an elevation above the sea of 
30 feet, has an annual average temperature of 
60.48°, and an average fall of rain of between 

18 and 19 inches, while Colfax, with an eleva- 
tion 2421 feet, has an annual aver- 
age temperature of 60.50°, and an aver- 
age annual rainfall of from 42 to 43 
inches. This uniformity of temperature and 
increase of rainfall appears to be the law 
throughout the whole extent of the foothills of 
the Sierra, with this variation as relates to tem- 
perature, viz.: as latitude is decreased the 
temperature of the valley is continued to a 
proportionally greater elevation. To illustrate, 
approximately: if the temperature of Redding, 
at the northern end of the valley, is continued 
up the foothills to a hight of 2000 feet, then 
the temperature of Sacramento, in the center 
of the valley, would be continued up to 2500 
feet, and that of Sumner, in the extreme south- 
ern end of the valley, up to 3000 feet. The in- 
crease of rainfall on the foothills in the latitude 
of Sacramento, due to elevation, is about one 
inch to each 100 feet. South from Sacramento 
the proportion decreases until, at Sumner, the 
increase due to elevation is but half an inch to 
each 100 feet. This is shown by the re- 
cord kept at Fort Tcjon, in the Tehachapi 
mountains near Sumner, at an elevation of 
3240 feet, where the annual rainfall is between 

19 and 20 inches. There is no record kept at 
any point in the hills above Redding, but prob- 

ably in this latitude the increase due to eleva- 
tion is about 1J iuches to each hundred feet. 
The increase of precipitation on the hills at the 
northern end of the valley gives greater density 
to the forests, and permits them to grow at 
lower elevations than in the southern end of the 
valley. At the same time the difference in 
temperature is so small that the character of 
the vegetation of the hills at each end of the 
valley is not dissimilar. The trees found in the 
vicinity of Redding, at the northern end of the 
valley, below an elevation of 500 feet, are not 
found at the southern end until we pass 
Caliente, at an elevation of 1300 feet. It 
would seem that the temperature of the valley 
prevails up the Sierra to an elevation that 
equals the hight of the Coast Range of mount- 
ains. If a line were drawn parallel to the 
surface of the ocean from the top of the Coast 
Range, east, until it met the flanks of the Sierra, 
it would mark a level on the Sierra below 
which the temperature would not materially 
differ from that in the 

Sacramento Valley. 
This fact is probably to be ascribed to the pre- 
vailing southwest return trade winds which blow 
over the State from the ocean for more than 300 
days in the year. Passing the summits of the 
Coast Range, but small portions descend into 
the valley; the remainder reach the sides of the 
Sierra at about the level of the summits they 
have passed. 

Arboreal Vegetation. 

At the northern end of the valley, at an ele- 
vation of 500 feet above the sea, the most of 
the California oaks are found; of pines, only the 
nut or digger pine; the buckeye and chemisal. 
This is the characteristic arboreal vegetation 
throughout all these 350 miles. Its presence 
everywhere shows increased rainfall over the 
valley, and similarity of temperature to that of 
the valley. Our pasture oak is found at lower 
elevations in the valley, but always on moist land 
or near river courses, proving that it demands, 
in addition to temperature, the increased 
moisture. In the southern end of the valley this 
vegetation prevails at higher elevations, because 
it there finds the proper temperature and moist- 
ure. Wherever, on the foothills, any of the 
trees named constitute the preponderant ar- 
boreal vegetation, it is an evidence that the 
temperature is the same as that of the valley, 
and plants that can be successfully grown in the 
valley can be grown to as high an elevation on 
the hills as these trees abound. If one tree were 
to be taken as the evidence of this uniformity of 
temperature, it would be theSabin's (the nut or 
Digger) pine. It is never seen in the valley or 
on the hills below an elevation of about 400 
feet. It is not found at a higher elevation than 
that in which the temperature is the same as 
that of the valley. It is never found in groves, 
but singly among other trees, yet it prevails 
throughout these 350 miles of foothills. While 
the vegetation is more dense on the hills at the 
northern end of the valley, due to increased 
precipitation, there are also local differences — 
where there is similarity of soil — due to expos- 
ure. Throughout all the lower hills the great- 
est number of trees is found on gently sloping 
eastern, northeastern and northern hillsides, 
which necessarily are more moist and cool. The 
southern aspects contain less trees, because ex- 
posed to the direct rays of the sun and to the 
full force of the prevailing winds. 

Crops Suitable for Cultivation. 

Every agricultural product that can be grown 
in the valleys, including the semi tropical 
fruits, can be grown with equal facility in these 
foothills. Ordinarily the land has to be cleared 
of the trees found upon it, and cultivation must 
be continuous, for on the whole western face of 
the Sierra the native trees, when cut or burned, 
are rapidly replaced by a new growth of the 
same kind. These lands are found to have all 
of the requisites for the successful growth of or- 
chards. Fruit trees thrive better upon them 
thanon the lands of the valley. None of the many 
theories advanced as to the cause of the treeless 
condition of many plains and prairies having am- 
ple rainfall, seem to be entirely satisfactory, but 
experience has demonstrated that orchards 
grow best and thrive with less artificial aid on 
lands that in a natural condition are covered 
with trees. The increasing exports of small 
fruits, such as strawberries, blackberries and 
raspberries, from the vicinity of Newcastle and 
Auburn, and their superior size and quality, 
prove that this region is better adapted to their 
culture than any place yet found on the level 
lands of the valley. The peaches of Coloma 
have a State reputation for flavor and size. 
The apples of Nevada and George- 
town are equal in size, taste and keeping 
qualities to the best imported from Oregon. 
The Oroville oranges have been pronounced 
equal to the best from Los* Angeles. The vine 
grows with luxuriance, and bears abundantly 
wherever it has been planted throughout all 
this region. " The wines of Coloma have more 
than a local reputation. Persons competent to 
judge assert that wine from grapes grown on 
the foothills is free from the earthy taste that 
characterizes much of the wine of the flat land 
of the valleys. They also express the belief 
that if ever wine is to be made in California as 
light as that from the Rhine, and as free from 
alcohol, the grapes will be grown in the higher 
elevation of the foothills, where snow falls and 
remains on the ground a few weeks each sea- 
son. It is said that the long summers and great 
heat of the valleys develop the saccharine mat- 
ter in the grape, which by fermentation is con- 
verted into alcohol." 



[Jolt 3, 1886 

JPatrons of Husbandry. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Orange* are respect- 
Billy solicited (or this department. 

The Fraternal Plan of Life Insurance. 

Some members of the Order Patrons of 
H usbandry have favored the idea of establish- 
ing a " life beneficiary branch " as a promising 
means of adding to Grange benefits and in- 
creasing the interest and membership of the 
Order among our rural population. The 
subject is well worthy of consideration, and 
the growth of fraternal organizations based 
upon mutual insurance as a central idea fur- 
nishes valuable data to calculate the advan- 
tage of extending Grange work in this 
direction. We are glad to minister to the 
interest in this subject by quoting a large 
part of a report made to the Supreme Lodge 
of the A. O. U. W. by William H. Barnes, 
of San Francisco, who is chairman of the 
Statistical Committee of the Supreme Lodge. 
Readers will notice what strong points are 
made in favor of economy in insurance on 
the fraternal plan, also the low death rate 
among rural dwellers and the superier lon- 
gevity of women, both of which should go to 
lead farmers and farmers' wives to consider 
how much cheaper they could insure them- 
selves than by joining in with other occupa- 
tions where life is less certain and rates 
consequently higher. Another reason why 
Californians should consider the matter is 
the fact that our climate favors longevity by 
freedom from epidemic diseases and free- 
dom from severe cold weather, of which a 
leading Scotch authority in life statistics 
says: " The descent of temperature below 
the freezing point in Scotland causes a 
greater increase in deaths than the most 
deadly epidemics to which the inhabitants 
are liable." 

We quote as follows from 

Mr. Barnes' Report- 

The business of this committee, as we 
understand it, is to collect and present facts 
especially relating to death rate, with the 
view of applying said facts to the system of 
the A. O. U. W., to see if it is feasible, upon 
the payment of a reasonable sum of money 
monthly — say one-half, or less, than is 
charged by strictly business corporations — 
to guarantee upon the death of a member in 
good standing the sum of $2000. It would 
not be difficult to array here scores of what 
are called mortality tables, expectancy fig- 
ures, tables of graduation, etc., and confuse 
the mind by legions of numbers in serried 
columns; but we desire to say emphatically 
that, correct and reliable as such tables may 
be to a certain number of lives followed from 
beginning to close, they ate not of the slight- 
est information when applied to associations 
of such character which have, as all fraternal 
Orders do have, a constantly changing mem- 
bership. Nor ought they to be applied to 
even business corporations which have, as 
will be shown, only the smallest percentage 
to be paid out of the vast number that orig- 
inally apply. 

Death Rate. 

We hold that the only true and correct 
method of presenting the subject is to give 
facts and the actual results, and when statis- 
tics and figures are employed to see that 
such figures and statistics come from unbi- 
ased and unprejudiced sources, and in the 
following there is no doubt as to the truth. 
They are the work of Surgeon J. S. Billings, 
to be found in the United States census lor 
1880, and far exceed in value (in our judg- 
ment) any figtirings from any other sources: 

Population, United States, 1S90 60,155,783 

Males 85..MS.820 

Females. 21,636,963 

Of which there were, colored 8,580,793 

Chinese 105,405 

Japanese. 14s 

Indians 86,407 

Total 0.752.S1S 

The total deaths for the year were. 750,893 

Males 391.900 

Females 304,933 

The percentage of death per thousand was: 

Males lfi.85 

Females 14.81 

General average. 15.01 

One thousand and seventy-four males died 
to every thousand females. The percentage 
on deaths under one year of age was: 

Males 24$. 03 to thousand 

Females. 215.38 " " 

Under five years of age: 

Male* 415.51" " 

Females 381.85" " 

Both sexes, 5 to 15 years of age 87.57 " " 

Taking percentage of death to be 15 to 
each thousand of population annually, 
they would be composed as follows: 

Under 5 years of age 6.6J3.5 

Five to 15 years of age 1 •JJJJ-' 

Over 00 J ears cf age 2.5e«0 


Of the population of the United States, 
including colored, Chinese, Japanese and 
Indians, there are 12,830,349 males over 21 
years of age — about one-fourth of the popu- 
lation. But giving a liberal estimate, and j 
taking from the age of 15 up. it will be seen 
that of the total deaths of 1880 on the general 
average of 15 per thousand, eight of said 
deaths were under the age of I 5 years, and 
only 7 deaths per thousand above it; and, 
consequently, that the death rate of the male 
population above voting age could not have 
been over 7 in proportion to the entire popu- 
lation per thousand. 

But the question immediately arises, How 
does the male death rate above the voting 
age compare with its own numbers ? 

Total deaths per vear 765,893 

Under 15 years of age 403,065 

Seventeen to 80 years of age 237,531 

Over 60 years of age. 115,797 

It will be considered that the population 
between 15 and 21 are equivalent in number 
to those over 6o, and that when we include 
from 15 to 60 in this estimate, a most liberal 
concession is made. The deaths from 15 to 
60 in 18S0 were 237,531. half of which were 
females, leaving the male deaths above vot- 
ing age to be 118,765 for said year. 

What would it have cost each of the male 
population of the United States in 1880 to 
have paid $2000 at death of every man over 
21 years of age who died in said year? 
One hundred and eighteen thousand, seven 
hundred and sixty-five deaths at $2000 call 
for $237,530,000; and 12,830,349 paying 
$18.51 each, or $1.50 per month during the 
year, would have equaled the indebtedness. 
Going still further, How much would it have 
required of each member of the population 
of 1SS0 in the United States to have paid 
$2000 at every death — old, young, infants, 
all nationalities combined, etc. — of said year? 
Take the death rate, 1 5 to the thousand, and 
the answer appears $30; or, to be exact, 
756,893 at $2oooeach would be$ 1,5 13,786,000, 
which would require of each of the 50,1 55.783, 
population of 1SS0, the sum of $13.17 to pay 
S2000 for every death that occurred. Half 
of the entire population is over 21 years, 
and, as is stated, this half is 7 out of 
each 15 deaths. Again, half of this popula- 
tion over 21 years of age are females, whose 
death rate is a trifle better than males, 
even as 14.81 per thousand is better than 
15.35, making the male death rate 7% per 
thousand, female 6 : + to the total number. 

Dividing the population into classes, viz., 
up to 15 years, from 15 to 60, over 60 years 
of age, and compare the death rate of each 
class with the number in said class, also ag- 
gregate population, and all over 15 years of 
age, gives the following results: 


— - 

ft, ~ 


'■ s 

g = 

r. — 


! r 



• o 


Under 15 years. . 
Fifteen to 00 yrs 
Over 60 ye»rs. . . 



.85. S 


Total population 


;-<j,-'' : 



All over 15 rears 


: -«. 




In the death rate, attention is called to 
the following fact in the census of 1880, viz: 
that the number of deaths among the colored 
population is 2 ! j per cent higher than among 
the white. The number of the white popu- 
lation in iSSo was 43,402,970, in which 750,- 
191 deaths «?ccur, or 14.74 per cent. The 
colored population numbers 6,752,813, in 
which the deaths were 116,702, or 17.28 pei 
cent. It is also a remarkable fact that the 
death rate of the United States is much 
lower than that of other civilized countries. 
In the rural population of England, the 
death rate is 18.05 per thousand, and in all 
England is 20.05 P er thousand. In rural 
Scotland the death rate is 17.03, while all 
Scotland shows the h:gh rate of 21. C3 per 
thousand. In commenting upon these facts 
Surgeon Billings remarks: " The low death 
rate in the United States is considered to be 
due to the absence of overcrowding and 
;o the more general and equitable distribu- 
tion of the means of supporting life, includ- 
ing especially the bountiful food supply of 
good quality for all classes of people." 

The Results of Fifty Years. 

The following facts taken from the records 
will, I think, carry with them much more 
satisfaction than any tables of expectancy or 
so called "Results " published by business 
corporations. They are those of an Order 
with which I have been closely identified for 
rr.uch more than half the time specified, and 
at least three-quarters of the transactions 
have occurred under my own obervations, 

and its membership, progress and financial 
ability, more than trebled during said time. 

I allude to the 50 years of American 
Odd Fellowship from 1838 to 1883, and I 
unhesitatingly assert, the A. O. U. W., or 
any other legitimate, progressive Order, will 
have a similar experience. In the 50 years 
the I. O. O. F. received by initiation 1,318,- 
225 persons; during the same time the rein- 
statements and admissions by card were 
439,408, making a grand total, 1,757,633. At 
the end of 50 years, in round numbers, 500- 

000 were in membership, and 106,900 had 
died in good standing in the Order, equiva- 
lent to about one in 16 of the admissions 
from all sources. The admissions of the 
half century average 35,000 per year; but the 
loss from suspensions, withdrawals, etc., in- 
cluding an average of 2138 annually by 
death, average 25,000 annually, leaving the 
average net gain but 10,000. Giving the 
500,000 membership at the close of the 50 
years at 10,000 net gain for one year, or an 
average membership for the half century of 
255,000 members per year, the average 
annual death rate as stated for the same 
period was 2138 annually, or 106,900 for 50 
years. The relation of 2138 to 255,000 
gives the annual percentage of the death rate 
a trifle less than one per cent, and this, it 
must be remembered, is not for a few ex- 
ceptional years, but for a long period, and 
covers the time of the civil war and terrible 
epidemics of the South in days gone by. 

Another fact must be taken into consider- 
ation. Save in a few localities, no medical 
examinations were required of persons join- 
ing the Odd Fellows, nor is there any age 
limit as in the A. O. U. W.; and if medical 
examinations are of the value that some 
claim for them the record for the A. O. U. 
W., so far as death rate is concerned, 
should be much belter than that of the [, O. 
O. F. Now for a moment let us look at 
what would have been the result if American 
Odd Fellowship had collected $20 yearly 
of its 255,000 members for 50 years for a 
death benefit fund. It would have amounted 
to 255,000,000 of dollars. To have paid 
$2000 at the death of its 106,900 members 
would have required $213,800,000, and left 
a balance in said fund of $41,200,000; and in 
this estimate no calculation is made for re- 
ceipts from those who have been in the Or- 
der for more or less years and then dropped 
out. The figures show the admissions and 
reinstatements to be 1,757,633; the deaths, 
116,900; the membership, 500,000, leaving 
1.250,733 unaccounted for; all of whom in 
this half century have been members for a 
greater or less period. It is generally con- 
sidered that the average duration in frater- 
nal life of all who join is similar to that of 
those who have taken out insurance policies, 
namely, about 7 years, and consequently 
1,750,733 were in the Order each that 
length of time, and would have contributed 
their $140 each to this benefit fund ere they 
dropped out, swelling the surplus to over 


An interesting- diagram published by Our 
Society "Journal in November, 1884, shows a 
few liie policies taken out in the American 
companies and what became of them. The 
number in force at the end of the second 
year were as follows: Second year, 875; sixth 
year, 500; seventh, 396; ninth, 201; twelfth, 
107; fifteenth, 80; twenty-first, 30. Allow 1 
per cent annually for deaths for all said pol- 
icies in force in the 21 years, there would 
have only been 60, making a total of 90, 
leaving 900 to be accounted for. The answer 
is simply: These 900 paid in an average of 
over $60 each and then dropped out, reliev- 
ing the company of all expenses so far as 
they were concerned. In these 21 years 6197 
annual premiums were paid, \vhich, at the 
rate of $10, would have been sufficient to 
pay $1000 at death on the A. O. U. W. 
plan. But when it is realized that the lowest 
premium per thousand in a company for the 
age of 40 years, which is the average in 
societies, is $26.61 annually, it is not diffi- 
cult to perceive the line of profit or to ac- 
count for the mighty reserves accumulating 
in the vaults of the corporations. 

Actual Cost of Insuring; SIOOO. 

Allowing that the actual cost of carrying 
a money guarantee of a specified amount 
(like the $2000 of oi'r Order, which we 
promise to pay our membership) is properly 
within the province of this Committee, from 
the official tables we give the average cost 
annually to the companies named, of carry- 
ing each Siooo, or, to put it definitely, how 
much parties would have had to pay annually 
per thousand of the amount of their policies 
to settle the policies of those who died dur- 
ing the term. The period of time embraced 
below is 25 years in the history of each 
company ending in 1883: 

Company. Actual cost of insuring $1000. 

1 M'ltual Life of New York (11 08 

. Equitable 11 Ot 

I New York Life U 70 

In an order like the A. O. U. W., where 
every dollar collected for assessments is ap- 
propriated for death claims and for no other 
purpose, it needs no figuring to show that 
the highest amount here would have been 
only $23.54 annually to have cartied $2000, as 
no expense of any nature or any amount can 
be deducted from the moneys paid for this 
purpose. In companies of an exclusive 
business character, it is necessary and essen- 
tial to collect for other purposes; salaries, 
commissions, advertising, rent, medical ex- 
aminations and other expenditures are im- 
perative. There are also what are known 
as dividends and reserve, also unknown and 
not required by our Order; and for these 
purposes amounts largely in excess of actual 
cost must be and are collected by the busi- 
ness corporations, and add to their income, 
as also the item of interest which in one 
company now is annually nearly sufficient to 
pay the actual death claims, less dividends. 
In this connection it will be interesting to 
sec what was the actual annual income of 
these companies from 1859 to 1863 inclusive 
for each thousand insurance. 

Mutual Life jfj 20 

New York Life 80 80 

Equitable 61 M 

Or for each dollar actually necessary to 
pay for death loss alone the incomes were: 

E.|U table %\ 90 

New York Ufe 6 17 

Mutual Life 6 70 

This, of course, gives a great surplus, 
large amounts of which are returned as 
dividends, and millions piled away as reserve, 
year by year constantly increasing. Should 
no more money be received, as President 
Winston said in his report of 1884, speaking 
of the Mutual Life, "Its assets are $ioi,- 
148,248.25, which by the laws of this State 
will enable the company to pay all its obli- 
gations as they may mature and leave a sur- 
plus of over $12,000,000." We have no war 
to make upon insurance companies in our 
day. Nor do we believe the education of 
the people to the necessity and value of in- 
surance by our fraternal Orders is of any 
disadvantage to them. They have a right 
to prosecute that business as they and their 
customers agree. The fraternal co-opera- 
tives claim, and propose to exercise, the 
same right, and believe that they are able to 
carry a guarantee of a specified amount 
upon their members at the same figure that 
it would cost a company for a similar risk. 

Average Age. 

"Will not the death rate increase as an 
Order grows older?" is often inquired. Up 
to a certain maximum, yes. And that maxi- 
mum is the average age of 40 years for its 
members, which is the average age of the 
members of all fraternities a half century 
old. But beyond this it can never go in any 
standard, progressive association, that by the 
addition of what is termed "new blood" 
each year fills up the gaps caused by loss 
and presents even a slight increase at the end 
of each year. In such a one the average 
age will be 40 and the death rate one person 
"ad infinitum;" andhere letussaythatby new 
blood is not meant youn<j blond as many sup- 
pose, but that of any eligible age who, fresh 
from any medical examination, give promise 
of long and useful lives. The moment this 
accession of new biood ceases to be added 
to the body prolific, or when losses are 
larger than gains, then the average age and 
death rate advances. Orders, business en- 
terprises, etc., are like velocipedes; keep 
moving steadily forward, there is progress 
and safety, but with laziness, failure to work, 
neglect, lethargy, carelessness or ignorance, 
they fall. This Order, nor any other Order, 
or business, is exempt from the law of such 
work, and the most vital truth we can utter 
is that " He who by the plow would thrive, 
himself must cither hold or drive." 

What Enterprise Grange Proposes. 

EijIToks Pmws :— The farmers are becoming 
more and more determined to stand together, 
no longer affiliating with the old parties.. 
Silence may at times he golden, and a still 
tongue indicate wisdom. But conformity to 
the old maxim, " The leu aaid the aooDer 
mended," does not alwaya meet the argent de- 
mands, and silence at thia critical moment may 
l>e considered both cowardly and criminal. The 
time has arrived in oar political history when 
the truth must be spoken, even in meeting. 
The life of the politician depends on hia ability 
to procure office, and the first and most im- 
portant step for him is to succeed at the pri- 
maries and secure the nomination; this done, 
the battle is half won. He naturally looks to 
the monopolist* who forniah money to conduct 
the campaign. This wealthy and powerful 
class usually need some legislation in their own 
interest. They enlist the candidate in their 
behalf and reward him by securing his election, 
(arnishing money to be lavishly spent for vote*; 

July 3, 1886] 



and, as a rule, tbe farmers and producers sup- 
ply the votes, when even before tbe election 
their rights bave been bartered away. When 
Congress meets the monopolists seem to have 
everything their own way and then the people 
declare that no man can be trusted. 

Now the farmers and toilers propose to nomi 
nate their own candidates; and they do not 
need much money, as they have the votes. And 
when they are selected let them understand that 
they are to work in the interest of thoss who 
elect them, and that their political future de- 
pends upon their honesty and good works. This, 
with united action, may restore to the toilers 
their rights. The politicians, however, advise 
the farmers to wait till after the two old parties 
bave made their nominations and see what bid 
will be made for tbe farmers' support. Hat the 
farmers have been slaughtered so often that, 
like Banquo's ghost, they will not down; and at 
Enterprise hall, June 8th, tbey elected 10 dele- 
gates to be in readiness for the State Conven- 
tion when it may be called. We desire all the 
Granges in the State to do likewise, show a 
united front, abolish the rule of bossisrn, and 
thus establish justice, promote domestic tran- 
quillity, :.nd secure tbe (blessings of liberty to 
ourselves and our posterity. But we would not 
consolidate the Government and the means in 
the promotion of injustice, causing domestic dis- 
cord and depriving the people of the blessings 
of liberty forever. If the farmers of the State 
fail to hold a convention and put a State and 
Congressional ticket in the field, the farmers of 
Sacramento county will organize, make a county 
ticket, and vote for their own interests. 

George Wilson. 

Enterprise Granye, Sacramento county. 

Exhibit the Encampment. — Sonoma 
Pomona Grange decided, awhile since, to make 
a showing of the county's agricultural products 
at 8in Francisco during the G. A. K. Encamp- 
ment week. Their committee, consisting of G. 
N. Whitaker, E. A. Rogers and J. Hawkins, is 
stirring energetically to secure contributions of 
material, and insure a creditable display. 
They are seconded by Messrs. McDonald and 
De Turk, on the part of the Fruit and Grape 
Growers' Association, who have petitioned the 
Board of Supervisors to assist the Grange in 
bearing the expense of the proposed exhibit at 
the Lick House. 

The New Building at Makvsville.— Of 
the new building iu which a part at least of the 
sessions of the next State Grange meeting will 
be held, the Marysville Appeal says: The 
new pavilion has the finest floor that can be 
made of lumber. It is Oregon pine, vertical 
grain, three inches wide by one and one-quarter 
thick, and has been planed smooth and oiled 
since it was laid. There is ample room for all 
who wish to dance ruid plenty of gallery room 
for those who do not, and no doubt on such an 
occasion, and in the interest of a good cause, 
the pavilion will be filled. 

Watsonville Grange purposes giving a 
popular entertainment on the afternoon of Sat- 
urday, the 17th inst. The program includes 
musical selections, recitations, a comedietta 
representing tbe seasons and a harvest feast. 
Farmers are requested to contribute for exhibi- 
tion specimens of remarkable farm products, 
such as high or heavy grain, fine fruits and 
large vegetables. All Patrons and their families 
are specially invited. 

No Farmers' Convention. — There was no 
farmers' convention in Sacramento on June 2-1 th. 
The attendance did not warrant action. 

Cost of Growing Hops Ap.koad.— American 
hops come into competition with those from tne 
Continent of Europe, and it may be of interest 
to our readers to see a statement of the cost of 
producing hops abroad. Cb. Fruwirth, of 
Vienna, Austria, writes to the Country Gentle- 
man that "the cost of producing 100 lbs. of 
hops in Alsatia in 18(j'J was.*16 to $17; in Bo- 
hemia in 1870, $15, and in 1876, $18." When 
some people think hops can be profitable at the 
prices which ruled here during the last year, 
it will be well for them to know what it costs 
to produce them in the cheap labor countries of 

A Hydra clic DecisionClinciied. — Supreme 
Judge Keyser of V'uba county enjoined the 
Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal Company, con- 
solidated, prohibiting hydraulic mine working, 
and imposed a fine of $500. The company 
took an appeal from this order to the Supreme 
Court of this State in July, 1883, and the lower 
court was sustained. The case was carried on 
a writ of review to the Supreme Court of tbe 
United States, which Court has affirmed the 
decision of the State Supreme Court. 

The Marsh Family. — We receive notice 
that the Marsh Family Association, including 
all persons by the name of Marsh, or who have 
descended from any by that name, and their 
families, are invited to attend the third family 
gathering and basket picnic at Lake Pleasant, 
Montague, Mass., July 20, 21 and 22, 18S6, 
and to bring or send all they know or can learn 
of the genealogy of the family. — Dwjght W. 
Marsh, President, Amliernl,AIa$». 

Larue quantities of tomatoes, cabbages and 
potatoes are being shipped East from Los An- 
geles by express. 

jIg^icultural X^otes 


Sugar Factory. — Haywards Journal, June 
20 : While at Alvarado Sunday we learned 
that tbe sugar mill will commence operations in 
August. The beets are now well advanced, 
and it takes about 1500 acres to meet tbe re- 
quirements of the mill. The extensive addi- 
tions contemplated, if carried out, will make it 
tbe largest sugar mill in tbe country. 

Fruit Notes. — Orchardists report that apri- 
cots are beginning to drop from the trees, 
caused no doubt by the excessive rains some 
months ago. Bod Thomas informs us that on 
the Carr place this is particularly the case, and 
it is hard to figure on what amount will re- 
main. The price of cherries naturally ascends 
as the fruit disappears. Royal Anns are now 
being shipped, and bring top prices. Currants 
are paying much better this year than last, and 
the prospectB are that the price will touch $4 a 
chest before long. The continued cool weather 
for weeks past has allowed currants to fully 
mature, and the berries are unusually large, fine 
ones. Picking will continue for three or four 
weeks longer in many orchards, and the price 
appears to be getting better each week. L. B. 
Anway has a large crop and will have the latest 
currants in this section. 

Contra Costa. 

Buying Peaks.— Martinez Gazette: Mr. W. 
Treat of Ygnacio valley, one of the trustees of 
the California Fruit Union, is engaged in buy- 
ing up the pear crop of the present season in 
Contra Costa, which he will ship to Porter 
Brothers, formerly tbe largest fruit-shippers on 
this coast, and now engaged as agents for tbe 
Union, witb headquarters at Chicago, which is 
the centra! distributing point of the Union at 
the East. Mr. Treat will also ship fruit from 
Davisville and Marysville as well as from this 
county. Of course, the pears handled will be 
principally Bartlett and the late fall varieties. 
No county in tbe State is capable of raiting 
finer pears than those raised in Contra Costa. 
The soil and climate in tbe San Ramon valley 
are especially adapted to pear raising, and it is 
to be hoped that next spring will witness a 
large increase in the acreage of pear orchards, 
not only in that valley but also in otner por- 
tions of the county. 


Plaster for Alfalfa.— Fresno Republican, 
June 25: Sowing gypsum or land piaster, on 
the alfalfa patcnes is no longer an experiment 
in our colony. Wherever it has been tried it 
has quadrupled the crop, and it is evident that 
it will pay to use it at least three times a year 
as a top dressing, after cutting the alfalfa and 
before irrigating. Quite a number will try it 
in their vineyards the coming winter. 

Black p.erkies. — W. A Cowan, of Fresno 
Colony, has a patch of blackberries of a little 
over half an acre in extent, from which be is 
now marketing a good yield of first-class berries. 
For his early berries he got 10 cents per pound, 
for a considerable amount five cents per pound, 
and the balance of tbe crop he expects to dis- 
pose of at four cents per pound. The crop is 
now far enough advanced that he can count 
with certainty on a yield of a ton and a half, 
and not less than $120 return from bis small 
patch of berries. For little more than half an 
acre of land, cultivated at a nominal expense, 
tbis is certainly as profitable a crop as can be 
counted on with certainty from any source. 
Mr. C. also has a fine prospect for apples, 
grapes and other fruit, and altogether is well 
satisfied with the result of farming a 20-acre 


Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos.— Eureka 
Standard: More fine stock arrived yesterday 
by the ocean route. It was a consignment of 
50 head of thoroughbred Spanish merino rams. 
Fifteen will be taken to the Fort Baker ranch, 
for Porter <t Hanson, and the rest disposed of to 
various parties. They are all from the stock 
farm of E. W. Woolaey it Son of Fulton, Sono- 
ma county. Having a just pride in the quality 
of mutton and wool Humboldt county produces, 
ranchers here spare neither pains nor cost to 
improve the breed of their sheep. If both 
Humboldt mutton and wool are already superior 
to any other, there is no telling how much tbey 
may be improved by j udicious breediug. 

Los Angeles. 

A Big Daikt. — Time* : At the big dairy of 
Sessions &. Bigelow, near Florence, machinery 
of the latest improved pattern has been received, 
and yesterday machinists from Los Angeles 
went down to put it up. Messrs. Sessions ' 
Bigelow are expending 825,000 for the improve- 
ment of their large dairy. No less than 250 
cows will be milked on it from and after tbe 1st 
of September. 


Danozk in Dosing. — Republican : A curious 
accident happened to William Barry, of Doty's 
Flat, last week. He was doctoring a cow which 
had been poisoned, and bad one hand in the an- 
imal's month when it* jaws closed on his thumb 
and cut that member almost off. The wound 
is very severe and painful, and it may yet be 
necessary to have the thumb amputated. The 
cow was poisoned by eating wilted peach leaves 
from limbs that had been cut off in pruning. It 

may not generally be known that such leaves 
will kill animals that eat them, but each is the 
case, as will also wilted leaves from the wild 
cherry. The leaves contain a large amount of 
hydrocyanic acid, which is very poisonous to 


A Vine Disease. — Rutherford Cor. Star, 
June 25: A strange disease has appeared 
among the vines in some localities, and is rap- 
idly killing them off. Some Bay it is tbe work 
of insects; others, of gophers and squirrels prey- 
ing upon the roots. Whatever it may be, the 
cause should be investigated. No large tracts 
have yet been affected. 

Ban Benito. 

Apricot Sale. — Hollister Adcartrs., June 25: 
Chas. Straube has sold his crop of apricot* to 
parties from San Jose. He will have about 15 
tons of apricots, for which he is to receive I ■ 
centB per pound, delivered at tbe Hollister de- 
pot, the buyers to furnish the boxes. 

Items. — Vol. Garner sold the first new barley 
of the season in this county on Friday, at M 
cents. It was threshed out by Ryason and pur- 
chased by Griffith & Dalzell. From Sin Be- 
nito we learn that the farmers have commenced 
harvesting in earnest. The grain was not in- 
jured to any great extent by the late hot 
weather, and but very little rust has made its 
appearance. A full and bountiful crop will be 
harvested. John Sherman, tbe bee-keeper of 
Erie, has been in town tbis week shipping bis 
season's honey product to market. The honey 
is unusually clear and of good flavor this sea- 
son, and bas been sold as high as 15 cento a 
pound. Mr. Sherman will Lave several tons 
for sale. Joe Grubb has invented a new way 
of exterminating rata. Putting a pan of flour 
in the chicken-house, be mixes it heavily with 
yeast powder. The rats partake freely of the 
mixture, and, as a natural consequence, swell 
up and burst. The remnants of what were 
once live and active rodent* are then greedily 
devoured by the chickens. The invention is 
known as Grubb * ligels pate:.*, ro'ien*. ex- 

San Joaauin. 

When Grain Threshes Easiest. — Lodi 
Sentinel, June 26: CoL L. O. Gillispie started 
up bis combined harvester this week. He 
claims that new wheat threshes easier and 
cleaner when cut in the "stiff dough" than to 
wait till it is dead ripe. His reasons are that 
the kernel is largest when in the dough, and 
that the hulls of the grain are opened by the 
increased size; that as the grain ripens and 
shrinks away tbe bulls close and bold tbe grain 
more firmly in tbe bead. This idea prevails to 
a great extent among our farmers, and many of 
our combined harvesters will be in the field by 
the first of the coming week. Wheat in tbe 
Live Oaks is turning out well both in quantity 
and quality. 

Watermelons. — The late warm weather dur- 
ing tbe last two weeks has been "ducks" for 
our melon- raisers. The vines are growing 
wonderfully and show indications of a good 
crop. Over 1500 acres are planted in tbe vicin- 
ity of Lodi. It is reasonable to calculate the 
shipment of melons from this point during the 
season at 2000 carloads of 100 dozen each. 
They will be ready for market from the 10th to 
the middle of July. 

San Mateo. 

Hay and Feed. — Time* awl Gazette, June 
26 : Tbe amount of hay cut in this county this 
year probably exceeds tbe amount cut here in 
any previous year. It is good bay, too, for tbe 
most part, though mustard, wild turnips and 
thistles fouled many fields badly. On the 
mountain pastures the native grasses bave not 
been so fine for many a year. Many fields that 
would not support 100 bead of cattle Last year 
will easily carry 150 bead tnis year. The 
abundant late rains brought out the wild oats, 
the alfileria and other favorite grasses with 
stock. If dairy products were what they were 
last year, or if beef cattle were not so cheap, 
the outlook for dairymen and cattlemen in this 
county would be exceptionally bright. Unfor- 
tunately, though hay was never more abundant 
or more cheap, pasture never more luxuriant 
and young stock never more easily obtainable, 
the dairymen and cattlemen of the county are 
not doing so well as they ought to be doing. 
" Best butter" — and San Mateo county makes 
as good butter as does Mann or Mendocino — is 
now wholesaling at from 14 to 16 centsa pound. 
" Good butter " wholesales at from 10 to 13 
cents; " ordinary," at from 8 to 11 cents. Cir- 
cumstances prevent many excellent butter- 
makers from producing " beet " butter; and 
even at 15 cents a pound it is hard to make ends 
meet on a dairy ranch. Only close economy, 
careful management, unflagging industry and 
favorable naturai condition* may enable dairy 
farmers who own their own farms and are out 
of debt to pay fair wages and keep out of debt. 

But a large number of dairymen in this county- 
are not out of debt. Some of them have pur- 
chased land on part payment and are under 
heavy interest expense. Many of them are 
running behind at a rate that must mean ruin 
to tbern unless they can retrench in some way 
at present not clear to them or known to tbe 

Santa Cruz. 

Pakls Green. — Sentinel: A. A. Green, from 
Vine Hill, informs us that the Chinese who 
raise strawberries near that place are in the 
habit of sprinkling Paria green on their straw- 
berry plants to kill the insects. The result of 

eating strawberries purchased from them came 
near proving fatal to several mcnibeis of Mr. 
Green s family, some of tbern being token quite 
ill, while those who did not eat of the berries 
suffered no illness whatever. Any person, 
Chinese or white men, who uses each deadly 
poison for killing insects, and then sells the 
fruit, should be prosecuted. 

Flax. — Irulej*nderU, June 28 : Hiram Pierce 
has returned from a trip to Santo Ynez. He 
reports that George Culhertooo has in 100 acres 
of flax that promises to yield an abundant crop. 
Tnis crop is mm* riling new for the Santa Ynez 
farmers. Mr. Calberteon introduced the same 
bat Last year. 

Wages.— Red Bluff Gaum : The new wheat 
crop is coming in slowly. Harvest is pro- 
gressing with reasonable rapidity. There is 
some inquiry for hands, but most of the farm- 
ers and harvesters find men as needed. Tbe 
average scale of wages paid :-. iv,-.; &av. * 
as Last year, from f 1.50 to $4 per day for thresh- 
ing hands, header crews getting from |1 to $3, 
according to class of work and facilities famish- 
ed by employers for performing it. 

The Striking Bots. — Yesterday we reported 
a strike among the boys employed as drivers on 
tbe Asbunrt ranch. As soon as Mr. Asharat 
learned the condition of affairs be went down 
with another crew of boys and paid off the ten 
who had struck, telling them to take np their 
blankets and walk. One of the boys who had 
not joined the strikers said, as they left the 
ranch: " Yon fellows have struck yourselves 
into tramps; I am earning a dollar a day." 
Tbe second crew, or a number of tbern, struck 
in about an hour after going on duty, but all 
but one thought better of it and resumed work . 
This is about all there is about the strike. But 
it should be added that the work of a driver 
now, as compared witb that of 15 or even 10 
years ago, is as play. Then tbe wages were £2 
per day, and tbe driver pitched bis own load 
from the wagon to the stock ; now the load U 
taken from the wagon in netting, by horse- 
power. Then the price of wheat was from 81 
per bushel upward ; now it is scarcely more 
than that per cental Everything was running 
smoothly at Ashnrsts last visit, and we pre- 
sume when tbe boys reflect that they are saving 
more money at §1 per day and board than many 
of their elders, who, not entirely without rea- 
son perhaps, have struck in the cities, they will 
conclude that they are doing well enough after 


Another Steam Harvester. — Tulare Timet, 
June 24 : Tne combined thresher, header and 
locomotive of G. S. Berry started work on 
Tuesday, and gave perfect satisfaction to all 
who saw it. It continued in operation yester- 
day and will probably work in the grain fields 
the rest of tbe season. Mr. Berry, its inventor, 
.*.>--. ip;..:ed for M%na. He estimates that it 
will harvest 3000 acres of grain between now 
and the close of the summer. Tbis novel ma- 
chine is geared to run a mile and a half an 
hour, and cats a swath 22 feet in width. It is 
worked by seven men. Tbe locomotive power 
is furnished by one engine, and the power which 
operates the header and separator is furnished 
by another. Thus the speed of the traction 
part can be increased or diminished without af- 
fecting that of the harvesting machinery, and 
rise -otrna. Tbe engines are nonneste d with the 
same boiler. Fuel is furnished by the straw, 
which runs through a funnel into a tender. 
Mr. Berry claims that his machine will harvest 
'■'/) acres of grain per day. 

Fruit Shipments. — L H. Thomas is making 
daily shipments of peaches, plume and figs to 
Loss Angeles, El Paso, Alboqoerque and Tomb- 
stone. He is also making considerable ship- 
ments of figs to San Francisco. Last Monday 
he shipped a general assortment of fruit, con- 
sisting of peaches, apricots, plums and figs, to 
Kansas Cry. Tbe shipment was made a« an 
experiment. Since his return from tbe East be 
has been tnalmg a number of trials relative to 
the removai of insect pests from his old or- 
chard. The chief enemy with which he bas 
had to contend in this respect is the scale bug. 
He has given buhach a thorough test, but finds 
it to be a failure so far as tbe scale is concerned. 
He applied a new compound to tbe trees a few 
days ago, and will be prepared to announce 
tbe result in a short time. Mr. Thomas has re- 
ceived a letter from a correspondent in Texas, 
stating that the fruit crop of that State will be 
almost an entire failure. 


The District Fair.— Appeal- Tbe mana- 
gers of our District Fair off-r premiums for live- 
stock to tbe amount of $2000. This includes 
horses, cattle, sheep, swine and poultry, and we 
are informed tnat tne premiums are as Larze as 
are offered by any other district in the State. 
They offer £2000 in premiums for farming, me- 
chanical, mercantile and manufacturing ex- 
hibits, and for speed and walking contests. 
This makes a total of 87800 and is some $Wj0 
more than was offered two years ago. Tbe prin- 
cipal part of this amount is distributed among 
tbe people in tbis immediate vicinity, as Sutter 
and Yuba counties furnish fully three-fourths 
of all the exhibits, or have heretofore. The ex- 
penses being greater this year, owing princi- 
pally to the increased premium list, it becomes 
necessary that each of us should take an active 
interest in making it a success financially and 



[Jdly 3, 1886 

Northern California. 

[Written (or Rcbal Prbss by Mallie Stafford.] 

I sing of a land that is washed on the west 

By the waves of Pacific's proud sea; 
And circling the plains on the eastward the crests 

Of Sierra rise proudly and free. 
Snow-crowned in their pride, 
Green plumed are their side; 
Like an army of heroes, embattled they stand 
To guard in their grandeur the vales of our land. 

'Neath their deep-bosomed summits below the green 

Lie treasures like India of old. 
Brave hearts and strong hands have wrenched from 
the mines 
Their burden of silver and gold; 
And cities rose up from the dust of the plain — 
Like a flower they arose from the wave-washing 

Still ceaseless, and ever like the song of the pine 
Flows out to the seaboard the wealth of the mine. 

There are leagues of green plains that lie bathed in 
the sun, 

Abloom with rich fruitage and grain; 
And the gems from the mines, and the wealth that 
is won 

From the soil is borne to the far-reaching main — 
To the ships that are bound for the ports of the world, 
Full-laden they speed with their sails all unfurled. 
They bear on the bosom of Neptune's deep breast 
The measureless wealth of this clime of the West. 

There are plains and fair valleys that bloom like the 

With the orange, the fig and the vine; 
When the golden fruit bends and the purple wine 

Thro' the vales of this beautiful clime. 
There are streams that flow onward thro' regions of 

And bright homes that nestle in forest and bower. 
Like a dream of the Orient— a mythical tale — 
Is this wondrous empire of mountain and vale, 
Arcadian Hights, Napa Co. 


A Fourth of July Story. 
[Written (or Rural Press by M. B. D.) 

The July dust lay deep upon the pines and 
oaks that fringed either side of Heed's turn- 
pike. This road wound along Mead's hill, 
forming a semi-circle, beginning where the 
great water tank overflowed with pure spring 
water that rippled down a grecu bank into the 
creek, which ran under a bridge across the 
road and then was lost in the precipitous walls 
of a dusky ravine. Upon the crown of the hill 
was an old ranch-house, with broad verandas 
extending the whole length of its long front; 
and its white walls and mossy roof were shel- 
tered beneath gigantic oaks that held their 
boughs aloft in umbrageous arches over them. 

Vines. and flowers twined the pillars of the 
veranda, and among these stood Evelyn Mead, 
the rancher's daughter, idly culling the with- 
ered leaves from among their fresh companions. 
She heard a horseman ride up the hill, and, 
Btopping at the gate, dismount; yet she neither 
turned nor gave him a single glance, for she 
knew who he was and felt no interest in his 

The visitor — a tall, brawny young man — did 
not appear surprised or displeased. He gave 
her his hand frankly, at the same time smiling 
and saying a few pleasant words; then he took 
the easy chair which Bhe offered him, and, 
leaning back, seemed content to watch her in 

Evelyn looked down the dusty turnpike, to- 
ward the west, which was in an opposite direc- 
tion from that leading to the great water tank. 
The declining sun cast a golden light, and long, 
cool shadows from the hills, that formed the 
horizon, miles away across the bluish wood- 
lands between. 

" I wish 1 could live beyond those mountains," 
Bhe said, as much to herself as to her compan- 
ion. " It seems to me the whole world lies on 
the other side of the rough ridges that hem us 

"You would very soon tire of the valleys and 
the noisy, crowded cities," answered her com- 
panion, whose name was Henry Manning. 

" I have traveled over nearly the whole 
coast, and am of the opinion that these foot- 
hills are more desirable than any other place 
for a home. Next spring I shall set out an 
orange grove, and dig a trout pond upon my 
land. Then a cosy little house, fixed up with 

greenery like this ; and then, Evelyn " he 

lowered his voice and extended his hand as if 
to take hers while he said this, but was inter- 
rupted by a merry peal of childish laughter. 

Evelyn's sister, Grace, a roguish girl of ten 
years, came bounding toward them, and seating 
herself upon the arm of a chair, inquired: " Will 
you let me fi»h in your pond, Mr. Manning? 
I can catch almost a dozen minnows at a time 
in my net, and it would be such fun to get fish 

we could eat. I am going to tell mamma what 
you said — all about the house, too ;" and away 
she ran again. 

Shortly after, Mr. Mead joined them, and 
Evelyn soon found an excuse for entering the 
house. Her mother was bustling about the hot 
kitchen preparing dinner, and half a dozen flat- 
irons were heating upon the stove behind the 
bubbling kettles. Evelyn knew what this 
meant, and hastened to get the ironing board 
and clothes basket. 

" There are only a few pieces, Eva, my dear," 
said her mother. " The tine napkins and table 
cover for dinner tomorrow, and a white dress 
for Grace, are all that have been sprinkled. 
When the dress is dry, you had better fasten 
her blue ribbons upon it too, for we will have 
to hurry off early in the morning." 

Evelyn proceeded to rub a hot iron in some 
salt, and to try it with her finger to see whether 
it was of a proper temperature before she be- 
gan. She ironed until her cheeks were flushed, 
and her forehead, and the little curls that clus- 
tered above it, were damp. In the meantime 
her thoughts were far from pleasant. 

The people of Bell's Camp had announced a 
picnic through the columns of the Citizen, one 
of the county papers; and every one was invited 
to celebrate the Fourth of July at Oak grove. 
She knew exactly what they would all do, for 
she had attended half a dozen such gatherings. 
Judge Manning, standing upon a platform, fes- 
tooned with cedars and roses, would read the 
Declaration of Independence, the minister 
would say a prayer ; then would follow some 
patriotic songs and recitations by the school 
children. Afterward the old people would as- 
semble in congenial groups, and chat over their 
lunch, the young people stroll about in couples, 
or play croquet, and the ciiildren amuse them- 
selves with frolicsome games. 

Evelyn thought of the dress prepared for her- 
self; then of her kid shoes, and here she pouted. 
One of them had been worn through at the toe, 
and though she had mended it neatly and care- 
fully polished it the stitches were still provoking- 
ly plain. " Oh, if we only had enough so that we 
could live in some style I should be quite con- 
tented, but to always endure these petty trials 
is too much for any one." Here she suddenly 
recalled the orange grove and fish pond that 
Mr. Manning had just mentioned to her. 
" How perfectly absurd such an idea is," she 
mentally commented, "as if I cared about 
those things. Of course, he will drive his little 
white nag, Magnolia, up here and invite me to 
go with him tomorrow. Well, let him come. 
He certainly will not see me again this even- 

Her fretful musings were interrupted by her 
mother's voice, addressing in her usual cheerful 
tones old Lem, a colored farm hand in her 
father's employ. He had cut his arm quite 
severely while disengaging the steel teeth of 
the mowing machine from the rod to which 
they were fastened. On hearing of this, Mrs. 
Mead Bent for the old man in order that she 
might dress his wound. She had just com- 
pleted this task herself and was saying : " That 
will soon be all right, Lem; just take a few 
days' rest and you will scarcely know that you 
have been hurt." 

" You are the blessedest lady I ever come 
across, MisBus," said the old neero, gratefully; 
and continued, " in fact I only saw one who 
was anyways like you for goodness and for 
taking an interest in a poor fellow like me. 
Dat were more dan 20 years ago, away along 
in dem orful wartimes." 

Then he proceeded to tell her how he, with 
many other slaves, was taken from the planta- 
tions of Alabama and put to work on the rebel 
fortifications along the Chattahoochee river in 
Georgia. These were to obstruct the march 
of Sherman's armies, which were then sweep- 
ing through the State like a whirlwind to the 

" Is that so, Lem ! Well ! I declare you are 
quite a hero to have been there at that time. 
Tell me about it," interrupted Mrs. Mead, and 
taking a lapful of peas she seated herself upon 
the porch and began to shell them for dinner 
while she listened. 

"A hero!" thought Evelyn, with a scornful 
glance at the negro. "Mamma is so eccentric. " 
As she had finished ironing, she hurried away 
with the pretty white dress, all covered with 
lace and ruffles, to add the ribbon bows. Still, 
when seated in her airy chamber, and bent up- 
on knotting the glossy strips of satin into 
proper form, she wondered what old Lem had 
seen and done in those famous days of the Re- 
bellion; yet she was in such a dissatisfied mood 
that she would not join her mother and listen 
to him. The sound of carriage wheels ascend- 
ing the hill soon came to her ears. 

"Those aristocratic Goldwaitea are coming, 
I suppose," she thought. Every summer these 
people spent a few weeks in the lovely foothill 
town of Bell's Camp, and they often drove out 
to Mead's ranch for a walk through their or- 
chard, and a glass of fresh milk to drink, while 
they ate the tempting fruit which was gathered 
for them freely. Knowing that her mother was 
engaged, Evelyn cast her work aside and hur- 
ried down to entertain them. She was agree- 
ably surprised to see, instead of the fastidious 
Goldwaite ladies, with their bevy of children 
»nd governesses, a gentleman with whom she 
was acquainted, Colonel Allen. Though past 
middle-age, this man dressed very stylishly, and 
beside, wore much jewelry. A large diamond 
sparkled in his ring, another in his soarf pin, 
and his gold watch and chain were simply mass- 
ive. He was the superintendent of some new 
mines in the vicinity, and it was reported that 

he had made splendid investments in the mines 
of Arizona. So with his daBhing team and fine 
dress, he was quite dazzling to many of the 
people of Bell's Camp. 

Colonel Allen returned the greeting of Mr. 
Mead and Mr. Manning in a polished yet con- 
fident manner that Evelyn imagined must be 
quite distinguished. The attentions he imme- 
diately began to show her were somewhat over- 
whelming, but she supposed this was because 
she was not used to such society as that in 
which he was accustomed to move. He in- 
vited her to accompany him to the picnic upon 
the morrow, at the same time remarking that 
he knew that she would enjoy riding behind his 

"They are different from the animals one 
usually finds in these parts, you see, and I am 
very fond of them." 

When he drove away he had the promise of 
Evelyn's company for the next day. Mr. Man- 
ning soon took his leave. He held her hand an 
instant longer than was necessary when he said 
good-bye, and in his eyes was an expression of 
pity which puzzled her. If he had shown the 
least resentment she would have thought him 
presumptuous, but a look like that she failed to 
understand. Before the echo of his horses' 
hoofs had ceased she was half smiling to her- 
self with gratification at the prospect of the 
morrow. At last she was to attend the picnic 
in a style that would do credit to her t 

With the first streaks of rosy light that her- 
alded the summer dawn, the roar of cannon re- 
verberated among the hills and through the 
wooded gorges and ravines. The sound awak- 
ened Evelyn, and she lifted as blooming a face 
from the pillow as were those of the fresh and 
dewy morning-glories that peeped in at her 

Some hours later she came down the garden 
walk in her broad straw hat and fine lawns, 
which fell about her as gracefully as might a 
summer cloud. Colonel Allen said he could not 
refrain from remarking that he had not seen so 
lovely a Bight since he last visited Saratoga. 
As they drove along in the glorious morning 
sunshine he voluntarily favored her with a de- 
scription of that fashionable watering-place. 
Somewhat in this way he entertained her, yet 
he managed to inquire about her father's busi- 
ness affairs in an indirect way; still Evelyn 
bhrewdly imagined that he would scarcely 
have said what he did if she had been Miss 
Goldwaite. A brighter tinge mantled her cheek 
as she thought of it. They were gliding 
smoothly along the road under stately oaks at 
the entrance of the picnic grounds, and as they 
entered them she was proudly conscious that 
the attention of the large assembly of people al- 
ready in the grove was fixed upon them and 
their spirited team. 

Later, she was conversing with a group of 
young friends, and keenly enjoying the fragrant 
wood scents, the music of wild birds and the 
sight of happy throngs, when a surprising pic- 
ture broke upon her sight. Down the road, 
over which she had so lately passed in the joy 
of pride, came a gentleman and lady superbly 

"Can it be possible !" was her mental ex- 
clamation, "Mr. Manning and Miss Goldwaite 
coming here together. How elegant Bhe looks, 
too, even if she is so thin and delicate." 

Miss Goldwaite certainly did look well in her 
blue habit, upon the handsome cream-white 
horse, which seemed scarcely able to restrain 
the fiery animation that beautified every mo- 
tion. Evelyn wondered also at Mr. Manning's 
appearance He looked so different from what 
he did yesterday. Was it the green and sun- 
dappled vistas of the background, the bright 
morning air, and the confusing glory of flags 
and banners fluttering all about them that made 
the difference? She frowned unconsciously 
and turned her eyes upon the creek which a 
few minutes before was brilliant with the rip- 
ples that seemed to change the sunbeams into 
a net of gold, and cast it upon their pebbly bed. 
Now even that was transformed. She 
could see that the banks were muddy and 
treacherous, and that all sorts of unpleasant 
insects and water-snails clustered about the 
half-submerged stones. A tiny pale green 
worm had dropped from the boughs overhead 
upon her sleeve, and was vainly trying to wrig- 
gle out of the meshes of lace that imprisoned it 
there. She gave a nervous little scream, and 
tried to brush it away with her fan. Several 
young men idly chatting near by came to her 
assistance, and soon the helpless creature was 
lost among the wild flowers at their feet. 

Some dire magic had cast a spell to spoil the 
charming scene for Evelyn. Even now she 
could hear Miss Goldwaite's thin, yet artfully 
modulated voice, saying to one of her city 

"You have no idea what a delightful com- 
panion he makes — so original, too. He would 
be a perfect lion in our set at home. Of course, 
he is not rich, but then Judge Manning is cer- 
tainly well off. I am going to coax papa to in- 
vite Mr. Manning to our house the next time 
he happens to be in town." 

While she was talking she leaned languidly 
back in her chair, and watched with an indif- 
ferent air the young man who formed the sub- 
ject of her thoughts. He was swinging little 
Grace Mead, whose yellow curls and blue rib 
bons fluttered in the breeze, caused by her rapid 
motion back and forth as she swung, and she 
laughed and shouted in childish glee. 

" It was thoughtful and kind of him to notice 
Grace," thought Evelyn, "for she loves to swing 
like that, and so few are willing to spend a few 
minutes of such a time as this in amusing a 

child." She did not admit, even to herself, that 
if his kindness bad been shown to another than 
Grace, it would not have struck her so pleasant- 
ly. Though she looked for him to join her as 
the hours slipped by, he had not found an op- 
portunity to exchange even a dozen words with 
her, when the Colonel's spirited bays came dash- 
ing up to take her home. True, he could scarce- 
ly have done so, for Colonel Allen bad been very 
attentive, and besides, other friends had claimed 
a share of her time; yet she could not help feel- 
ing disappointed. 

On stepping from the carriage at the garden 
gate, she realized how different her feelings 
were from those which had made her heart leap 
in the morning. Colonel Allen now appeared 
to typify all that was vain and ostentatious, in- 
stead of what was admirable and elegant. His 
ideals were entirely erroneous, according to her 
simple standards of perfection. They had been 
formed from the deceitful objects of ignoble 
ambition and hollow pride; while hers sprung 
from the free hauntB of nature in her pristine 
beauty, and were reflected upon a mind unpre- 
judiced by contact with the artful and false. 

As he drove away, after having made an un- 
necessarily ardent promise to call upou her soon, 
the sunset salute was fired. Its boom rolled out 
among the hills, startling countless echoes, that 
made the woodlands ring for miles. The sound 
seemed solemn and gloomy to Evelyn, present- 
ing to her imagination the picture of deserted 
battlefields, instead of the exuLation of triumph- 
aut liberty. After all, the gratification of 
pride aud vanity gave no real satisfaction. As 
she entered the house, she caught a glimpse of 
her mother, whose cheerful face and light step 
seemed inspired by the tranquil happiness which 
is given as the reward of faithfully performed 
duties. In her daughter's eyes, she suddenly 
became a heroine — one worthy to be followed 
as a model; and Evelyn resolved to profit in 
future more by her example. 

Though she succeeded in appearing lively at>d 
pleasant at dinner time, her unhappy mood 
still held sway in her mind, and after the meal 
was over she concluded to walk a little way 
down the turnpike, in hopes that the quiet 
evening scenes would tranquillize her thoughts. 
Grace joined her and together they sauntered 
past the orchard where they saw Lem, who was 
lingering to weed a bed of lettuce. He re- 
minded Evelyn of last evening, and revived 
her curiosity to hear the story which he had 
probably told her mother; so she rested her 
elbows upon the rail fence, and requested him 
to tell them his experience in the Rebellion. 

"You should not work upon such a holiday 
as this, so come alone and talk to us about the 
plantations and the Yankee soldiers," she said; 
and in obedience to her wishes the hale old 
man accompanied them on their walk. 

The crimson glow of sunset shone around 
them, and the water in the creek beside the 
road rippled along almost at their feet, while 
crickets and other insects chirruped in the wild 
grasses and snapdragons upon the banks. Ere 
long Evelyn's thoughts were entirely absorbed 
in Lem's story. 

During those terrible June days of 1864 he 
had toiled upon the mighty abattis and re- 
doubts, which were built by the Confederate 
General Johnston's orders, to protect his strong 
army and prevent Gen. Sherman's soldierB from 
crossing the Chattahoochee river. 

The boys in blue, nearly 100,000 strong, 
were advancing upon Atlanta, the citadel of 
Georgia. They reached the banks of this wind- 
ing river upon the third of July, and celebrated 
the Fourth by a battle to gain the crossing. 
For more than five miles up and down the 
broad, crystal stream the mighty forces con- 
tended, ponring upon each other the leaden 
hail of musketry and the fearful missiles of 
artillery. These filled the air with booming 
and shrieking sounds which were more hideous 
than those ever awakened by the rolling of 
thunder; while the woods were gleaming with 
flames and the heavens were lurid with powder- 

One of the slaves, who had been at work 
upon the frowning defenses, resolved to escape 
from bondage; so, in the confusion of battle, he 
managed to hide between some logs that formed 
an abattis, and there for hours a regular storm 
of lead passed over him or pelted his frail re- 
treat, while he lay trembling with mortal ter- 
ror. At last tbe firing ceased for a short time 
and he crept out of his hiding-place and fled as 
fast as his trembling limbs would permit to the 
Union skirmishers. They sent him to the great 
Commander-in-Chief, Gen. Sherman, who talked 
to him and to whom be explained all about the 
formidable field fortifications that he had helped 
to build. Before nightfall Sherman's army had 
won the battle. Then what shouting and music 
rang out upon'the sultry air as the triumphant 
soldiers gathered in groups about their bivouacs. 
The sweet strains of the " Star Spangled Ban- 
ner " and the " Red, White and Blue " swelled 
gladly upon the southern winds, which had not 
been freighted with sucb patriotic sonnds for 
many months; and so they celebrated, with due 
honor, the anniversary of independence, even 
there in the heart of the Rebellion. 

The grateful negro followed the wounded 
men, who were borne to hospital tents, and 
helped to take care of them there. He was 
about to describe those pitiful scenes, and to 
extol the gentle and self-sacrificing women who 
nursed the soldiers night and day, declaring 
that he had never seen any one half as good as 
they were, except Evelyn's mother, when he 
was interrupted by the clatter of a horse's hoofs 
approaching with unusual speed. 

On came the flying beast, like a phantom, 

Juit 3, 1886.] 


down the turnpike. The twilight had deepened 
almost into starlight, which was relieved by the 
silvery sickle of the new moon. They all fled 
from the road, seing that the horse was not 
under the control of its rider, a slender girl, 
who clung desperately to the saddle. While 
Evelyn and Grace were scrambling up a dusty 
bank, Lem, with unusual presence of mind, 
held himself safely against the trunk of a tree 
that leaned over the road, and caught the 
dangling bridle of the runaway as it was pass- 
ing. The horse suddenly jerked back, reared 
and plunged a few minutes, but was finally 
stopped, and the trembling girl, who had been 
in such imminent peril, was assisted to dis- 

Evelyn was startled to perceive that Lem 
had rescued Miss Goldwaite, and that the 
white horse, all foamy and panting before 
them, was Magnolia. She was left in Lem's 
care, while every attention possible was shown 
to Miss Goldwaite by the sisters. Grace wet 
her handkerchief in the creek and bound it 
around her throbbing temples, while Evelyn 
held her head until she was so far recovered 
from the shock as to be able to walk. Then 
they supported her as well as they could, while 
they all proceeded toward the house, where 
she was immediately placed in Mrs. Mead's 
skillful hands and made comfortable. She was 
soon able to explain how Magnolia had been 

"I forgot that she was not to be touched 
with the riding whip," she sail, "and so gave 
her a s-nart cut which made her gallop oft at 
full speed. She could be managed until the 
little flug that h;id been stuck in her bridle fell 
down so that it fluttered in her eyes; then she 
became thoroughly frightened, and I could not 
hold her." 

Evelyn, after doing all that she could to as- 
sist her mother, went out into the garden for a 
few minutes' rest in the cool air. She saw poor 
Magnolia fastened to a hitching-post. Her 
head drooped until her long, flowing mane 
nearly touched the ground; and as Evelyn ap- 
proached to caress her she perceived that the 
animal was still trembling excitedly and was 
wet with foam. 

The intelligent animal seemed grateful for 
her attention, and whinnied softly as her white 
nose was petted. Thinking herself alone, Eve- 
lyn said, in tones that were unconsciously low 
and plaintive, "Poor Magnolia! like me, you 
are unhappy for having been vain and willful;" 
and leaning her forehead a moment upon the 
horse's silken mane, she bedewed it with tear- 

Mr. Manning had arrived at the house imme- 
diately after Miss Goldwaite, and now, having 
come to attend to his horse, he chanced to 
overhear Evelyn's remark. It was an agree- 
able revelation to him, and rekindled the feel- 
ings of hope and admiration which had been so 
chilled by her conduct of the preceding day. 
With manly confidence he took her hand and 

gently said well, what he said ought not to 

be repeated, because his words were intended 
for Evelyn alone. 

After this, the evening seemed supremely 
beautiful; andatnine o'clock, when the cannons 
in Bell's Camp were fired again, their loud peals 
awoke ten thousand echoes, that thrilled like 
exultant notes of joy upon Evelyn's listening 

That starlit summer night has long since 
vanished into the past, but it dwells in memory 
among the brightest gems that are treasured 
there. At present she feels a deep interest in 
Mr. Manning's orange grove, which is so prom- 
ising; and she has smiled down upon her own 
image, reflected in his newly-made trout pond. 

Magnolia is frequently surprised by the lavish 
caresses which she receives at Evelyn's hands; 
but if she could understand what that young 
lady has whispered against her velvet-like 
neck, once or twice, she would know why she 
is such a favorite. Evelyn thinks that if it had 
not been for Magnolia's madcap race last 
Fourth of July evening, she would have missed 
her greatest happiness. 

' Markings of Animals. — Eimer advances the 
view that the markings on animals were prim- 
itively longitudinal stripes that have subse- 
quently broken up to form dots, and these fus- 
ing to form transverse rings. This view is 
supported by the ontogeny of many animals. 
Dr. Haacke controverts this view from the 
study of an Australian fish Hdolcs Scolus. In 
this species the adult is marked with eight 
longitudinal black bands. Young specimens 
have, in addition, a row of clear, transverse 
bands, which disappear when the fish attains 

Thunder, Lightning and Rain.— Meteor- 
ologists have found that there can be no thun- 
der and lightning without rain. When thun- 
der is heard beneath a clear sky, the reports 
must either come from distant clouds or be the 
result of some other cause than a discharge of 
electricity. Harvest or heat lightning is pro- 
duced by a distant storm. Thunder seldom 
ever accompanies heat lightning, the sound 
reaches only 12 miles, while lightning is often 
seen by reflection upon nearer clouds, at a 
much greater distance. 

Vegetable Life and Temperature. — It ap- 
pears from observations made in France that 
the development of vegetable life is retarded by 
an average of nearly four days for each audi 
tional 100 yards of altitude. The arrival ol 
the chimney swallow is delayed about two days 
ior each increase of 100 yards in hight. 

Joey's Fourth of July. 

[Written for Rural Press by Reis Sampson.] 

Dinner was just over, mamma had gone up- 
stairs to the nursery with the baby, papa was 
seated in the big armchair reading the evening 
paper, while Master Harry lay stretched upon 
the floor, counting the contents of a tin bank. 

"Let me see," he mused, "two fives make a 
ten, and four tens make forty, and a quarter 
makes sixty-five cents. Too little for my 
Fourth of July. Papa, I say, papa," he con- 
tinued, "please put down your paper; I want to 
speak to you." 

"Yes, "replied papa, without raising his eyes. 

"Now, papa, that's not fair; I want you to 
pay attention," and Harry jumped up from the 
floor, ran to his father, pulled the paper away, 
and seated himself on his knee. 

"Well, what is it?" asked papa with a sigh. 
"I suppose I'll have no peace until I listen to 

"There, that's a good papa," said "Harry, 
stroking his face. 

"What do you want, you little monkey?" 
asked papa, returning the caress. 

"Say, papa, do you know that to-morrow will 
be Fourth of July ?" 

"Of course I do," answered papa, "but what 
about it ?" 

"Nothing, only all the boys of my class are 
going to buy soldier caps and swords." 

"Well," said papa, "that's real nice." 

"Don't tease, papa, please; I only have 
sixty-five cents, and firecrackers are so dear." 

Papa laughed, and putting his hand into his 
pocket drew out a handful of small change, 
which he gave Harry, saying: 

"Now run off, you rogue, and let me read 
my paper." 

Harry jumped off his father's knee, went over 
to the table, and commenced to count his 

"Two dollars and a half !" he exclaimed, 
when he had finished; "won't I have lots of 
firecrackers, though ?" 

"Harry," said his mamma, coming into the 
room, "I want you to run down to the drug 
store and bring me a bottle of cough syrup; 
baby seems croupy. If the boy is there you 
can let him bring it, and you may remain out 
until bedtime." 

"All right, mamma; I'll see you get the med- 

Harry put on his cap and started down the 
street, bought the medicine, and then went off 
to the common to find his friends. He had 
bought a toy pistol, and was amusing himself 
by shooting it at all the trees. As he passed 
one of the small houses near the outskirts of 
the village, he saw a little boy sitting at the 
window. Thinking to frighten him, he put a 
cap on the pistol and shot it off. Instead of 
frightening him, the little boy gave a cry of de- 
light and said in a weak, tremulous voice: 

"Please let me shoot it once." 

"Come out here and I'll let you shoot it off as 
much as you want." 

"I would, only I can't leave my chair. I'm 
a cripple, you know. I fell downstairs when I 
was a tiny baby, and the doctor says I will 
never walk, not even with crutches. It's aw- 
ful lonesome. Won't you come in and sit by 
me for a little while?" 

Harry went up the few broken steps that led 
to the house, opened the door and went in. It 
was only on enteiing the room that he saw the 
little boy was strapped in a large chair, looking 
very thin and pale. 

"What is your name?" he asked, as he seated 
himself on a low stool near the chair. 

"Joey Daniels," replied the child; "and I 
know your name, too — it's Harry Drummond. 
I've seen you pass here lots of times." 

"Why didn't you ever speak to me before?" 

"I didn't like to; but to night, when I saw 
you firing off that pistol, I couldn't help asking 
you to let me try. I love anything like that." 

"Here," said Harry, handing him the pistol, 
"I'll give it to you." 

"For my very own, to keep and shoot off as 
much as I like?" asked Joey, eagerly. 

"Yes, and when you've used up this box of 
caps I'll get you some more. I always have 
plenty of money." 

" You're so good," said Joey, taking Harry's 
plump brown hand in his thin white one. 

At the sound of a strange voice, Mrs. Daniels 
came in from the other room, and seeing Harrv 
said: "lam glad you have come to see my 
little boy. He has no playmates and but few 
things to amuse himself with when I am not 

"See, mamma," said Joey, holding up the 
pistol. " Harry has given me this for my very 
own. I am going to put it away until to- 
morrow and then you needn't feel bad because 
you can't get me any firecrackers." 

"Why, won't you have any firecrackers?" 
asked Harry, in amazement. 

"No," replied Joey, shaking his head sadly. 
" I never do. We're too poor, and all the 
money mamma earns she has to spend for medi- 

" And won't you go to the procession, 

"No; but you tell me all about it. That 
will be almost as good as going." 

" Well," commenced Harry, " first is a band, 
then all the policemen on horseback, and my 

papa follows dressed in uniform with gilt but- 
tons and a sword; then another band comes, 
playing ' Yankee Doodle ' and 'Hail Columbia.' 
It makes you feel like dancing to hear them. 
Then comes the Goddess of Liberty, and that is 
beautiful. I can't describe it very well, but there 
is a great big wagon all covered with red, white 
and blue and lots of little girls dressed in white 
waving flags, and far up above them stands the 
Goddess of Liberty with her hair hanging; she 
holds a shield in one hand and a flag in the 
other. Everybody cheers when they see her." 

" Oh, dear ! oh, dear !" exclaimed Joey, ex- 
citedly, "please go on; what comes next?" 

"Next, let me see; oh, yes, the firemen with 
their engines all fixed up; then the butchers. 
I think their wagons look the prettiest of all." 

"Is that all, then ?" 

"Gracious, no. There are loads of soldiers 
and cannons, lots more music, and all the 
school children; but they have a wagon to 
themselves drawn by six horses. They have 
crowns on their heads, and sing 'The Star 
Spangled Banner.' They are called 'the rising 
generation.' Now, I'll tell you what the boys 
of our class are going to do. There are 12 of 
us, and we are nearly all 10 years old. We are 
going to buy soldier-caps and guns, and swords 
and knapsacks, and we are going to march in 
the procession." 

_ "Won't that be lovely ?" cried Joey, clapping 
his bands. "Don't I wish I could see you? but 
you'll come up after it's all over and tell me 
about it, won't you?" 

"Yes, I will; but don't you think your mam- 
ma could manage to bring you ?" 

"No. It's too far for her to carry me, and 
she couldn't hold me up so long. But never 
mind, I have my pistol, and I can think about 
what you have told me." 

Just then the clock struck eight, and Harry 
said good-night to Joey, promising to come 
back and see him the next day. Harry ran 
home as fast as he could and rushed breathlessly 
into the house, knocking over the baby's car- 
riage which stood in the hall. 

"Why, Harry, what a noisy boy you are," 
said mamma, coming out of the sitting-room. 
"Where have you been ? I was getting quite 
worried about you." 

Then Harry told his tale, and when he had 
finished main ma said: 

"1 will go down with you to see Joey some 
day, and you can take him some of your books 
and toys, if you wish." 

Suddenly an idea seemed to strike Harry, 
and he said: 

"Mamma, is baby going out in her buggy to- 
morrow ?" 

"No, dear; it is hardly safe to take a baby in 
the street on the Fourth of July." 

"Then, mamma, will you lend me the buggy? 
I'll take good care of it." 

"I must know what you want it for, Harry; 
of course I will not allow you to take it in the 

"I've decided if you let me have the buggy I 
won't take part in the procession." 

"Not take part in the procession! What do 
you mean, Harry ?" 

"I thought, mamma, I would like to take Joey 
down to the procession; he's never seen one in 
his life. You could fix up the buggy with 
cushions, and I'll take splendid care of it. 
Please, mamma, let me; it will make him so 

"And you, Harry, are you willing to sacri- 
fice your whole day's amusement to take Joey 
around ?" 

"Yes, yes, mamma; it won't be a sacrifice, 
but a pleasure." 

"Then, dear, you may have the buggy, but 
now you had better go to bed or you will be 
too tired to enjoy yourself to-morrow." 

The next morning at eight o'clock Mrs. 
Daniels was startled by hearing a loud rap at 
the door. Upon opening it she saw Harry 
there, so excited he could scarcely keep still. 

"Plea=e, Mrs. Daniels, won't you get Joey 
ready ? I am going to take him to the procession. 
See, mamma has fixed the baby's carriage for 

Mrs. Daniels looked and saw a pretty wicker 
buggy filled with soft rugs and cushions, the 
outside decorated with dozens of flags. Her 
heart was too full to speak; she stooped and 
kissed Harry and went into the house for Joey. 
She wrapped him up carefully and fixed him in 
the buggy, while Harry gave him a sword and 
cap. "There, Joey," he said, "these are for you. 
I've got lots of firecrackers and things. Now, 
old boy, I'll start if you are feeling com- 

Very carefully Harry wheeled the buggy un- 
til he reached the street through which the pro- 
cession was to pass; then, choosing a place where 
Joey could see everything, he gave him a flag 
and told him to wave it whenever he saw any 
one he knew. 

Words fail to express the delight with which 
Joey viewed every item of the procession. 
W hen Harry's class passed, the boys with one 
accord stood still and gave a loud cheer. Every 
cap flew up into the air as they shouted, "Three 
cheers for Harry Drummond and lame Joey! 
hip, hip, hurrah!" The people even joined in. 

As Harry looked at Joey's happy face he felt 
that he would not change places with a king. 
When he brought Joey home the little fellow 
put his arms around Harry's neck, saying: "I 
love you, Harry; this has been the happiest 
day I ever spent. I'll never, never, forget it, 
and I'll think of you every Fourth of July." 
And Harry felt, too, that it was the happiest 
day he had ever known, 

Alameda, Cal. 


Marmalade Pudding.— One quart of milk, 
four eggs, one cup of sugar, slices of stale 
bread buttered; fruit marmalade, peach is best 
if you have it, but apple, quince or raspberry 
will do if you have not. Scald the milk and 
pour it on the eggs, which should have been 
beaten light with the sugar. Return to the 
farina kettle and cook five minutes, but not 
until it thickens. Cut the bread an inch thick, 
pare off the crust, butter on both sides, and 
cover the bottom of a pudding dish with slices 
fitted in neatly. Spread the marmalade thick 
on this layer and wet with the boiling cuscard, 
waiting to see it absorbed before putting another 
layer above it. Proceed in this order until 
all the materials are used up. Fit a plate or 
other lid on the bake dish and let the whole 
stand for half an hour to absorb the custard be- 
fore it goes into the oven. Bake, covered until 
the pudding is heated through, then brown 
nicely. Eat cold with cream. This excellent 
pudding may be made more elegant by whip- 
ping the whites of three eggs to a meringue 
with a tablespoonful of powdered sugar and 
spreading it over the top after it begins to 
brown. Shut the oven door until the meringue 
is faintly covered. 

Lemon Pickle.— Choose a dozen fine, middle 
sized lemons, tresh and perfectly sound, scrape 
the outside of them with a piece of broken 
quart bottle, and then cut them lengthwise 
down into four quarters, but not quite asunder; 
they must be letc so as to just hang together. 
Rub these over with salt on the rough outside, 
ana fill the cuts with salt in the same manner; 
put them into a china or earthenware bowl 
that will just hold them, sprinkle some more 
salt over them, and turn thtm once a day; let 
them lie thus four days. Parboil 12 cloves of 
garlic or small onions cut into thin slices; aad 
to these an ounce of white sugar, a handful of 
whiie mustard seed, and as much cayenne pep- 
per as will lie upon a dime. Sprinkle some 
salt among these, and let them stand all the 
time the lemons are in the bowl. Then have 
a clean stone jar ready, take out the lemons 
one by one, squeeze them a very little, and 
lay them carefully in a jar; lay in the spices 
all about them, and tie them close down; let 
them stand a month, and they will be fit to eat. 
Sugar can be added to taste when served. 

Veal Cutlets. — A correspondent sends this 
recipe for cooking veal cutlets : After the cut- 
lets are trimmed, salt and pepper thtm and 
broil them on each side over a brisk fire for five 
minutes; then place them without delay on a 
buttered dish by the fire. While the cutlets 
are broiling prepare the sauce for them. Mix 
three eggs with two tablespoonfuls of flour, 
seasoning with a very little nutmeg and salt and 
pepper; then mix carefully with two cups of 
milk and pour over the cutlets. Put the dish 
in the oven until the cutlets are well browned; 
then serve. 

White Fruit Cake. — One cup of butter, 
two cups of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, two 
and a half cups of flour, the whites of seven 
eggs, two even teaspoonfnls of baking powder, 
one pound each of seeded raisins, figs, dates 
and blanched almonds, and one-quarter of a 
pound of citron, all chopped fine. Mix all 
thoroughly before adding the fruit. Put bak- 
ing powder in the flour and mix well before 
adding to it the other ingredients. Sift a little 
flour over the fruit before stirring it in. Bake 
slowly, and try with a splint to see when it is 

Clam Soup. — Put 30 hard clams in a pot with 
two quarts of water, and let them boil gently 
for two hours. Then take out the clams, chop 
them fine and return them to the pot with 12 
pepper-corns and a bit of mace, and boil one 
hour more. While boiling mix a small table- 
spoonful of butter smooth with two table- 
spoonfuls of flour, and stir the mixture into one 
pint of boiling milk until it is smooth. When 
the clams are done, strain the soup into a 
tureen and stir in the hot thickened milk. 

Succotash. — Empty a can of corn and one of 
string beans several hours before you wish to 
use them, draining off the liquor from both. Put 
together into a saucepan half an hour before 
dinner, and barely cover with milk and water 
in equal parts, boiling hot and slightly salted. 
Cook gently 20 minutes, and stir in a table- 
spoonful of butter rolled in one of flour. Season 
with pepper and salt, stew 10 minutes more and 
dish. You may substitute Lima for string 
beans if you like. 

Jelly Roll. — Three eggs, one cup of pre- 
pared flour and one of powdered sugar, one 
tablespoonful of butter, jelly or jam; rub the 
butter into the sugar, add the beaten eggs, the 
flour, and pour into a broad baking pan, well 
greased. Bake rapidly, and while still warm 
spread with jelly, jam or marmalade. Roll it 
up, pin a band of soft cloth about it to keep it 
in shape, and do not move this until the cake is 
cold and firm. 

Pineapple Fritters. — Peel the pineapple, 
taking care to remove all the eyes; cut in slices 
and remove the core, dip in batter and fry a del- 
icate brown. They may be eaten with a sauce 
made of sugar boiled to a syrup and flavored to 



[July 3, 1886 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office., 253 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
t2T Take the Elevator, No. 12 Front St.*&X 

Apdrkss all literary and business correspondence and 
Drafts for this paper in the name of the firm. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

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charged for each year or fraction of a year, eftio new 
names placed uu the list without cash in advance. 
Agents wanted. 

N. B.— Subscriptions becoming delinquent after March 
1, 1886, will be charged twektv-fiyi cents extra— all be- 
fore that fit rv cbnts. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. I Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per tine (agate) $ .25 * .80 8 2.20 t 6.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

the day and fireworks in the evening. The com- 
ing grand event, the National Encampment of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, with its wealth 
of displays and parades, will be this year's ex- 
ponent of San Francisco's patriotic fire. All 
our people who can will escape from the city 
and pass the Fourth in the delicious quiet of 
rural resorts. 

What the Artists Have Done with 

It is quite natural that every patriotic 
American should desire to know just how the 
"Father of his Country" really looked. No 
other American has been so often a subject for 
the painter's brush as George Washington. 
Artists and sculptors, native and foreign, have 
expended their skill upon him with results 
which refuse to agree. Each picture and bust 
represents a different man in looks and char- 
acter. No two resemble each other. But for 
the fact that they are labeled " Washington,' 
it would be impossible to guess who the original 
had been. 

Uver 300 portraits, busts and statues of the 
great Pater Patrice by painters and sculptors 
who were distinguished in their day are in ex- 
istence. They depict their immortal subject in 

1798, almost excelled him in the peculiar art of 
painting an American into a Frenchman. His 
picture is a typical old French nobleman, of the 
severe and dignified school of manners. Sharp- 
less, an American, painted him in 1796, permit- 
ting him to be an American — an American of 
that grave and dignified time. 

Out of these seven profiles modern ingenuity 
has evolved, by means of composite photo- 
graphy, one picture which contains the best of 
the seven, and in all probability bears a stronger 
resemblance to the original than any one of 
them. In this the seven artists present, in one 
face, their impressions of the great Washing- 
ton's appearance. Each artist contributes only 
one-seventh of the whole. No one has an op- 
portunity of putting more of himself in the pic- 
ture than he is entitled to. Each artist's work 
differs from the others, yet the picture evolved 
from all is distinct. 

The photograph is the work of W. Curtis 
Taylor, a leading photographer of Philadelphia, 
who found his subjects among the collection 
of William S. Baker, of that city. Possibly all 
the world may not know that composite photo- 
graphy has been brought to something like per- 
fection, and that its uses are ennobling. It 
gleans from many the best and builds up a sin- 
gle picture which represents the spirit of many. 

The Destiny of the Democratic Idea. 

Before the next issue of the Rural Press 
Independence Day will have come and gone. 
All over the land the orators will lift the veil 
of time upon the sublime enthusiasm with 
which two millions of people arose with one 
accord to assert their rights and follow their 
new-made flag with unshaken confidence 
over many a bloody field until victory crown- 
ed their efforts at Yorktown. But the des- 
tiny of the great idea that has made us one 
of the most rich and powerful nations of the 
earth specially claims our attention. 

Among the many legends of the Civil War 
is a story of a dinner party in Paris given by 
a number of Americans on Independence 
Day, at which were propounded sundry 
toasts. Although it was during the darkest 
hours of our civil strife, the bigness of the 
country seems to have been the dominant 
feeling. The first speaker arose and said: 
" Here is to the United States, bounded on 
the north by British America, on the south 
by the Gulf of Mexico, on the east by the 
Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by the Pa- 
cific." Not to be outdone, the second 
speaker announced as his sentiment: "The 
United States, bounded on the north by the 
North Pole, on the south by the South Pole, 
on the east by the rising sun, and on the 
west by the setting sun." This would seem 
large enough to have gratified the most patri- 
otic imagination, but the third speaker put 
on the capsheaf when he said: " I give you 
the United States, bounded on the north by 
the Aurora Borealis, on the south by the pre- 
cession of the equinox, on the east by prime- 
val chaos, and on the west by the Day of 

Extravagant as this post-prandial rhetoric 
seems, it contains a kernel of truth. It is 
now about fifty years since that keenly pen- 
etrative and sagacious Frenchman, M. De 
Tocqueville, said that he did not believe that 
democracy was the best thing for the world, 
but that it was inevitable, and the sooner the 
crowned heads of Europe made up their 
minds to meet it, the better. The ablest 
political writers of the age — John Stuart 
Mill, Herbert Spencer, Walter Bagehot and 
a host of lesser lights — all confess that as 
civilization advances the people begin in- 
stinctively to feel for the reins of power. It 
is becoming every day more apparent that 
the monarchical governments of Europe are 
doomed to melt away like huge icebergs in 
southern seas. 

Russia, the brawny, shaggy-bearded giant 
of the North, is the last of the old despotic 
race. But every one knows that this vast 
empire is mined and only needs a spark to 
fire a train that may blow it to atoms. Of 
the limited monarchies, the most of them are 
monarchies only in form, the substance of 
power having long since leaked out of them. 
The average king' is a mere figure-head in 
the drama of affairs. A traditional respect 
clothes the royal family with a semblance of 
authority; but let there be the slightest 
rustle of an undue use of it, and it will be 
found to vanish like fairy money. The 
House which represents the popular will is 
conscious of its power and quick to resent 
the very shadow of trespass upon the 
sovereignty of the people. The caldron 
bubbles; chaos ferments. The rays on the 
horizon point to the heaven of the people. 

It should be a matter of some pride that 
the movement toward equal rights and the 
present struggle for Home-rule in England, 
the agitations in Sweden, Denmark and Rus- 
sia, and the almost general discontent in 
Spain, all point in the direction we have 
taken. There is a growing faith in Repub- 
lics. Everywhere there are indications that 
the empire of the million has begun — the 
empire of one ruler, or a select circle of 
rulers, is over. Of one thing we may rest 
assured, our country is in front of a world- 
movement which has not yet produced its 
best men, best laws and government, a 
movement that began in primordial chaos, 
and is "bounded by the Day of Judgment." 

Registered at 3. F. Post Office »» second-class mail matter. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, July 3, 1886. 


EDITORIALS.— An Important Northern Town, 1. 
The Week; What the Artists Have Done with Wash- 
ington; The Destinv of the Democratic Idea 8. The 
Sacramento Valley, 9. The Ft ll Field Fire, 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— View of Red Bluff— A Repre- 
— ill 11 1 CI Sacramento Valley Town, 1. Geo. Washing- 
ton, 8. Map Showing Portions of California Lying 
North of the Latitude of San Francisco, 9. The Sier- 
ras— Eastern Boundry of 'he Valley, 11. Sutt-r Mill, 
Where Gold was First Discovered in California, 13. 
Mount Shasta, 14. Out-Door Life in California, 15. 
Sources of Streams- Old Miners' Ditches Used for Irri- 
gation, 18. Fig. 1.— Oenrral View of the Warehouses 
of the Nevada Warehouse and Dock Company; Fig. 2— 
Cross Section of Warehouse No. 2 — Machinery End, 22 

CORRESPONDENCE.-Solano County Notes, 2. 

SHEEP AND "WOOL.— Kids With Neck Swellings, 

THE DAIRY.— A California Jersey Ranch, Warts on 

Cows' Teats, 2. 
THE GARDEN.— Testing Seeds, Etc.; Vegetables for 

Shipment, 3- 

METEOROLOGICAL.— The Climate of the Sacra- 
mento Valley, 8* 

Plan of Life Insurance; What Enterprise Orange Pro- 
poses, 4. Exhibit During the Encampment; The New 
Building at Marysville; Watsonville Grange; No Farm- 
ers' Convention, 5. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 
counties of California, 4-5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Northern California; Mag 
nolia, 6. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Joey's Fourth of 
July. 7. 

Business Announcements. 

Carriages and Wagons — Studebaker Bros. M'f'gCo. 
Agricultural Implements — Arthur W. Bull. 
Carriages and Wagons — Lowell M'f'g Co., Oakland. 
Hardware— Huntington, Hopkins & Co. 
Agricultural Implements— Truman, Isham & Hooker. 
Photographs— Hudson, Sacramento, Cal. 
Millinery— Miss A. E. Yotaw, Sacramento. 
Poultry -J. J. Jones, Martinez, Cal. 
Buhach Producing and M'f'g Co., Stockton. 
.Etna Springs— W. H Lidell, Napa Co., Cal. 
Market Street Cable Railway Com|iany. 
Pacific Grove Retreat — Monterey, Cal. 
Lands— B. N. Bugbey, Sacramento. CaL 
Fence Machine — Osborn & Alexander. 
Bowen's Academy — Berkeley, Cal. 
Swine for Sale— Room 23. 
Lands — Edwin K. Alsip & Co., Sacramento. 
Artificial Limbs -Menzo Spring. 
Real Estate — Chas. R. Parsons, Sacramento. 
Colusa Comity Bank— Colusa, Cal. 
The Studabecker Tailor Square. 
Harness— J. O'Kane. 
Port Costa Warehouse— G. W. McNcar. 
Mechanics' Institute Fair. 
Windmills — Pacific Manufacturing Co. 
Lands — De Jarnatt & Crane, Colusa, Cal. 
Lands — W. P. Harrington, Colusa, Cal 
Hopkins Academy— Oakland, Cal. 
Trinity School- Rev. E. B. Spalding. 
Suell Seminary— Oakland, Cal. 

t&'See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

This issue will reach our readers just on the 
eve of the great national holiday. As the 
Fourth falls on Sunday the formal celebration 
will be on the following day, but the small boy 
will enjoy the exceptional opportunity for cele- 
brating this year. He will begin at daybreak 
on Saturday morning, and will have the patriotic 
fervor strong upon him until the last rocket is 
fired on Monday night. The Sunday-school 
teacher may possess his body for an hour on 
Sunday, but his mind will be with the coming 
parade, and his pockets charged to the brim 
with explosives. 

The celebration in this city will be quite sub- 
dued, and will consist of literary exercises during 

as many different guises. Sometimes they 
make him a noble Roman, with a nose that 
equals the bravest of them in contour and a 
mouth as grim as a stone wall; again, they 
make him a sinister old barrister, a wily diplo- 
mat, a bespangled brigand, or a smirking 
courtier. It was long since discovered that 
every one put some of his personality, and even 
his nationality, into his work. When the work 
is picture-making, particularly portrait-making, 
the subject undergoes a denationalizing process 
and comes out, when the picture is finished, a 
countryman of the artist. This isn't a fancy; 
it's an undeniable and rather tragic fact. 

Washington has suffered this kind of trans- 
formation with greater frequency and cruelty 
than any other martyr dead or alive. He, the 
grandest American of all, the truest patriot, 
has been sent out on canvas and in marble as a 
Frenchman, a Dutchman, an Englishman, and 
every other kind of a man that he was not. In 
order to demonstrate this fact, we reproduce 
here a few of the pictures of Washington by ar- 
tists of different nationality. A bust made in 
1792 by Ceracchi, an Italian, makes an inflex- 
ible J Ionian of him, stern and grim as Cato. 
Unconsciously the Italian artist Italianized him. 
A picture by Wright, an Englishman, made in 
1790, transforms him into a haughty old 
Briton. De Brehan, a Frenchman, made a bust 
of him in 17S9, which depicts him as a French 
hero. Houdon, also French, in 1875, completed 
a Washington bust which could well be mis- 
taken as having had for its model a refined and 
elegant French scientist. In 1779 Du Simitiere 
painted a Washington portrait which is so 
blandly French that it must have astonished the 
great American patriot himself, St. Memin, in 

Its efforts are not confined to pictures of the 
same subject. From many faces it can evolve 
one that will have the beauties of all that con- 
tributed to it, and none of their defects. 

A composite photograph is made by exposing 
a plate an instant to one face, an instant to 
another, and so on, until as many impressions 
have been taken as the artists determine shall 
contribute to the composite. 

Trumbull, another American artist, painted 
Washington in 1790. He was from Connecti- 
cut, and he has made his subject a Yankee — an 
elegant Yankee, to be sure, but still a Yankee. 

Gilbert Stuart's portrait of Washington, 
painted in 1796, is the one the American public 
regard with the greatest fondness. The large 
engraving on this page is made from it. It has 
been copied oftener than any other, and has 
fastened itself on the mind of the generations 
since it was painted as the ideal Washington. 
It comes up to our conception of what he must 
have been. The features are firm and strong. 
The face is symmetrical and grand, the ex- 
pression calm and noble. The head is majestic 
enough to be cut out of granite. The painter 
was an American, and he has made Washington 
an Americau — a godlike American, what all 
might be and few are. This picture could well 
be used as a model of the perfected American. 
In the face are the strength, heroism and calm 
wisdom which distinguished the character of 
Washington . It is majestic, ennobled, grand. 

Nurserymen's Association. — A goodly num 
ber of California nurserymen met in San Fran- 
cisco last week and effected a permanent 
organization of which we will give the particu- 
lars next week. 

July 3, 1886.] 


The Sacramento Valley. 

We give herewith a map of that portion of 
the State of California lying north of an east 
and west line drawn just below the metropolis 

issue to the Sacramento valley, expecting to do 
as well hereafter for the two remaining divis- 
ions, the tier of rich coast counties on the west 
of the valley and the rapidly advancing foothill 
counties on the east. 


range extends the whole length, rising from 
4000 to 8000 feet in altitude. On the fortieth 
parallel of latitude these ranges put out connect- 
ing spurs, forming the Siskiyou or Shasta 

Between these two north and south ranges is 
the Sacramento valley, in the shape of a 
gigantic horse-shoe, with the opening to the 


Pacific Slope and in the interior basins of the 
continent, but in area, beauty and fertility the 
valley of the Sacramento excels them all. It 
was this valley that enraptured and retained 
the Spanish explorers and the devout Jesuit 
FatherB of the 16th century; that excited the 
admiration of the bold rovers of the seas in the 
17th and 18th centuries; that extorted the most 

hills and valleys. On the west, from the Golden 
Gate to the Oregon line, the Coast Range rises 
from 2000 to 5000 feet high. This range, at its 

south. This great valley presents the api 
ance of an inland basin, and was undoubtedly, 
in a former age, a vast interior lake. It is 250 

broadest base, has a width of 50 miles. In the I miles in length and 50 miles in width. There 
eastern part of this section the Sierra Nevada I are many large and beautiful valleys on the 

of San Francisco. It was our first intention to 
issue a special edition treating fully of the re- 
sources and progress of this vast and rich por- 
tion of the State, but it soon became apparent 
that the subject was too large to enable us to 
give anything more than a cursory treatment 
in a single issue. We therefore decided to di- 
vide the area and give special attention in this 

Northern California has an area of 84,000 
square miles, or more than 54,000,000 acres. 
This is an area twice the size of the " Key- 
stone " State, which has a population of 4,000,- 
000. North and south it embraces five degrees 
of latitude, and east and west three degrees of 
longitude. The northern half of the State has 
a diversified surface of mountain ranges, foot- 


fACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[July 3, 1886 

extravagant praise from the explorers and path- 
finders in the middle of this century, and that 
made the " argonauts " willing exiles from their 
childhood homes. Ask any of those wanderers 
in many countries where is the fairest land he 
has ever seen, the most genial and hospitable 
climate, the most bountiful soil and the bright- 
est skies, and where he would rather live, die 
and be buried, and he would tell you here in 
the Sacramento valley. This great basin is 
bisected through its entire length by the Sac- 
ramento river. On either side of this stream 
are wide plains that extend for miles away to 
the foothills of the Coast and Sierra Nevada 

Butte County. 

IWritten for Rural Press by C. E. Heaton.) 
Butte county has been greatly favored by 
Nature in the variety and extent of its natural 
resources. Lying partly in the Sacramento 
valley and partly on the western slope of the 
Sierras, it has a total area of 1746 Bquare miles, 
or, in other words, 1,117,440 acres. It is 
bounded on the north by Tehama county, east 
by Plumas, and south by Yuba and Sutter, 
while its western boundary is washed by the 
Sicramento river. Its greatest length from 
north to south is about 60 miles, and its great- 
est breadth, east and west; from the Sacra- 
mento to the summit of the Sierra, is nearly 50 
miles. About 550,000 acres of the county's 
area are timber lands, between 250,000 and 
300,000 acres are agricultural lands, and the 
balance mineral. The agricultural area is capa- 
ble of being greatly extended, as there is a large 
belt in the foothills containing much land val- 
uable for farming and fruit growing purposes. 
The principal industries of Butte are mining, 
farming, fruit growing, lumbering and stock rais- 
ing. The total population at the present time 
is estimated at 25,000, which is an increase of 
about 7000 since 1880. The county is a pros- 
perous one, and occupies the twelfth place in 
property rank among the 52 counties of the 

This is one of the best watered counties in 
the State. Up amid the perpetual snows of 
the Sierras, numerous streams take their rise, 
and, flowing thence to the Sacramento, inter- 
sect the county in all directions, making fruit- 
ful as a garden large tracts of agricultural land, 
furnishing water for hundreds of miles of min- 
ing ditches and lumber flumes, and affording 
excellent manufacturing facilities. Of these 
streams the largest is the famous Feather river, 
so closely connected with the early mining his- 
tory of Northern California. Its three branches, 
after forcing their way through the mountains, 
unite just above Oroville, the county seat, and 
from that point the river flows through rich al 
luvial lands to the southern boundary, 20 miles 
distant. Next in importance comes Butte 
creek, flowiDg from the northeast corner to the 
southwest corner, the entire length of the 
county. There are some rich placer mines 
along its borders in the mountains, and where 
it flows through the valley and lower foothills 
may be found the choicest fruit and vine land 
in California, a fact that is attested by the fine 
orchards and gardens lining this stream. Hon- 
cut, Chico, Mud Rock and Fine creeks, besides 
numerous other living streams, all contribute 
toward the advancement of the mining, grazing, 
agricultural and manufacturing interests. 

Climate— Rainfall. 

"What is the climate like !" As this is one 
of the first questions asked by the intending set- 
tler, and having visited at all seasons ail the 
different localities, the writer feels justified in 
stating that nearly every kind of climate or de- 
greee of temperature may be found within the 
borders of this favored county, from the, at 
times, almost tropical heat of the valley por 
tion, where the mercury sometimes stands at 
115° in summer, to the cold, bracing climate of 
the ever-frozen mountain peaks. At the town 
of Chico, near the foothills, the mean annual 
temperature is 62.46', and the mean for the 
coldest month is 45.19°, a slightly higher mean 
temperature for the year than either Ron.e or 
Madrid, and about the same mean temperature 
for the coldest month as those two cities. At 
an altitude of 2000 or 2500 feet a most delight- 
ful climate is experienced both summer and 
winter, the fall of snow at this hight never ex- 
ceeding a few inches in depth. The rainfall in 
the county averages about 24 inches annually. 


For the tourist and geologist Butte possesses 
a great many attractions, with its cozy mount- 
ain retreats, beautiful orchards and extensive 
mines. Among the objects of interest are the 
falls of Fall river, which is a clear, bold mount- 
ain stream rising in the mountains near La- 
porte and emptying into the middle fork of 
Feather river, about 18 miles above Oroville. 
The river falls in an unbroken sheet over a 
precipice between 400 and 500 feet, and striking 
on the rocks below produces a sound like volleys 
of musketry fired in rapid succession. A short 
walk of a few hundred feet from the head of the 
falls brings one to a point directly in front of 
them, where a splendid view may be obtained 
of this miniature Niagara. A cloud of mist or 

spray rises from the foot of the falls to a hight 
of 200 feet, and when the sun plays upon the 
waters the effect is very beautiful. As the 
falls are comparatively easy of access, the tour- 
ist who loves wild natural scenery will be amply 
repaid for visiting them. 

Mines and Mining. 
This is one of the most celebrated of the early 
mining counties, and has passed through all 
the exciting scenes and experienced many of 
the ups and downs of those stirring days. For 
over 30 years its mountains and hillsides have 
poured forth a steady stream of golden treas- 
ure that has gone to swell the great gold prod- 
uct of the State. Still the supply of the pre- 
'cious metals holds out, new claims are being 
constantly developed, and at the present time 
Butte is the center of some of the heaviest 
mining operations in the State. Mining is car- 
ried on chiefly by hydraulic methods, though 
some very rich quartz lodes have been discover- 
ed and worked, and many more discovered that 
yet remain to be developed; while in some lo- 
calities the old-fashioned cradle and rocker are 
still profitably used in washing out the golden 

It is reported in mining cifcles that several 
new quartz mills will be put in operation dur- 
ing the present year. The principal mining 
localities are Oroville, Cherokee (Cherokee 
Flats), Forbestown, Magalia (Dogtown), Love- 
locks, Inskip, Mountain House, Wyandotte 
and Bangor. Five miles above Cherokee the 
Big Bend Tunnel and Mining Company, of 
which R. V. Pierce, of Buffalo, is president, 
have just completed their great tunnel, which 
has occupied three years and four months in 
building, and npon which a vast amount of 
capital and labor has been expended. This 
tunnel cuts straight across the big 
bend in the main Feather river where 
it flows through Dark canyon, and is de- 
signed to lay bare the bed of that stream for 
14 miles. The tunnel is 1200 feet long, 16 feet 
wide, and 9 feet high, with much larger open- 
ings at both ends. It has a fall of 30 feet to the 
mile. A dam 16 feet high and 160 feet long is 
now being built across the river near the head 
of the tunnel. When that is completed, the en- 
tire body of water in the river will be diverted 
from its old channel and sent through the tun- 
nel, and mining operations will then commence 
in the river channel thus laid dry. This river 
bed to be mined is the bottom of an immense 
canyon, and the indications are that gold exists 
in great quantities; but, owing to the nature of 
the ground, which made it impossible to build 
wing dams or flumes, it has never been worked, 
though thousands of dollars' worth of gold have 
been taken out of the river above and below this 
section. This great work was originated by 
Major F. McLaughlin, of Oroville, to whom is 
due the credit of interesting capital in it. The 
surveys were made by ex-County Surveyor Jas. 
McGann, who at times was forced to carry on 
his work while suspended with ropes from the 
top of some high precipice. In cutting the tun- 
nel a six-foot quartz lode was struck at a depth 
of 1200 feet below the surface, besides many 
smaller ones. It is said that the company will 
not work these lodes until the river bed is mined 
out, unless during high water in winter when 
the river can be turned back into its old chan- 
nel, while the quartz lodes are being worked. 
Besides gold, nearly all the valuable minerals 
have been found in this county, and many of 
the precious stones, the latter being mostly dia- 
monds, found at Cherokee Flats. These are 
small, and generally range in value from $10 
to $50 each, though some of much greater 
value have been unearthed. 


Nearly every kind of soil is found in the 
county, ranging from black adobe to red, 
gravelly, and sandy tracts. The western or 
valley portion embraces nearly 200,000 acres of 
fine level land, a large body of which is rich 
alluvial, and produces large crops of grain every 

The Principal Productions. 

The principal cereals are extensively raised, 
as the following statistics will show: To afford 
a comparison, we give the figures both for the 
years 1880 and 1884. In the former year there 
was cultivated 127,189 acres of wheat, which 
yielded 2,244,770 bushels; 23,288 acres of bar- 
ley yielding 516,474 bushels, and 1325 acres of 
corn that produced 31,210 bushels, which 
placed Butte for that year third on the list of 
wheat-growing counties. In 18S4 there was 
sown to wheat 123,715 acres, which produced 
2,227,500 bushels, 49,500 acres devoted to bar- 
ley, yielding 1,485,000 bushels, and 11,000 
acres sown in oats, yielding 330,000 bushels, 
while corn was planted on 950 acres which pro- 
duced 30,600 bushels. 

Among the other crops are included hay, rye, 
broom corn, alfalfa, and fruit and vegetables of 
every description. 

The Fruit Interests -Orange Culture. 
Fruit-growing, including orange, lemon and 
olive culture, is making rapid strides in this 
county, and is destined in the future to prove 
the principal source of wealth, the horticultural 
resources being practically unlimited. Aside 
from the great belt of land in the foothills 
adapted to fruit-growing, all that part of the 
county lying in the Sacramento valley proper 
is capable, with the well-adapted climate, of 
producing profitably and successfully all the 
products of the temperate and semi-tropical 
countries. Here are to be found the principal 
orchards and vineyards, the largest fruit-grower 

being Gen. John Bidwell, proprietor of the 
famous Rancho Chico Orchards, the fruit from 
which has an excellent reputation in the San 
Francisco and Eastern markets. During 1885 
there was an increase in the area planted in 
fruit trees, berries and vines in the county of 
about 3000 acres; while, for the present year, 
tree planting has been especially active. The 
cultivation of citrus fruits is receiving a great 
deal of attention. It is estimated that there 
are 1500 bearing orange trees in the county and 
as many more to come into bearing within two 
years. An association was formed during the 
past winter and a tract of land purchased in the 
foothills near Oroville, which was cleared of 
brush and planted with 3000 orange trees; 
while it is estimated that as many more were 
planted in other places by private parties. 
Oranges begin to ripen in November and are in 
shipping condition the last of the following 
month. It is claimed that acclimated fruits 
(seedlings) thrive the best and are not affected 
by frosts. The oldest orange tree in the county 
is one that was planted in 1859 at Bidwell's 
Bar, a famous old, abandoned mining camp on 
the Feather river, eight miles above Oroville, 
but where some of the best fruit in the county 
is now raised. Most of the seedling orange 
trees in the county sprung from this tree, 
which came from Acapulco, and has borne 
fruit for 20 years. The native or seedling 
orange trees bear at ages varying from 7 to 
12 years, though some have been known to 
produce fruit at the age of five and six years. 
For many varieties of fruit the foothill region 
is the true home; here, on the sunny slopes 
and in the warm, sheltered little valleys, the 
orange, lemon, lime, olive and Japanese per- 
simmon all thrive better than on the open plain, 
while the wine and raisin grape grow to per- 
fection. The olive flourishes at an altitude of 
1500 feet and the orange at 1000 feet, while 
peaches, pears, plums, cherries, figs, quinces, 
berries and vegetables of all kinds grow luxu- 
riantly at an altitude of from 1500 to 3000 feet. 
Apples thrive well at this and much higher 
elevations, and are of a finer flavor and much 
more juicy than when grown in the valley. 
Though irrigation is not considered absolutely 
necessary in fruit-raising in this county, it has 
been found a great aid in many places, many of 
the old mining ditches being drawn on for this 

Forests— Lumber Manufacture. 

The timber of the foothills, from the edge of 
the valley to the altitude of 2000 feet, consists 
mostly of oak and digger pine, and is valuable 
only for firewood. From that point to the 
summit the mountains are densely covered 
with fine qualities of sugar pine, pitch pine, 
yellow pine, fir, spruce and cedar. There are 
about a dozen large saw mills in the county, 
and 10,000,000 feet of lumber is manufactured 
annually. Six hundred carloads were shipped 
from Butte in 1885. A large number of men 
and teams are kept busily employed during the 
summer months, hauling supplies to the saw 
mills in the mountains, and transporting lum 
ber to the valley. Common lumber, such as is 
used for fencing, generally sells for $10 per M 
at the mills, and about $1S per M in the val- 

A large force of men scattered throughout the 
mountains are engaged in making shakes. 
These, when of fair quality and put up in 
bunches, sell for about $5 per M in the mount- 
ains and about $9 per M in the valley. 

Live Stock. 

Stock-raising is profitably and extensively 
engaged in; the number of live stock in the 
county being estimated as follows: 100,000 
sheep, 25,000 hogs, 17.0C0 head of horned cat- 
tle, 10,000 horses and 2000 mules. 

The dairy business is also of considerable im- 
portance, and is a paying industry. 

Railroads -Communication. 

The California & Oregon Railroad extends 
lengthwise through the county, running 
through the valley portion, and the California 
Northern, starting from Marysville and pro- 
ceeding north, extends for about 20 miles up 
into the southern part of the county, following 
the general course of the Feather river on the 
east side, to Oroville, the present terminus. 
This is one of the oldest lines in the State, and 
but one fatal accident has ever occurred upon 
it. Considerable traffic is also carried on by 
the Sacramento river. In addition to these 
lines of travel, four splendid stage roads lead 
over the mountains into Piumas and Sierra 
counties, with which a large trade is carried on. 

The principal towns and villages are Chico, 
Oroville, Cherokee, Biggs, Gridley, Nelson, 
Durham, Dayton, Magalia (Dogtown), Moores 
and Live Oak. 

Chico— A Beautiful City. 

Chico is a flourishing young city of about 
6000 inhabitants, situated on the C. & O'. R. R., 
in the northwestern part of the county, close to 
the foothills, and a few miles east of the Sacra- 
mento river. It is about 100 miles north of 
Sacramento City, and is frequently spoken of by 
visitors as the garden city of Northern Cali- 
fornia. The rich, level farming country sur- 
rounding the town is dotted with widespread- 
ing oaks of noble proportions, many of them 
showing great age. This is one of the best 
shaded towns in the State. Its streets are 
wide and regular, and one may stroll for hours 
along the well-kept avenues lined with beauti- 
ful shade trees, without being exposed to the 
rays of the sun. Elegant private residences, 

set in the midst of tastefully-arranged lawns 
and gardens, and pretty little vine-covered oot- 
tages, are to be seen on all sides, while an attract- 
ive feature of the place is a handsome little 
park, occupying a square in the center of the 
town. Chico creek, a clear, cool stream from 
which the town takes its name, flows through 
the place; and Recreation Park, Bidwell's Park, 
and other fine groves in the suburbs, con- 
tribute to the beauty of the surroundings. 
The town has well-equipped gas works and 
water works, and an effort is being made to place 
electric lights on some of the main streets. The 
press is well represented by several live weekly 
and daily newspapers. Chico is noted for the 
large number and variety of its well-filled 
stores and the many different business estab- 
lishments. The High School building, a fine 
brick structure, the different private schools, 
and the several large churches, show that edu- 
cational and religious matters are not neglected. 

The new opera house, the commodious public 
halls, the many hotels and restaurants, and the 
elegant equipages seen on the streets, give the 
place quite a metropolitan appearance. Chico 
has two solid banks — the Bank of Butte County 
and the Bank of Chico. Both are located in 
fine brick blocks on opposite corners of Broad- 
way and Second street. The former has a 
capital of $250,000, with a surplus of about $24,- 
000. N. D. Rideout, the well-known banker of 
Northern California, i - president, and Charles 
Faulkner cashier. The Bank of Chico, organized 
in 1872, has a paid-up capital of $100,000, and a 
surplus of $30,000. W. D. Heath is president, 
and Alex. Crew cashier. Both banks carry on 
a general banking business, and buy and sell ex- 
change on all the principal cities of the United 
States. Among the manufactories are included 
planing mills, box factories, foundries, brewer- 
ies, soda works, carriage and harness factories, 
and two large roller flour mills fitted with 
the latest improved machinery. On the east 
side of town is situated the extensive lumber 
yard and planing mills of the Sierra Flume and 
Lumber Company, whose great V-shaped flume 
extends for 40 miles up into the tine timber belt 
of the Sierras. The company manufacture ex- 
tensively sash, doors and blinds of all kinds, and 
give employment to a large force of men. The 
immense lumber yard, embracing 15 acres, is 
filled with lumber and building material of 
every description. A side track from the rail- 
road, running through the yard, affords excellent 
shipping facilities. Chico has lines of stages 
running to Oroville, Prattville (Big Meadows), 
Cherokee, Deadwood, Colusa, and to Newville, 
Colusa county, by way of St. Johns and Orland. 

Rancho Chico. 

Adjoining Chico on the northwest side is 
General John Bidwell's princely estate, the fa- 
mous Rancho Chico, which embraces over 20,- 
000 acres of the most fertile land, and is noted 
for the great variety of its productions. Here 
are to be seen miles and miles of beautiful 
avenues, lined with stately trees laden with the 
choicest fruits of "many different climes; north- 
ern and tropical trees and plants flourishing 
side by side. One famous fig tree on the ranch 
never fails to attract the attention of visitors. 
It was planted in 1856. and has attained a mar- 
velous growth. One foot above the ground the 
trunk measures 1 1 feet in circumference; the 
wide-spreading branches have been trained 
toward the ground, and taking root there, ban- 
yan-like, they now form a wonderful inclosure 
over 150 feet in diameter. The tree is loaded 
every year, and has produced tons and tons of 
figs. A short distance in the rear of the Gen- 
eral's residence is a pretty little deer park, which 
adds much to the beauty of the grounds. Chico 
creek flows through the ranch, and irrigating 
ditches run in all directions. On the estate is 
a flour mill, a fruit cannery, a dairy, and 
numerous hothouses, fruit-driers, packing- 
houses, etc. A enrious feature of the place is 
the large Indian rancherie situated on the back 
part of the ranch. The dusky inhabitants of 
this village live very contented lives here in 
their primitive fashion, and fare much better 
than their brethren in many other parts of the 
State. They are wedded to many of their old 
customs and traditions and have an immense 
sweat-house, in which, at certain times, they 
hold their usual orgies and go through the 
famous melting process. A brass band, com- 
posed of about a dozen of the younger bucks, is 
much in demand at picnics and outdoor celebra- 
tions. Many of the Indians fiud profitable em- 
ployment on the ranch and prove valuable help 
during the fruit gathering season. The pros- 
perity of Chico would be further advanced by 
the subdivision into small farms of several large 
tracts of land in this vicinity now held by a few 
persons. The Reavis ranch, the Pratt grant 
and the Parrott grant include immense tracts 
of land of more than ordinary fertility, which 
at present is almost exclusively devoted to 
wheat-raising on a large scale, but should be 
divided into 20 and 40-acre plots and set out in 
fruit trees and vines. It is estimated that in 
this county there are 102 land-owners whose 
holdings vary from 1000 acres to 116,000 acres 
each. That these large tracts will in the near 
future be subdivided and sold off in small-sized 
farms seems very probable, as the land must 
soon become too valuable for farming by the 
present methods. 

Oroville— Its Surroundings. 

Oroville, the county seat, is situated just in 
the edge of the foothills, on the right bank of 
the Feather river, and is the terminus of the 
C. N. R. R. It was born in the flush and ex- 
citing times of the early mining days, and was 

July 3, 1886.] 

fACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

originally called Ophir, a most appropriate name, 
and one suggestive of the fabulous wealth of 
precious metals which have literally been taken 
out of the earth in this vicinity. The town 
contains a population of about 3000, and is very 
advantageously located as a trade center and 
distributing point of supplies for the mountain 
localities. Stretching away to the south and 
east is a fine farming country; while in the 
foothills in the vicinity extensive mining oper- 
ations are carried on. The town has splendid 
gas works and water works. The water sup- 
ply — it is claimed by the citizens — is the best 
in this part of the State. The court house and 
the county hospital are fine large buildings; 
the former was erected at a cost of $25,000, I 

has for its mines in the past. Already there 
are 700 bearing orange trees in the place, be- 
sides hundreds of others more recently planted, 
many having been set out the past season. 
Handsome residences, surrounded by beautiful 
gardens in which the orange, lemon, lime, 
pomegranate and Japanese persimmon flourish 
side by side, now charm and astonish the trav- 
eling visitor who has heard of Oroville chiefly 
as a mining town. All through the foothills 
the same fact is being demonstrated, that the 
old mining localities generally possess the soil 
and climate especially adapted to fruit-growing. 
Reliable information in regard to real estate in 
this section may be obtained from Judge J. P. 
Leonard, real estate agent, who has been estab- 

mining is carried on. The town contains sev- 
eral hotels and saloons, two stores, a number 
of shops, several public halls and a fine school- 
house. The population numbers about 800. 
The Spring Valley Company, an English cor- 
poration, owns the principal mine here, and at 
present is employing more men than ever be- 
fore. The mining is mostly heavy hydraulic, 
and several hydraulic chiefs are kept at work 
both day and night, electric lights, placed on 
tall masts, being used to mine by at night. 
This mine has paid its millions. The 
company has about 80 miles of ditches and 
six miles of iron pipe leading to the mine. 
The water supply is gathered in two h rge res- 
ervoirs in the mountains, one near the summit 


and is well arranged in all the different depart- 
ments. The town has first-class hotel accommo- 
dations and boasts some conspicuous buildings. 
Business in all its different branches is well 
represented. Rideout, Smith & Company — 
established since 1866 — have a bank here and 
conduct an extensive general banking business. 
Among the manufacturing industries is a fine 
four-story roller flour mill, with a capacity of 
150 barrels of flour per day. The press is ably 
represented by the Mercury and Register, two 
papers that have contributed greatly toward 
the development of the resources of the county. 
To the editor of the latter paper, S. S. Boynton, 
is due the honor of having originated the 
Northern California Citrus Fair, which has so 
thoroughly demonstrated the fact that North- 
ern California is the home of the citrus family 
of fruits. Oroville bids fair to become as 
famous for its orange groves in the future as it 

lsbed here for 30 years. Oroville claims the 
distinction of having been the home, at the 
time of his election, of ex-Governor Geo. C. 
Perkins, who first embarked in business here 
away back in the fifties. He still retains valu- 
able interests at this place, being connected 
with his brother, D. K. Perkins, in an exten- 
sive wholesale and retail business under the 
firm name of Perkins & Company. Oroville is 
connected by stage with Chico, Quincy, Pratt- 
ville, Laporte, Cherokee, Dogtown and inter- 
mediate points. 

Cherokee— Great Gold Mines. 

Twelve miles north of Oroville is the impor- 
tant town of Cherokee, better known as Chero- 
kee Flats, the center of the heaviest mining 
operations in Butte. The town is not a hand- 
some one, as it stretches in one street for nearly 
a mile along the side of a canyon in which the 

and one at Concow valley; the latter 
is - two miles long by half a 'mile wide. 
The supply of water at the mine is between 
2000 and 3000 inches daily. Hundreds of 
thousands of dollars have been expended on 
the ditches and reservoirs. The tailings from 
the mine [run down the canyon and empty into 
the valley along Dry creek, about two miles 
below this place. As many of the farms along 
Dry creek were being covered up by L the tail- 
ings, the company was obliged to purchase 
them, and also to build expensive levees along 
the creek, which has necessitated an outlay of 
over half a million dollars, but has secured to 
the company perpetual dumping grounds with- 
out violating the law against hydraulio mining. 


Lying' just in the edge of the valley, about 
two miles below Cherokee, in the midst of a 

perfect labyrinth of mining and irrigating 
ditches, pipes and flumes, is the little village 
of Pentz, named after the late W. Pentz, a 
pioneer of Butte, and long proprietor of the 
well-known Pentz ranch and hotel, one of the 
finest farms and most popular hostelries in the 

There are some fine orchards and vineyards 
in this vicinity, some of the fruit having secur- 
ed prizes at the Sicramento Citrus Fair. The 
Flee Valley and Rock Creek Lumber Co. have 
a yard and planing mill here, and conduct an 
extensive business. The saw mills are situated 
in the mountains at Rock Creek and Flee Val- 
ley, about 25 miles distant, and the lumber is 
shipped to this place by means of a V-shaped 

Gridley- A'Growing Town. 

Situated on the C. & O. R. R. , a few miles 
from the southern boundary, in the midst of 
beautiful groves of live oaks, is the enterpris- 
ing town of Gridley. It contains about 800 in- 
habitants, is surrounded by a wealthy farming 
community, and is a great grain center. The 
town is well built up and boasts a weekly pa- 
per, a bank, a fine public school building and 
several churches. There are large grain ware- 
houses, hotels, livery stables, and several first- 
class general merchandise stores, a well-stocked 
hardware store, and a well-filled lumber yard, 
besides several mechanics' shops. A fine roller 
flour mill, with a capacity of from 200 to 300 
barrels per day, a planing mill, and a broom 
factory, are among the manufacturing indus- 
tries. The broom factory has a large trade 
throughout the northern counties, the broom- 
corn used being raised at this place. A. splen- 
did one-span wagon bridge, built at a cost of 
118,000, to which the town contributed $10,- 
000, spans Feather river near the town. Grid- 
ley has long been known as a wide-awake town. 
It has many natural advantages, its people are 
enterprising, and its future certainly looks 

In and Around Biggs. 
Biggs is a thriving place, and claims to be 
the third town in importance in the county. It 
is located on the railroad about seven miles 
north of Gridley. The town contains about 
1000 inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated on 
the open plain about midway between the Fea- 
ther river on one side and Butte creek on 
the other. To the east of town the soil is 
red loam, and to the west it is black adebe. 
Good crops are the usual result of farming in 
this section. The town contains some mam- 
moth grain warehouses, two large hotels, 
several well-filled stores and mechanics' shops 
of different kinds. There is a weekly paper, a 
bank and a fiue two-story brick public school 
building, in which four teachers are employed. 
Several religious denominations have places of 
worship and some of the fraternal societies are 
represented. Biggs also has a system of water 
works, with pipes laid throughout the town. 
The citizens have long wanted a flour mill, and, 
considering the large amount of wheat raised in 
this section, there would seem to be a fine 
opening for one here. 

Other Towns. 

Nelson is a prosperous little town on the 
same railroad, ten miles north of Biggs. It lies 
in the richest part of the valley, is a shipping 
point for an immense amount of wheat and 
boasts of one of the handsomest public school 
buildings in the county. 

Next comes the village of Durham, located 
on the railroad seven miles south of Chico. It 
has the usual store, hotel, siloon, blacksmith 
shop, etc. Like the other towns on this road, 
it is an important shipping point 'for grain and 
derives additional importance from its fine 
steam flour mill, which is the means of drawing 
a large trade to the town. 

.Nord, Dayton, Moores and Live Oak are 
small towns and important fruit and grain 
centers in other parts of the valley. Center- 
ville, Digtown, Nimshew, Lovelocks, Pow* 11- 
ton, Forbestown, D^adwood, Yankee Hill and 
Mountain House are important mountain vil- 
lages in the mining and lumber districts. Ac- 
cording to a late repoit Butte has 78 school 
districts, maintains 98 schools and has 4083 
school census childr,n; 500 miles of mining 
ditches, 125 miles of telegraph lines and 150 
miles of telephone lines. The assessed value 
of property of all kind3 in the couutv in 1885 
was $17,066,271, an increase of $4,178,177 
since 1880. In the mountains thore is some 
Government land yet remaining subject to 
location, much of it adapted to fruit growing, 
but from which the brush and trees must rirtt 
be cleared before it can be brought under 
cultivation. Land adapted to farming and 
fruit growing can be purchased all the way from 
$12 per acre for partly cleared foothill land to 
$50 and $100 per acre for rich valley land, such 
as is now offered for sale in the vicinity of 
Gridley and Biggs. Butte county is easy of 
access, and to parties seeking homes in Califor- 
nia we say, pay it a visit and carefully examine 
its resources and attractions. 

The Water of Trees. — In the latitude of 
New York, Fruf. P. D. Penhallow has found 
the[proportion of water in trees and shrubs to 
vary according to these general laws: 1. The 
water in woody plants is not constant for all 
seasons, and depends upon conditions of 
growth. 2. It is in greatest amount late in May 
or early in June, and least in January. 3. It 
is in greatest proportion in the sap wood; 
least in that which is older. 4. When plants 
grow most rapidly they have most water. 



[Jdly 3, 1886 

Colusa County. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss by Chas. E. IIbatox.] 
Colusa, the banner grain county of Califor- 
nia, embraces an area of about 1,800,000 acres, 
and includes within its borders nearly one-fifth 
of the great Sacramento valley. It extends 
from the river of that name on the east to the 
summit of the Coast Kange on the west, a dis- 
tance of over 45 miles ; while its length from 
north to south is just 60 miles. About three- 
fourths of the county's area is adapted to agri 
culture ; the balance is mountainous, but valu- 
able for its timber and stock ranges. The 
population numbers about 15,000, but when the 
great ranches — many of which contain from 
5000 to '25,000 acres — are subdivided into mod- 
erate sized farms, and diversified farming takes 
the place of wheat growing, this county, with 
its generous soil and great natural resources, 
can easily support a population of from 150,000 
to 200,000. A healthy movement has already 
set in in this direction. Besides several private 
sales, two organized land sales have recently 
taken place. The Northern Immigration socie- 
ties are aiding the matter, and fresh stimulus has 
been added by the recent citrus fairs held at 
Sacramento and San Francisco, which have 
demonstrated conclusively the wonderful re- 
sources of the northern counties. 

Rivers and Creeks. 

The Sacramento river, which forms most of 
the eastern boundary, is, in this county, a clear, 
deep stream, unaffected by mining debris, and 
has an average width of 350 feet. It is naviga- 
ble to the north-east corner of the county by 
steam barges carrying about 300 tons of freight, 
and by boats of lighter draught as far north as 
Red Bluff. The land parallel with the river on 
both sides, for some miles in width, is a rich, 
dark alluvial, and will produce anything that 
can be grown in any part of the State. Oak, 
sycamore, ash, Cottonwood, and willows grow 
in abundance along the river banks, forming a 
serpentine path of green through the center 
of the plains. 

Stony creek, a valuable stream taking its 
rise in the Coast Range, and flowing through 
the northern end of the county, empties into 
the Sacramento IS miles east of Orland. A few 
miles back from its mouth it goes dry during 
the latter part of the summer, but in winter, 
where it flows thmuch the plains, is a rapid 
stream, from 800 to 1000 feet wide, and from 
8 to 1*2 feet deep. Great quantities of fish come 
up the creek in winter time and are easily 
caught with a seine. There are some beautiful, 
fertile valleys along this stream in the mount- 
ains. There are a number of smaller creeks — 
all dry in summer — which empty into the plains, 
and do not reach the river. The valley is 
therefore constantly enriched with the deposits 
from the rich wash of the hills. 


Irrigation has not been much resorted to in 
this county, because, as a rule, it has not been 
needed. Recently, however, the subject has 
begun to attract a great deal of attention. Two 
companies have been formed and two large 
canals have already been surveyed to tap the 
Sacramento and Stony creek, and will, if com- 
pleted, supply water to a large body of land 
and greatly aid in diversifying the crops. The 
Cheney Slough Canal Company, besides a few 
individuals, have the only ditches at present 
in operation. This company irrigate about 
5000 acres in the lower part of the county, the 
water being taken from the river in large iron 
pipes. Experiments are also being catried on 
with a monster steam pump. At a recent test 
in pumping, three minutes after beginning with 
60 pounds of steam the flow averaged '25,000 
gallons a minute. As water can be found any 
place on the plains at a depth of 10 to 20 feet, 
this will no doubt prove a success. 

Development of Wheat-growing. 

Agriculture made but little progress in this 
county until 1870; previous to that time stock- 
raising was the chief industry and there were 
but a few scanty settlements west of the Sacra- 
mento river. From that date settlers began to 
arrive in greater numbers; the profits of wheat- 
growing began to be understood, farming oper- 
ations were extended over the plains, the stock 
law followed in 1873, Colusa county rapidly ad- 
vanced as a grain-growing locality, and in 1876 
exported wheat to the value of $4, 500,000. 
The cereal crop continued steadily to gain in 
importance until 1884, when the yield of wheat 
reached nearly 10,000,000 bushels, and barley 
over 2.000,000 bushels, this gieat crop 
making Colusa the banner grain county of the 
State. For sevc ral years so great was the fer- 
tility of the virgin soil that large crops were 
raised by winter-sowing and volunteer. This 
method has since given place to summer- 
fallowing, which is found to insure the best 
crops, except along the river and bottom lands, 
where the soil, being a rich alluvial, is sown 
with grain every year. 

Stock: Raising 
Is still a prominent interest in this county, fol- 
lowed mostly in the mountainous and hilly por- 
tions, where the raising of sheep, cattle and 
hogs is profitably engaged in, and the breeding 
of Angora goats has been successfully pursued. 

The poultry business is beginning to receive a 
great deal of attention in this county, as it is 
attended with much profit and success. 

Fruit and Viticulture. 

Fruit and viticulture, though as yet in its in- 
fanoy in this county, is destined in the near 
future to become a leading industry. With 
wheat selling at from §150 to $2.25 per ctl., 
other branches of husbandry received little at- 
tention, but the decline in the price of this ce- 
real during the last few years has led to much 
study and many experiments, and though mat- 
ters have not been greatly changed so far, 
enough has been accomplished to show that the 
large tracts of land that have for years been 
used exclusively for grain raising are also won 
derfully productive in growing many varieties 
of fruit, either with or without irrigation, 
though the former is generally accepted as the 
method calculated to insure the best results. 
Peaches, pears, apricots, plums, figs, grapes, 
berries, and nut fruits, all seem specially adapted 
to the soil and climate in the different sections 
of the county. Apples find their true home in 
the belt along the foot of the mountains, where 
they attain a fine flavor. Citrus fruits have 
been experimented with, and some fine speci- 
mens raised both on the plains and in the lower 
foothills. Some of the older settlers along the 
river and the different streams in the county have 
small family orchards that have yielded fruit 
which can scarcely be surpassed in quality ; 
peaches weighing nearly one pound each, plums 
as large as eggs, and watermelons that would 
fill a large washtub, have been raised. 


The winters in the valley are mild, ice sel- 
dom forming a quarter of an inch thick. The 
thermometer during July and August, the hot- 
test months, averages about 100*, sometimes 
showing 116°; but as there is generally a breeze 
stirring, outdoor work seldom has to be stop- 
ped on account of the heat, and sunstrokes are 
almost unknown; while the nights are generally 
cool and pleasant. A day's drive through 
grand scenery will take the traveler to the 
cool, bracing climate of the mountains, where, 
after harvest, scores of ranchers with their 
families may be found enjoying a brief holiday 
amid the tall pines of these glorious camping 
grounds. Here deer, bear and lesser game are 
plentiful; while in the numerous ice-cold 
streams the mountain trout disport themselves. 
The average annual rainfall is about 20 inches. 

Timber Resources. 

The eastern slope of the Coast Range is 
thickly covered with good qualities of pine 
timber, but little of which has been utilized, 
there being only one or two saw mills of small 
capacity hi the county; but with the increase 
in population and value of the timber lands the 
day is not far distant when the lumber business 
of Colusa county will become an important in- 
dustry. The middle range of the foothills is 
also thickly studded with oak timber, which 
furnishes fuel at reasonable rates to the inhabit- 
ants of the valley. 


The discovery of gold on Sulphur creek in 
the southwestern part of the county, a number 
of years ago, and the experiments carried on 
since then, has lately developed into a mining 
excitement of considerable importance, by the 
additional discovery of large quantities of gold- 
bearing quartz along this creek, assaying from 
$100 to $150 per ton. A ten-stamp mill has 
already been put in operation, and a San Fran- 
cisco and New York company, who have pur- 
chased several claims along the creek, have 
lately shipped to the mines 120,000 worth of 
machinery for a new quartz mill now being 
erected. Quicksilver, iron, copper and chrome 
mines have been discovered, but have not been 
worked to any extent, though the deposits of 
all exist in considerable quantities. 

Mineral Springs. 

There are many valuable mineral springs in 
this part of the county, that are growing in pop 
ularity each year, as their healing qualities be- 
come known. Among them are Wilbur's Hot 
Sulphur Springs, on Sulphur creek — which have 
obtained a favorable reputation as a cure for 
rheumatic and other complaints — Cook's and 
Fout's Springs, in the vicinity of Bear valley, 
and Hough's Springs, the latter near the Lake 
county line, and but a short distance from the 
famous Allen and Bartlett Springs, most of the 
travel to which passes through this place. The 
location is a beautiful wooded slope at an alti- 
tude of about 1500 feet. A large hotel and a 
number of neat cottages have been erected at 
this place, and the grounds laid off in a tasteful 

The County Seat. 

Colusa, the county Beat, is situated in the 
midst of oak trees, on the west bank of the Sac- 
ramento, in the southeastern part of the county. 
It is surrounded by a rich farming country, and 
has a population of between 2000 and 3000. The 
county buildings, consisting of the courthouse, 
jail, hospital, and new hall of records, are sub- 
stantial buildings, having an estimated aggre- 
gate value of $75,000. The town contains a 
large flour mill, extensive lumber yards, a num- 
ber of business houses, and a bank with a paid- 
up capital of $500,000. The Colusa Sun is a 
weekly paper edited by W. S. Green, and is 
known as one of the leading Democratic papers 
of the State. All the trades and professions 
are well represented. A fine wagon bridge 
spans the river at this point, connecting the 
county seat with a small but rich portion of 
the county lying between the river and Butte 
creek, a stream entering the river a few miles 
below Colusa. Lines of daily stages run to 

Marysville, Chico, Williams, and other points. 
A narrow gauge railroad, nearing completion, 
is now being built from Colusa to connect with 
the Northern railroad at a point near Williams. 
It is rumored that it will be extended westward 
from that town through the hills to Bartlett 
Springs, via Antelope and Bear valleys. Jacinto 
and St. Johns, at the mouth of Stony creek, are 
river towns in the northern part of the county. 
The former is situated upon the great Glenn es- 
tate which fronts for 20 miles along the river, 
and has become widely known as the largest 
wheat farm in the world. Expensive wagon 
bridges have been constructed across both stream s 
near the latter town, and in its vicinity some 
fine oranges have been grown. 

The Northern Railroad, 

Which was completed through the county in 
the fall of 1882, enters the southern end of the 
county near the foothills, and, gradually moving 
out in the valley, crosses the northern bound- 
ary about midway between the river and foot- 
hills. It becomes merged in the California & 
Oregon road at Tehama, and on the completion 
of this line will be the direct route, by rail, 
from San Francisco to Oregon and Washington 
Territory. A number of prosperous towns, all 
founded since 1877, have sprung up along the 
railroad. Beginning with College City and Ar- 
buckle on the south, the others, following in 
the order named, are Berlin, Williams, Max- 
well, Willows, Germantown and Orland. 

A Model Town. 

College City is a flourishing town of 500 in- 
habitants, three miles to the east of Arbuckle. 
It is the seat of Pierce Christian College, an in- 
stitution that has greatly advanced the cause of 
education in this county. It is a pretty little 
place, and is the model town of the county, 
there being no saloon allowed or liquor sold 
within two miles of the college. Stages con- 
nect with all trains at Arbuckle, which is a 
somewhat smaller town, and divides with Col- 
lege City the trade of this rich section of 


Williams is an important town, 12 miles west 
of the county seat. It contains a large brick 
public school building, several stores, a well- 
equipped flour mill, and foundry, and supports 
a weekly paper, the Review, which is ably 
edited and devoted to local interests. Several 
stage lines converge here, this being the chief 
distributing point for tourists for Allen and 
Bartlett Springs and the different health re- 
sorts in this county. During the summer 
months the big six-horse Concord Btagee, rolling 
in and out of town, give the place a very bust- 
ling, business-like appearance. 


Maxwell is ten miles from Williams, and 
something of a rival of that place; and, like the 
latter town, has been greatly retarded in its 
growth by several destructive fires. It boasts a 
weekly paper, and is a shipping point for a 
large amount of grain. It is but a few miles 
from the foothills, and is surrounded by a 
country well adapted to fruit growing. 

An Ambitious Young City. 

Willows is a newly-incorporated city of 
about 1200 inhabitants, and one of the most 
enterprising towns of Northern California. It 
was for some years the terminus of the rail- 
road, and enjoyed, almost from its foundation, 
an excellent degree of prosperity. The town 
contains several large warehouses, fine railroad 
buildings, a number of handsome brick business 
blocks, a bank, and one of the largest and best 
equipped hotels in the county. Two weekly 
papers are published, the Journal and Demo 
crat. There is a public school of four depart- 
ments, several fine churches and some costly 
residences. The business portion of the town 
has several times been destroyed by fire ; but in 
every instance the ruins had not fairly quit 
smoking before new buildings were in course of 

Germantown, the center of a wealthy colony 
of Germans, is the next place on the railroad. 
Eppinger * Co., of San Francisco and Dixon, 
have a branch house here and conduct one of 
the largest general merchandise stores in the 
county. The town contains a brewery and 
several mechanics' shops. 

In and Around Orland. 

Last comes Orland, situated half a mile south 
of Stony creek and close to the low undulating 
hills which terminate six miles west of town in 
the black buttes, a number of lofty promonto- 
ries, from whose rocky summits a splendid view 
is obtained of the whole valley. It is a lively 
town of 900 inhabitants, and is the center of a 
populous farming country. The town is gener- 
ously laid out; the lots are large, and the 
streets wide and regular; and, as the north- 
ern end of the county possesses some of the 
best natural roads in the State, the location is 
all that could be desired. A long wagon bridge, 
constructed at a cost of $13,000, spans Stony 
creek, directly north of town. The railroad 
also crosses the creek near the same point. A 
tri -weekly stage, running from Chico, Butte 
county, to Newville, near the foot of the mount- 
ains, stops at Orland; distance to each place, 
about 20 miles. All branches of trade are well 
represented. There are several conspicuous 
buildings, among them the large warehouse of 
Logan, De Pue & Co., 50x750 feet, laid through- 
out with a concrete floor; the new public school 
building, costing $6000; the Roman Catholic 

church, and the Orland college, a two-story 
brick building, located in the center of the col- 
lege addition, a plot of 40 acres adjoining the 
town on the east side. This latter institution 
has only been a short time in existence, but is 
steadily growing in favor. The Times is a 
weekly newspaper, well patronized. Like most 
of the other towns on the railroad, Orland has 
several times suffered severely from fire. A 
large flour mill, built at a cost of $25,000, was 
burned a few years ago, together with a large 
amount of grain. The insurance was very light, 
and other difficulties arising it has never been 
rebuilt. It was paying handsomely at the 
time. There are no other mills within many 
miles, and a milling business equaled by few 
in the State certainly awaits any man who 
should erect a good flour mill at Orland. 

This is the only railroad town in the county 
possessing a natural park, a large oak grove on 
Stony creek being used for that purpose, and is 
the popular resort for picnics and national 
celebrations. Good fruit and vine lands, within 
four miles of town, are offered for sale at $15 
and $20 per acre. A preliminary survey has 
just been completed, looking to the construc- 
tion of a narrow gauge railroad from Orland via 
African Valley and Newville, to the foot of the 
mountains, there to connect with the Round 
Valley wagon road from Mendocino county. 
There are several other small towns in different 
parts of the county, of more or less importance 
as trade centers and shipping points. The 
price of land ranges from $10 to $50 per acre, 
according to quality and location. A great 
deal of land is rented for grain-growing, the 
renters paying from one-fourth to one-third of 
the crop in the sack. There are no Govern- 
ment lands subject to location, except a few 
mountain ranges. The assessed value of prop- 
erty of all kinds, according to the assessment 
roll of 18S5, is $21,560,786, an increase of over 
$9,000,000 since 1878. The tax rate is $1.35 
on the $100. The county is out of debt and 
stands eighth on the list in property rank. 


Sacramento City and County. 

[Compiled for the Pacific Rural Press. 1 

Sacramento, California's capital — the Queen 
City of the Plains— is situated on the west 
bank of the Sicramento river, the principal 
stream of the State, and is the most centrally 
located city in California. The site is level, 
and broad thoroughfares, 80 feet in width, 
numbered one way and named alphabetically 
the other, traverse the city. Not only is Sac- 
ramento one of the most beautiful, but statistics 
prove it to be one of the most healthful, cities 
in the civilized world. The climate is equable 
and agreeable, averaging about 60* the year 
round. Tropical trees and plants flourish, 
and the orange, the pomegranate and the al- 
mond may be seen growing in gardens which 
are in perennial green. A very _ large propor- 
tion of the population own their own homes, 
and seem to vie with each other in perfecting 
the beauty of their surroundings. No house is 
too humble to have its garden, containing rare 
plants of foreign or native growth, and m the 
springtime cottages may be seen completely 
embowered in roses and trailing vines. Most 
of the principal thoroughfares have rows of elm, 
poplar, walnut or other trees, planted on 
either side, which, when in full foliage — es- 
pecially when viewed from a distance — give the 
city almost the appearance of a dense forest. 

The population of Sacramento has steadily 
increased since its earliest settlement. Accord- 
ing to the census, there were in 1850, 6820 in- 
habitants; in 1860, 13,788; in 1870, 16,283; in 
1880, 21,420, and its present population is es- 
timated at 30,000. 

The State Capitol building— the architecture 
of which is fashioned after that of the National 
Capitol at Washington— which is the pride of all 
Californians and excites the admiration of aU 
visitors, is located in a large and beautiful 
park, with terraced grounds and broad graveled 
walks. The park is planted with native and 
tropical trees, plants and flowers, and is one of 
the loveliest spots upon earth. In these mag- 
nificent grounds are also situated the State 
Printing Office— one of the most extensive and 
complete institutions of the kind in the United 
States, and the immense Exposition building of 
the State Agricultural Society, constructed at a 
cost of nearly $100,000. Nearly all the religious 
denominations have places of worship, and some 
of them have several churches. All of these 
have large congregations, a reliable indication of 
a lawful and steady state of society. The public 
schools are among the best to be found any- 
where. There are 15 or 20 public school build- 
ings in the city, many of them large and costly 
structures. The city owns its water works, and 
is abundantly supplied with the cheapest and 
most wholesome water in the State. 

In Sacramento are located the race-track and 
fair grounds of the State Agricultural Society. 
The annual expositions of this society are yearly 
growing in importance and magnitude, and al- 
ways attract thousands of visitors. Sacramento 
is a great railroad center. The Central Pacific 
has machine shops, roundhouses, rolling mills, 
etc. Two routes — the California Pacific and 
Western Pacific— connect Sacramento to San 
Francisco and the ocean. The California tc 
Oregon road leads up through the great Sacra- 
mento valley, making its products tributary to 
this market. A branch from the California Pa- 

July 3, 1886.] 


cific runs through the rich couuties of Yolo and 
Tehama, connecting with the California & 
Oregon. Steamboats also make regular trips 
between Sacramento and San Francisco, via the 
Sacramento river and the bay. 

Sacramento County. 

Sacramento county is bounded on ae north 
by Placer and Sutter, on the south by San 
Joaquin and Contra Costa, east by El Dorado 
and Amador, and west by Solano and Yolo. 
The Sacramento river courses the entire length 
of the county on the west side, and the Ameri- 
can traverses the northern portion from east to 
west, debouching into the Sacramento river at 
this point. The Cosumnes river crosses the 
southern portion of the county, forming a 
junction with the Mokelumne. For some years 
after the discovery of gold on one of the tribu- 
taries of the American river the eastern or foot- 
hill portion of Sacramento was a great placer 
mining section, and bustling mining camps and 
villages sprang suddenly into existence, and 
almost as suddenly disappeared as the diggings 
were exhausted. Even now, however, there is 
considerable mining going on. 

Sacramento county has an area of 1026 square 
miles, with a population of from 43,000 to 45,- 
000. The census of 1880 placed it at 37,000, 
but it has since then increased materially. 
Farming, fruit-growing, hop culture, wine- 
making, fruit-drying, dairying, etc., are the 
chief industries outside the city, aside from 
what mining is carried on in the foothills and 
the grani'e output of the Folsom quarries. 

Sacramento County's Orchard Fruits. 

Sacramento county doubtless leads all others 
in the State in the production of orchard fruits, 
those of the citrus family alone excepted. Her 

as is evidenced by the amount and quality of 
the crops grown on it, even with scant cultiva- 
tion. This soil is, over a great portion of the 
district, but 15 inches deep and never more 
than five feet. Immediately below this is the 
bedrock, on the top of which is a thin crust, 
similar, in some respects, to the glazing on 
earthenware, and so hard that it will often 
break the tempered point of a pick. Under 
this surface crust the hardness diminishes and 
ceases at from two to four inches, and then ap- 
pears an easy-pickiug marl, which readily dis- 
integrates on exposure to the air. This marl 
is claimed by some of the farmers to be a valu- 
able fertilizer and has been used as such by a 
few, but whether the good effects said to follow 
its use are to be attributed to the actual pres- 
ence of plant food, or only to the assistance 
lent in the mechanical manipulation of the soil, 
is yet to be learned. 

All over this district an inexhaustible supply 
of excellent water is to be found in the first sand 
immediately below the marl, and therefore at a 
depth of from five to twelve feet. A day's 
labor will give a man a well with water enough 
in it to feed a large windmill. The country 
about Florin is dotted all over with windmills 
for raising water to be used for irrigating vines, 
trees and small fruits. 

With such a shallow soil, very little rain, of 
course, suffices. Eight to ten inches is plenty 
for a good crop, and better, as regards results, 
than 16 or 20 inches. In this fact is one reason 
why the crop in Sacramento county in the 
memory of civilized man has never been a fail- 
ure, although other localities will often produce 
a larger yield. 

The marvelous richness of the bottom lands 
along the Sacramento river was early exem- 

the average is about ten cents. In 1884 seed 
sold as high as 20 cents a pound. In some sea- 
sons seed has been imported for local use, but 
usually there is a considerable surplus to sup- 
ply outside wants. Alfalfa hay in this market 
varies in price from $9 to $14 a ton baled, the 
average being about $11. These are wholesale 
prices to the producer. The hay is mostly con- 
sumed here, though some is shipped to the 
mountains or more distaut points. Two tons of 
hay to each cutting is an ordinary yield. Irri- 
gation is not practiced on the bottom lands in 
Northern California, though experiments at 
Colusa this season show that the crops can be 
increased by occasional flooding. 

It has been found that hogs will thrive 
throughout the year on alfalfa alone, and that 
they need no other food until it is desired to 
harden their flesh in preparation for slaughter. 
An acre in alfalfa will maintain 20 hogs. In 
illustration of the productiveness of alfalfa, the 
experience of a Bear river farmer may be cited. 
He cut seven and a half tons to the acre in one 
year, taking off three crops, and in the same 
year sold the pasturage of the land for four 
months at $2 a head for stock. 

Owing to the fine growth of alfalfa, all the 
best and largest dairies of the county are located 
on the river bottoms. We give below some of 
the largest dairymen, whose carefully selected 
stock and system, and general use of recognized 
improved methods, entitle them to the name. 
The figures indicating the size of the herds are 
approximate only, but will give a fair indication 
of the truth. William Johnston, of Richland, 
milks 100 half-breed Jerseys. J. B. Green, of 
Clarksburg, has 150 head graded Shorthorns. 
Dwight Hollister, of Courtland, has doubtless 
the best Shorthorn dairy herd in the county. 
He has about 100 head high grade — all three- 

was held yesterday afternoon in the Board of 
Trade rooms in this city, in accordance with 
published notice, and the matter considered. 
As a result of the deliberations, it was decided 
to take advantage of the very prosperous condi- 
tion of the immigration work, and to extend the 
plans and increase the funds and facilities, suf- 
ficient to reap the benefits of the successful work 
inaugurated less than two years ago. To this 
end a new organization was formed, to be known 
as the Central and Northern California Immi- 
gration Association, having an active Director- 
ate of 15 members from Sacramento and repre- 
sentation in the other counties covered by the 
section of the State named. 

This will afford a very active and efficient 
Board of Directors at the central point where 
the headquarters of the organization is located, 
and in every way secure increased facilities and 
greater efficiency in the work. The directors 
elected from Sacramento city and county are 
T. B. Hall, F. R. Dray, N. D. Rideout, E. K. 
Alsip, Joseph Stiffens, R. D. Stephens, Frank 
Miller, A. S. Hopkins, D. O. Harvey, C. R. 
Parsons, L. L. Lewis, J. A. Parker, C. H. 
Hubbard, E. J. Holt and Wm. Ingram, Jr. 
The board subsequently organized by electing 
A. S. Hopkins, President; T. B. Hall, Vice- 
President; Wm. Ingram, Jr., Secretary; and 
Frank Miller, Treasurer. 

Subsequently the former organization, known 
as the Sacramento County Immigration Asso- 
ciation, held a meeting and disbanded, turning 
over its assets and work to the new immigra- 
tion association. After this action had been 
taken a meeting of the Board of Directors of 
the new Central and Northern California Immi- 
gration Association was held, and most vigorous 
plans were considered and adopted for carrying 
forward the work so auspiciously in progress. 
The new association is in a most healthful finan- 
cial condition, and its directors enthusiastic. — 
Record- Union. 


orchards line the eastern shores of the Sacra- 
mento river from end to end of the county. 
Among them are the largest in the State, aggre- 
gating thousands of acres. From Freeport 
down to the county line pretty much all the 
beBt bottom land is planted with fruit trees. 
Several river steamers are kept employed dur- 
ing the season to carry to market the products 
of this magnificent belt of orchards. Among 
them are those of the Runyons, embracing hun- 
dreds of acres. Here, too, is the Kercheval 
orchard, containing 40 or 50 acres in pears 
alone. The largest peach orchards in the State 
are also to be found here. On the American 
river the county can also show numerous tine 
orchards, including the Hopping pear orchard, 
which this year gave a return of over $11,000 
from 20 acres. In this belt is Routier's fine 
orchard and vineyard. On the red lands, or 
plains, in the region about Florin, there are 
hundreds of acres devoted to orchards, vines 
and berries. Near the capital, on these high 
lands, are three nurseries of fruit trees, cover- 
ing a large area. Here, also, is a new orchard 
of some 150 acres, recently planted by C. W. 
Reed, one of the most experienced fruit grow- 
ers in the State. Going eastward, the great 
Natoma vineyard is encountered before the 
foothills are reached. This is one of the larg- 
est vineyardB in the world, and lines the high- 
way for miles on either siie. It contains about 
3000 acres, including several hundred acres in 
orchard. In the neighborhood of Folsom, in 
the foothills, are numerous vineyards. 

The tract of land known as the "Redlands," 
and also as the "Bedrock Lands," extends, per- 
haps, from Brighton to MoConnell's, and from 
the lower Stockton road to the Cosumnes river. 
There are over 100,000 acres of "bedrock" land, 
and it is generally held in small pieces of from 
40 to 160 acres. There are not many who own 
in one piece more than the latter number, and 
the very highest in oue piece, so far as known, 
is 970 acres. Included in this district are the 
towns of Florin, Gait, Elk Grove, Franklin and 

The soil is a red clayey loam, very fertile, 

plified in the great yield of sweet potatoes and 
other root crops. The first sweet potatoes cul- 
tivated here were of the Sandwich Island va- 
riety, sometimes called "yams" or "reds." The 
yield in early days was astonishing, and still, 
remains large, even where manuring has not 
been resorted to. Five hundred sacks to the 
acre is about the largest yield reported. This 
would be over 25 tons to the acre, or from 800 
to 900 bushels. E. F. Aiken, one of the early 
growers, raised on his ranch near Courtland a 
Sandwich Island potato weighing 15 pounds. 
The average annual product now is probably 
about 200 sacks to the acre, which would be re- 
garded any where as a large yield. The sweet 
potato requires a light-colored, deep and sandy 
soil, and there are few localities which produce 
it in perfection, as do certain of our Sacramento 
river lands. Its cultivation, of late years, has 
fallen mainly into the hands of Portuguese and 
Chinese. Formerly it was a very profitable 
product, but now that the price has fallen to 
50 or 75 cents per 100 pounds, the returns are 
not as remunerative. The variety principally 
grown now is the Carolina, which is preferred 
to the "reds." The cultivation is by slips, 
after the manner common in the Southern 
States. Shipments are made to various points 
along the line of the overland roads, as far as 

Stock and Dairy. 
In Sacramento county there are several 
thousand acres devoted to alfalfa, and its culti- 
vation is common throughout the Sacramento 
valley on suitable soils. The yield in this sec 
tion is enormous. Three or four crops a year 
are obtained, and the annual yield averages 
from six to eight tons an acre. Occasionally 
ten tons to the acre is obtainable. Sometimes 
two hay crops are taken and also a seed crop, 
and sometimes stock is turned upon the land at 
intervals between the hay crops, or the land 
may be used entirely for pasturage. An average 
seed crop here is from 300 to 400 pounds to the 
acre. The prices of both seed and hay fluctuate 
a good deal from year to year. The price of 
seed varies from 7A to 15 cents a pound, and 

quarters and upward. J. M. Stephenson, of 
Franklin, has 100 graded Jerseys and Short- 
horns. C. W. Clark has about the same num- 
ber of graded Durhams. All of these dairies 
feed alfalfa, and all find their markets in Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco. They make butter 
only and feed their milk to the hogs. The 
average yield of Senator Johnston's herd is 200 
pounds per year to each cow, and this doubt- 
less would give a fair average for the other 
dairies mentioned. Besides the herds men- 
tioned, there are a number of others of inferior 
grade. The largest of these (and the largest, 
indeed, in the county) is owned by N. M. Fay, 
who has a large cattle ranch on the Sacra- 
mento river about 13 miles below this city. He 
makes both butter and cheese. In addition to 
these there are a number of milk dairies milk- 
ing from 15 to 50 cows each. 

Immigration Work at Sacramento. 

An important step in the immigration work 
having headquarters in Sacramento took place 
June 23d at the meeting held in the Board of 
Trade rooms. For some time the Board of Di 
rectors of the Northern California Immigration 
Association, with its members so scattered over 
the several counties of this Bection of the State, 
and many of them not active, has fallen so far 
short of answering the rapidly-increasing de- 
mands for furnishing the necessary information, 
by publication and otherwise, to applicants, 
and for general distribution at the East, that 
the work has very largely devolved upon the 
Sacramento County Immigration Association, 
both for funds and active work. This the 
county organization has supported so far as 
necessary, until the success of the work has de- 
manded more expanded outlay of means and 
broader plans to keep pace with the incoming 
tide of immigrants lud information anxiously 
sought for. 

To meet the exigencies of the situation, a 
meeting of prominent business men and citizens 

The First Trainload of Northern Fruits. 

Editors Press: — Twenty years ago, or even 
less than that, this part of the country was con- 
sidered worthless except for mining purposes. 
No one ever regarded it as of any value for 
agricultural or horticultural pursuits; but re- 
cent developments prove it to be a grand suc- 
cess as a horticultural district. No section of 
the State can excel, and I think few, if any, 
can equal it. We can raise to perfection a full 
line of fruits, from the apple to the orange, in- 
cluding the olive, which does exceptionally well. 
Towns and villages are growing rapidly; depot 
and track facilities have to be increased at 
every railroad station; land is advancing rapid- 
ly; men of means are investing in land, clearing 
and planting it to orchards. These men are 
not amateurs or adventurers, but practical busi- 
ness men, such as P. W. Butler, Parker Whit- 
ney, and the firm of W. R. Strong & Co., of 
Sacramento. The last-named gentlemen have 
been fruit-shippers on a large scale for many 
yearB, and, of course, know what they are do- 
ing; and, by the way, these gentlemen with the 
aid of E. T. Earl, another fruit-shipper of Sac- 
ramento, have this day forwarded to the East 

The First Special Train of Green Fruits 

Under the new arrangements with the rail- 
road company. This is the first full trainload 
of fruit that ever crossed the continent (except 
trains of oranges from the Southern counties) and 
it reflects great credit on the shippers. Very 
few men could have got up a train of 15 cars of 
fruit thus early in the season, and when there is 
so little shipping fruit ripe. A month hence 40 
cars could be got up much easier than 15 now. 
These men have a right to be proud of their 
success, especially since they had been repeat- 
edly told that with the special arrangements 
with the railroad company, and with Porter 
Bros, at the East to sell their fruits, all 
such men as Strong & Co. would be completely 
shut out and must take a back seat. It now 
seems that the back seat fellows have come to 
the front and stand ahead. The train which 
left Sacramento at 4.15 p. m. to day, June 24th, 
passed Penryn at 5:45 P. m. running at a high 
rate of speed. It is to be pushed through on 
the fastest time possible, making no stop except 
for wood and water. It will no doubt attract 
great attention all along the line, as it was most 
beautifully decorated with flags. 
Penryn, June 2/fth. Fkuit-Grower. 

Full Description of the Train. 

The Sacramento papers are naturally very 
much delighted with the shipment of the first 
full train by Sacramento firms. The Record- 
Union, after a general discussion of the features 
of the event, gives the following interesting 

Two of the most prominent fruit-shippers in 
the State— W. R. Strong & Co. and E. T. Earl, 
members of the California Fruit-Growers' Asso- 
ciation — have shown themselves equal to the 
emergency, have demonstrated the practica- 
bility of the railroad company's proposition (to 
carry trainloads at $300 per car), and have in- 
augurated what must become a new and an 
important era in the great fruit industry of 
our State. 

Yesterday those firms, after a quiet but thor- 
ough preparation of several days, loaded and 
started the first special fruit train that has ever 
left California. A description of this pioneer 
train, that will blaze the way for countless num- 
bers that will speedily follow, will no doubt 



[July 3, 1886 

prove of interest- to many of our readers who 
are watching the development of the business, 
and also to those who recognize the indisputable 
fact that Sacramento is beyond all questions ot 
doubt the grand central point from which these 
shipments must be made. 

The train consisted of 15 cars, containing 
300,000 pounds of freight, and, with the ex- 
ception of ."$0,000 pounds of potatoes, was en- 
tirely green fruit. When it is considered that 
each specimen of the fruit, each individual 
peach, apple, pear, apricot and plum has to be 
wrapped in paper, and all must be accom- 
plished within about 36 hours prior to the de- 
parture of the train, the magnitude of the un- 
dertaking will be appreciated. In the work of 
picking, making boxes, packing, hauling, load- 
ing and handling this enormous quantity of 
fruit, it is estimated that over 500 men found 
employment on this train for two days, an 
equivalent to the labor of one individual for over 
three years. The fruit consisted mainly of the 
following varieties: Apples, Bartlett and other 
pears, peaches, plums and apricots. 

Megers. Strong & Co. and Karl do not handle 
fruit on commission, but make direct purchases, 
and have already contracted for large quanti- 
ties in all the leading fruit districts. Among 
those whose fruit make up the shipment under 
consideration may be mentioned the following : 
In the Sacramento river district, Messrs. 
Davis, Stewart, Birry, Kennedy, Talmage, 
Crofton, Reynolds, Crew, Thisby, Hensley, 
Hanson, Bryan, Johnson, Johnston, Williams, 
Ralston, P. Green, J. Green and G. Green, 
Dean, Osborn, Cilloway, Doty, Simms, Bates, 
Wedley, O. R. Runyon, W. Runyon, Kerche- 
val, Hollister. 

In the American river district, Messrs. 
Stephens, Koutier, Olsen, Grondone, Hutchin- 
son, Reed, Fiint and others. 

Winters and Vacaville districts, Messrs. 
Seaman, Thissell, Tucker, Porter, Reed, Brink, 
Pleasants, Martel, Pierson, Cantelow, Steiger, 
Collins, Garlish, Korn and Lyon. The picking 
and packing were done under the able super- 
vision of Messrs. C. B. Strong, Coulter, Osborn, 
Curtis, Steiger and Glatz, representing Strong 
& Co., and MesBrs. Khoads, Mixer and Collins 
for Mr. Earl. 

Some of the most particular work in connec- 
tion with the getting up of this train was the 
loading of the cars, which was uuder the man- 
agement of J. H. Piatt and Mr. Harding, with 
a small army of assistants. 

The shippers were aided as much as possible 
by the railroad company's employes, who 
spared no pains in placing the cars promptly 
and otherwise assisting in their speedy loading. 
The shippers expressed themselves as being 
obligated in this respect to Messrs. Urqhart, 
assistant superintendent; C. A. Stevens, freight 
agent, and Mr. Kelsey, his assistant; also to 
Martin Holland, chief yard-master, and Bob- 
bins, his assistant. 

The train, when loaded and standing on the 
track west of the passenger depot, presented a 
very handsome appearance, with a strong engine 
at the front and a neat caboose attached to 
the rear, awaiting the signal to pull out of the 
yard and start upon its long and rapid journey 
over the Sierras, the great plains and the 
Rocky mountains to the Missouri river. The 
engine, caboose and each of the 15 cars was 

Gaily and Tastefully Decorated 

With flags, streamers of bunting and the tri- 
colored show-cards of the two shipping firms. 
The engine and caboose thus gaily dressed pre- 
sented quite a holiday appearance, and will 
prove an attractive sight to the residents of the 
many cities and towns of the States and Terri- 
tories through which the train passes en route 
to its destination. In addition to the decora- 
tions mentioned, a large white placard was 
nailed on the center of each car, printed in red 
and blue letters, as follows: 






A large number of people assembled at the 
depot to witness the departure of the train, and 
just prior to its leaving photographs were taken 
of it. The train was drawn by engine No. 18, 
which is one the largest and most powerful 
running between Sacramento and Truckee. 
It was run by M. L. Rudeck, engineer, and 
A. K. Prather, fireman. The train was in 
charge of D. C. Halsey, conductor, with 
V. Curran, J. Congrove and K. Fay, brakemen. 

At 4 1 15 promptly the train started on its 
Eistern trip, followed by the best wishes of 
Messrs. Strong & Co. and Karl's many friends. 

It was originally intended to fill 17 cars, 
but this being the first train, the rail 
road company suggested that 15 would in- 
sure its going through on passenger time, and 
more might not. Two carloads of fruit, there- 
fore, which was at the depot ready for ship- 
ment, was diverted. While this train will not 
run with the rapidity of the expresB, it makes 
no stoppages except for wood and water, and 
thus, although running slower, it makes up 
by constantly forging ahead, and like Billy 
Birch's bug "it will get there" on express time 
"just the same." 

The firms making this initial Bpccial train 
shipment intend from this date, together with 
other members of the California Fruit-growers' 
Association, to forward similar Bpecial trains 

) jars, or more, twice a week or oftener. 

Mount Shasta. 

Behold the dread Mount'Shasta where it stands 
Imperial 'mid the lesser lights, and, like 
Some mighty, unimpassioned mind, companionless 
And cold. The storms of heaven may beat in wrath 
Against it, but it stands in unpolluted 

That, like inferior minds to some great 
Spirit, stand in strong contrasted littleness! 
All through the long and summery months of our 
Most tranquil year, it points its icy shaft 
On high, to catch the dazzling beams that fall 

Grandeur still; and from the rolling mists upheaves In showers of splendor round the cryrtal cone, 

Its tower of pride e'en purer than before. And roll in floods of far magnificence 

The wintry showers and white-winged tempests leave Away from that lone, vast Reflector in 

Their frozen tributes on its brow, and it The dome of heaven. 

Doth make of them an everlasting crown. Still watchful of the fertile 

Thus day by day and age by age, Vale and undulating plains below, the grass 

Defy each stroke of time, still rising higher Grows greener in its shade, and sweeter bloom 

Into heaven! The flowers. Strong purifier! From its snowy 

Aspiring to the eagle's cloudless hight. Side the breezes cool are wafted to the "peaceful 

No human foot has stained its snowy side; Homes of men," who shelter at its feet, and love 

No human breath hath dimmed the icy mirror which To gaze upon its honored form; aye, standing 

It holds unto the moon and stars and sov'reign sun. There the guarantee of health and happiness, 
We may not grow familiar with the secrets 

Of its hoary top, whereon the Genius 
Of that mountain builds its glorious throne! 
Far lifted in the boundless blue, he doth 
Encircle, with his gaze supreme, the broad 
Dominions of the West, which lie beneath 
His feet, in pictures of sublime repose 
No artist ever drew. He sees the tall, 
Gigantic hills arise in silentness 
And peace, and in the long review of distance 
Range themselves in order grand. He sees the 

Play upon the golden streams which through the 


Glide. He hears the music of the great and solemn 

And overlooks the huge old western wall, 
To view the birth-place of undying melody! 
Itself all light, save when some loftiest cloud 
Doth for awhile embrace its cold, forbidding 
Form, that monarch mountain casts its mighty 
Shadow down upon the crownless peaks below, 

Well might it win communities so blest 
To loftier feelings and to nobler thoughts — 
The great material symbol of eternal 
Things! And well I ween, in after years, how 
In the middle of his furrowed track the plowman 
In some sultry hour will pause, and wiping 
From his brow the dusty sweat, with reverence 
Gaze upon that hoary peak. The herdsman 
Oft will rein his charger in the plain, and drink 
Into his inmost soul the calm sublimity; 
And little children, playing on the green, shall 
Cease their sport, and turning to that mountain 
Old, shall of their mother ask: "Who made it?" 
And she shall answer: "Chtld, it was thy God!" 
And well this golden State shall thrive, if like 
Its own Mount Shasta, Sovereign Law shall lift 
Itself in purer atmosphere — so high 
That human feeling, human passion at its base 
Shall lie subdued to the law's mandate; 
As high in man's esteem and just as pure 
As the immaculate snow on that mountain's brow. 

— John Rollin Ridge. 

Shasta County. 

[Compiled for the Rural Press.] 
This county ia situated in the northern part of 
the State, being separated from Oregon by the 
counties of Siskiyou and Modoc. It ia bounded 
on the east by Lassen, on the south by Tehama 
and on the west by Trinity 
county is 2,500,000 acres. The Sacramento 
river traverses it from north to south, about 
two-thirds of its territory being to the east and 
one-third to the west of that stream. 

The Shasta of the past was known only as a 
stock and mining country, and thought to be 
possessed of a cold and disagreeable climate, a 
rough and mountainous surface, a worthless 
and unproductive soil, inaccessible to the home- 
seeker, and full of malaria to the hardy pioneer; 
but the developments of the past few years 
have qui e dissipated these notions and brought 
in their stead a conviction that no other section 
of the State offers better inducements for gen- 
eral farming. 

Placer mining was the principal industry of 
the early pioneers, and though the placer mines 
are not what they were in early days, still there 
is much gold dust yet extracted from that class 
of diggings. But quartz mining in our county 
is yet in its infancy. Many rich mines have 
been discovered and partially developed during 
the past year. Iron ore of the best quality is 
known to exist in vaBt quantities on the Mc- 
Leod and Pit rivers, only a few miles north of 
Bedding. Limestone is found at various points, 
and in former days the burning of lime was a 
lucrative calling. Extensive marble quarries 
also exist and have been heretofore utilized. 

The middle-northern part of the county is 
very rough. The lumberman here has a vast 
area of forest from which to draw his supplies, 
the streams furnishing the choicest of mill bites. 
To the east and northeast of Redding, within a 
distance of from 30 to 50 miles, is a large extent 
of pine timber, among it some of the finest sugar 
pine. Also, on the west side of the county and 
on the Pit and Sacramento rivers is much good 
timber. There are a number of saw mills, from 
the simplest to the best, but they have never 
yet been able to supply the demand. Thousands 
of shakes, shingles and fence-posts are made in 
thiB belt of timber. 

The mountain saw mills are 30 to 40 miles 
from Redding, and the price of common lumber 
at the mills is from S3 to !?10 per M. At the 
mill in the city it is from $16 to §20 per M. 
The town of Millville is very prettily located 
near the junction of two or three mountain 

streams, contains 350 or 400 inhabitants and is 
about 12 miles from railroad. There is a good 
deal of very nice level land in its immediate vi- 
cinity suitable for fruit and general farming. 
The land near the railroad is all taken up by 
actual settlers — that is, on the east side of the 
river. On the west side and near the town there 
is a quantity of vacant Government land which 
has been returned by the surveyor as mineral, 
The extent of the | and which must be proven better adapted to 
agriculture than mining before homesteads can 
be filed. This has been done in a number of 
instances and probably can be in most cases, as 
the district is undoubtedly exhausted. * * 

The Surveyor-General's report for 1881 
showed only 143,339 acres inclosed, and less 
than 50,000 acres under cultivation. There has 
been a considerable increase of population and 
acquiring of property since then, but immi- 
grants can still find thousands of acres of 
Government and railroad lands whereon to 
make comfortable homes. Certain portions of 
the county are well adapted to stock-raising, 
grain and grasses, while other portions are 
equally well suited for fruit-growing. 

Redding, the principal town, is located on a 
plateau 70 feet above and near the west bank of 
the Sacramento river, and is said by travelers 
to occupy one of the finest sites in the State. 
It is the distributing point for Trinity and the 
western part of Siskiyou counties, portions of 
Modoc, Shasta and a portion of southeastern 
Oregon; has a population of abont 1S00. It 
derives a large trade from the country on the 
eastern side of the Sacramento, which is crossed 
by a free bridge about a mile east of town. In 
this vicinity wheat, barley and oats grow luxu- 
riantly, while the apple, peach, plum, cherry, 
fig, grape, berries and early vegetables are 
raised with success and profit, and experiments 
in the last few years with the orange, Japanese 
persimmon and soft-shell almond prove that 
they are nearly if not as sure a crop as the 

Shasta, seven miles northwest of Redding, is 
the county seat, and the United States Land 
Office of the Shasta district is here located. It 
is the oldest town in Northern California. 
Some of the oldest orange trees in the county 
are planted here and produce regularly fine 
fruit. Among the more notable towns and 
settlements are French Gulch, Anderson, Cot- 
tonwood, Igo and Janesville. 

In answer to Eastern questioners, D. N. 
Houn has recently given a description, which 
we slightly abridge: 

From Redding southward the level valley 
will average four miles in width. The soil is 
alluvial or sedimentary, containing a good deal 
of disintegrated rock or gravel and is excellent 

for small grains, alfalfa, prunes, plums, pears, 
figs and small fruits. Bordering the valley on 
the east and extending back 16 to 20 miles is 
a series of plateaus or benchlands, varying in 
elevation from 700 to 1000 feet above the sea 
level. These are red in color, soils sandy clay 
loam, granite and clay, and are covered mostly 
by a growth of white and black oak (scrub) and 
brush, requiring to be cleared before cultiva- 
tion. There are a good many boulders scat- 
tered over them, and considerable gravel. 
These lands are peculiarly adapted to fruit and 
vines. We do not count them good wheat or 
grain lands, although they will produce fair 
crops when properly cultivated. East of the 
plateaus come the foothills and mountains 
proper. AmoDg these are many benches and 
comparatively level tracts on which to make 
beautiful homes. They are pretty heavily 
timbered with oak, pine and cedar. There are 
plenty of springs and streams of pure, cold 
water. The soil is deep red, rich, and when 
cleared very productive of small grains, grasses 
(timothy and clover) and hardy fruits, berries 
and vegetables of all kinds. In the northeast- 
ern portion of the county are two line valleys, 
the Fall and Pit river. These are 3500 feet 
above the sea level, and are nearly level. Soil, 
loam, rich and very productive. Small grains, 
grasses and vegetables grow to perfection, and 
yield heavily in this section. It is an excellent 
stock and dairy location; bunch grass is natural 
and heavy, and the water excellent. 

On the mi -t bank of the Sacramento, and ex- 
tending back 12 to 18 miles, the land is rolling 
and hilly, rocky in some places and gravelly in 
others. The growth of timber and brush is al- 
most the same as on the east side. Where it is 
level enough for cultivation, excellent fruit and 
grapes may be grown, also small crops of grain 
and vegetables. In the southwestern portion 
of the county are the "Bald Hills" — high roll- 
ing hills, devoid of timber, soil adobe — a very 
good country for small grain and stock. The 
extreme western part is mountainous, but af- 
fords good summer range for stock. The cli- 
mate is peculiarly favorable to sheep. 

Qraln and Grass Culture. 

Almost the entire area sown to grain in this 
county, says Mr. Houn, is for hay, as that pays 
best, and not for threshing or milling purposes. 
Good hay brings very readily on the field, 
when baled, from $15 to $20 per ton. Gener- 
ally wheat and oats are sown together for this 
crop, and the yield will vary from one to two 
and a half tons per acre. When threshed the 
yield of wheat, oats and barley will average 20, 
30 and 35 bushels per acre, respectively. Corn 
is grown to some extent, and is fully up in 
quality to that raised east of the mountains. 
Our mountain country is excellent for corn. 
The natural grasses and wild oats have been 
almost eaten out by many years of overstocking 
with cattle, sheep and hogs; so that no calcu- 
lation muBt be made on natural grasses for feed 
or hay. Alfalfa, so far as tried, succeeds well 
without irrigation, and two crops can be relied 
on. When an elevation of 1500 or more feet 
above sea level has been reached, timothy and 
clover grow very luxuriantly and yield enor- 
mous crops, frequently cutting as high as four 
tons to the acre. Our grass and grain-growing 
area is very limited, compared with the entire 
area of the county, and all kinds of feed must 
necessarily maintain a good price. 

The lowest thermometer in the valley and 
surrounding country, up to an elevation of 
1500 feet, is 24 degrees above zero, and that is 
of rare occurrence, lasting but a few hours. 
Oranges and lemons have not been planted 
here bo extensively as in Butte county, or in 
Tehama perhaps; but a good many which have 
been growing in different parts of the county 
for a dozen years have done and are doing well; 
so that it is safe to say they can be grown here 
successfully. More attention has been given to 
orange culture this season, and more trees plant- 
ed, than in all past years put together. There 
are some olive trees growing and doing well, 
but none yet in bearing. 

Good land can be purchased within five or 
ten miles of town and railroad, at prices rang- 
ing from $6 to $30 per acre, according to lo- 
cation, improvements, etc. Mixed farming, 
with some fruit, would probably be best for 
a person of moderate means, wishing to make 
a home; for during the years that necessarily 
intervene before he can derive any revenue 
from fruit he will be producing something that 
is a source of income. 

The rainfall averages 40 inches, and drouth 
is never known. 

The Redding Free. Press, a few weeks since, 
remarked that during the past three years 
almost an entire revolution in the agricultural 
and horticultural development of the county 
has been effected. Lands counted worthless 
prior to that time have been taken up by the 
enterprising and energetic settler, cleared of 
the timber and brush and planted to fruit trees, 
vines and vegetables and sown to grain, and 
have produced beyond the expectation of the 
most sanguine. No part of the State has ex- 
celled this in the growth of trees and vines, or 
in the size or flavor of the fruit produced. In- 
stead of the brush fence and dilapidated dwell- 
ings of the old-timer, who depended upon stock 
for his livelihood, the now rabbit-tight fence 
and neat dwellings of the new-comer, fresh from 
the snowbound East, give the county an ap- 
pearance of thrift and beauty quite pleasing to 
the eye. Nor is this improvement confined to 
any particular locality, but extends from the 
river to the summit of the mountains on either 

Joly 3, 1886.] 


Solano CoQnty. 

[Compiled for the Rural Press.] 
Solano county lies north of Suisun bay and 
Carquinez straits, with Napa, Yolo and Sacra- 
mento counties inclosing it to the west, north 
and east respectively. Of its 670,000 acres about 
100,000 are marsh, much of which has been re- 
claimed and rendered productive. Of the re- 
mainder, two-thirds are valley land and one- 
third foothill. The valley lands extend from 
the Sacramento to the foot of the Coast Range, 
have rich, alluvial soils, and produce abundant 
crops of grain, vegetables and fruits. The foot- 
hills are in the western part of the county, and 
have light loamy soils. Springs are abundant, 
and water is found at from 10 to 40 feet below 
the surface. 

Solano has free water communication with all 
points aloug the bay and the rivers which empty 
into it, besides enjoying great rail facilities. 
The California Pacific Railroad runs through 
nearly the whole width of the county east and 
west. The Vacaville Railroad runs from Elmira 
to Madison, in Yolo county. There is also a 
branch from Vallejo Junction to Vallejo and 
from Suisun to Vallejo. 

Stock raising has been one of the more im- 
portant industries, as a large portion of the 

what may be found elsewhere in this State. 
Shut in from the fogs of the Napa valley by the 
high Coast Range and from the sudden changes 
of temperature characteristic of the Sacramento 
valley by the foothills which bound the valley 
on the east, it enjoys an almost perennial 
spring. The further north in Vaca valley one 
goes the warmer he finds it, and the dangers from 
destructive frosts diminish in like ratio. The 
climate is as much semi-tropical as that of Los 
Angeles. Here are raised some of the finest 
oranges, lemons, nectarines, pomegranates, 
olives and figs, beside the usual fruits of the 
temperate zone ; and what is remarkable, in- 
deed, and rather a puzzle to those who do not 
comprehend the physical features, and hence 
the climatic conditions of this section, the 
Messrs. Wolfskill, whose ranch of semi-tropical 
fruits is situated on Putah creek, about 14 miles 
north of Vacaville, are enabled, through the 
wonderful mildness of the winter and spring 
weather, to have their oranges for sale in the 
San Francisco markets a week — often two 
weeks — in advance of the orange-raisers of Los 
Angeles, and those who are judges say the 
quality of these Vaca valley oranges is excellent 

These two valleys, which are essentially one, 
extending north from Vacaville to Putah can- 
yon, 14 miles, are almost entirely free from 
both the cold winds and blasting hot winds 

seminaries and one college are here located. 
The United States Arsenal has extensive build- 
ings and grounds. 

Fairfield, Suisun and Dixon are places of 
considerable importance — Fairfield being the 
county seat, and so closely joined to Suisun 
that they constitute virtually one town. They 
are the trade centers for the western and cen- 
tral portions of the county, while most of the 
trade of the upper section goes to Dixon. 

At Rio Vista, on the Sacramento river, sal- 
mon fisheries are carried on quite extensively. 
The other towns of the county are Elmira and 
Batavia, on the railroad, and Collinsville, on 
the river. 

The prices asked for unimproved land in Solano 
county vary widely and are regulated more by 
climatic advantages than by the character of 
the soil. A very large acreage is available for 
cultivation, and deep and rich enough to make 
farming profitable. In the warm valleys, where 
the fruit and grape interests are well developed, 
lands are worth from $50 to $250 per acre, ac- 
cording to improvements, and pay well even at 
these apparently high figures. In the northern 
part prices run from $20 to $50 per acre, and in 
the foothills as low as $2.50 to $10. The 
Government lands are on the hills, and, as a 
general thing, are not very desirable. 

There are some 50 BChool districts in the 
county and about 5000 school children, an as- 

mento valley and nearly in its geographical 
center. It is long and narrow, bordered the 
entire length (some 60 miles) by the Sacra- 
mento river, which is second only to the great 
Columbia, as an artery of commerce and navi- 
gation. The Feather, its chief tributary, also 
navigable, runs through and borders it for 30 

Besides its water connections with Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco bay, the county north- 
ward from Yuba City is traversed by the Cali- 
fornia & Oregon Railroad. The California 
Pacific Railroad formerly penetrated it from 
the Knight's Landing direction and extended 
to Marysville, but that route was abandoned 
some years ago, owing to frequent interruptions 
and destruction of the track by freshets. Not 
a farm in the county, however, is over ten miles 
from water or railroad communication, and 
fully three-fourths of them lie within five 
miles of the public highways. 

The soil of Sutter county is unsurpassed in 
fertility, and experience has demonstrated its 
wonderful adaptability to all the cereals. The 
better qualities of grain lands often yield from 
30 to 60 bushels of wheat per acre. A careful 
estimate places the average annual wheat crop 
at 75,000 tons, and barley about half as much. 
In other products the crop is diversified accord- 
ing to wants and practicability. The yield of 
fruit from the river orchards is very large. The 


county is embraced in the Coast Range foot- 
hills, which are specially adapted for grazing. 

But Solano is best known as a grain-grower, 
having always been among the first wheat coun- 
ties of the State, and having produced fair crops 
in seasons of extreme drought. Being close 
upon the bay, the moist, cool winds and fogs 
therefrom have operated greatly to the advan- 
tage of the grain crops when localities farther 
inland were suffering from lack of rain and 
from a scorching sun. Cheap transportation 
to market also has been strongly in its favor, 
as farmers have had the benefit of unlimited com- 
petition among small vessels. 

Years ago, big ranches were the rule in So- 
lano county, but of late these have been divid- 
ed, and farms of 1000 acres and upward are 
not often met with. There is a steady and in- 
creasing demand for land in the more favored 
sections, and the county may be ranked among 
the most prosperous and promising north of the 

Fruit-growing, wine and raisin-making en- 
gage more and more attention every season. 
One of the oldest orchards in the State is lo- 
cated on the west side of the valley section, 
close under the protecting hills of the Coast 
Range, being the result of the early enterprise 
of John Wolfskill, a pioneer. From this or- 
chard the market for many years received the 
earliest fruit of the season; but more recently 
the Vacaville Rection has been forcing its claims 
in this respect. Some of the finest and earliest 
cherries come from that locality, and within 
the last few years there has been a regular 
boom in lands thereabout. The Press of May 
16, 1885, contained an article, by Prof. G. F. 
Foster, on Vaca valley, portions of which we 
reproduce below. 

The climate of this region is unique, unlike 

which sweep over the central plain. The winds 
from the Pacific, which come in through the 
Golden Gate and spread out like an enormous 
fan into the Sacramento and San Joaquin val- 
leys, pass by the narrow opening into Vaca val- 
ley, leaving it and its fellow valley further 
north under the full influence of the sun. 
Though the climate of all this region is semi- 
tropical, it is, singularly, wonderfully uniform. 
The mercury in summer never reaches within 
15 degrees of the extreme high point attained 
at Sacramento, nor does it ever in winter touch 
the low point of the same place. Even at 
Vacaville, where the temperature is somewhat 
affected by winds from the sea and from the 
north, there are never more than a few sharp 
frosts at the beginning of the year, while there 
are points in Vaca valley on the sides of the 
foothills where frosts have not occurred for 
years, for instance, at the ranch of Charles 
Martel, some six miles from Vacaville, where 
a tomato vine has been growing and bearing 
unhurt by frost for more than half a decade. 

Vallejo, situated on San Pablo bay, is the 
largest town, having a population of 6500. It 
derives a large share of its support from the 
Government navy yard on Mare island, which 
employs from 500 to 1200 men. All branches 
of business are well represented. The build- 
ings are substantial, and the Good Templars' 
Orphan Home is really an ornament to the 

Benicia, on the Sacramento river, 35 miles 
from San Francisco, once the capital of the 
State, has a population of about 2000. It is 
favorably located for commercial and manu- 
facturing purposes, and has made remarkable 
progress within the last five years. There is a 
very large manufactory of agricultural imple- 
ments here, and four tanneries. Two female 

surance that educational facilities are not lack- 

Sutter County. 

[Compiled for the Rural Press.] 

The State of California, as formed in 1849, 
included 27 counties. One of these was named 
Sutter, in honor of the pioneer, Gen. John Sutter, 
who was for several years among its residents. 
Part of its original territory has been acquired 
by Butte and Colusa counties, and the Sutter 
of to-day is bounded by Butte upon the north, 
by Yuba and Placer on the east, by Sacramento 
and Yolo on the south, and by Yolo and Colusa 
on the west. 

The surface is generally level; but in the 
northern part the Buttes, a series of rough, 
craggy peaks, covering about four townships, 
rise to a hight of some 2000 feet. Spvinging ab- 
ruptly from the plain, they constitute a very in- 
teresting feature of that region. 

In 1849 the county seat was established at 
Oro, on the bank of Bear river, but the follow- 
ing year, and before much settlement had 
taken place, it was removed to the village of 
Nicolaus, on Feather river. Six years later that 
honor was transferred to Yuba City, which still 
retains it. It is the largest town in the county, 
in the center of one of the most fertile sections 
of the State, and distant from the State capital 
about 50 miles. Yuba City is connected with 
Marysville by a long and substantial bridge 
across the Feather river. 

The county has a peculiar geography, touch- 
ing neither the Sierras nor the Coast Range 
mountains, but lying wholly within the Sacra- 

orange, the lemon and the fig flourish along- 
side the apple, pear, peach, apricot, almond, 
nectarine, and grape in endless variety. Irri- 
gation is not needed nor practiced, and yet at 
Christmas time the oak, the willow, the apple 
and other trees have not entirely dropped their 
green foliage. The rearing of domestic animals 
is receiving increased attention, and their num- 
ber, value and pedigree are making gratifying 

Sutter, in proportion to its size, is one of the 
richest of the agricultural counties of the State, 
but of late years its farming area has been 
greatly restricted by the filling up of Bear 
river with debris from the hydraulic mines, 
which caused the river to overflow and deposit 
vast quantities of mining debris on the flat 
lands along its course. The damage resulting 
from this cause has been estimated at several 
million dollars; and to guard against further 
inroads by the destroying Hoods, the citizens of 
the county have raised vast levees. Wherever 
the land has not been injured by these deposits, 
however, it is of the first quality and yields 
heavily, and if there should be a permanent 
cessation of hydraulic mining, it is expected 
that large areas now seriously impaired by 
debris will again become valuable. 

The old Mexican grants, under which a great 
portion of the land was originally held, have 
been segregated and settled up, until now the 
population numbers in the neighborhood of 
7000. There is no Government land in the 
county, but in some localities private holders 
will sell at reasonable figures. There are still 
many large farms which, with an increase of 
population, will be cut into much smaller hold- 
ings; and a few acres of this rich soil, carefully 
tilled, can be made equal in value of produc- 
tion to a large farm in many parts of the East. 



[July 3, 1886 

Land which to-day is selling at $50 to §75 per 
acre is cheaper than that in localities where it 
can be had for $10 to §20, and at the highest 
figure is equal in intrinsic value to what else- 
where brings from 8150 to §200. 

Like its neighbors, Sutter county is favored 
with a winterless climate and in healthfulness 
is unexcelled. It abounds in pleasant homes, 
and its people are among the most enterprising. 
Its taxable property has doubled in the past six 
years; it has long exhibited virtually no delin- 
quent list — an unerring indication of solid pros- 
perity — and claims greater wealth, per capita, 
than any other county in the State. It is as- 
suming an importance in California's progress 
not dreamed of a few years ago. In all parts 
the settlers' cabins are giving place to elegant 
two-story comfortable farm-houses, some of 
them rising to the dignity of mansions, and all 
surrounded with an air of thrift and refinement. 
The citizens take great interest in educational 
matters, and the school facilities of the county 
are excellent and fully adapted to the require- 
ments of the population. 

Tehama County. 

I Written (or the Rurai, ) 

Tehama county has an area of 2,000,000 acres. 
It has an east and west length of 7S miles, north 
and south of 38. It is the seventh connty in 
wheat-growing rank, the fourth in wool; it has 
the largest vineyard in the world at Vina, 
where 3000 acres of the choicest varieties are 
grown under one management. 

From foothill to foothill on the south it has 
43 miles of arable land, and at northern bound- 
ary, but one mile less in width, all of which 
may be cultivated to cereals or fruit, and com- 
prise a grand area of varied plant life, within 
which the State of Delaware might be placed 
with many acres to spare, and Rhode Island 
could find room without encroaching on the 
foothills, and all her people be provided with 
homes and land on which to supply their wants. 
This vast area is fringed on the east and west 
by noble mountain ranges teeming with a 
wealth of grasses and merchantable timber. 
Much of the land is rich bottom loam and level 
plateaus of deep soil, rich in plant food, while 
other lands are rolling hills very productive in 
plant life. Thousands of acres of productive 
lands lie outside of this at greater elevations, 
and in thermal belts high above the valley 
many small plats are found where frost is never 
destructive to the most sensitive fruits. 


The fruit-bearing capacities of the county 
are beyond computation. All the fruits and 
products of the temperate zone and most of 
the semi-tropical fruits and plants are very 
prolific even with the least care and attention. 
Apricots, pears, peaches, apples, figs, olives, 
prunes, oranges, lemons, almonds, cherries, 
English walnuts, Italian chestnuts, nectarines] 
pomegranates, all varieties of grapes, berries, 
vegetables and melons are now produced at a 
handsome profit. The ablest horticulturists 
say that prunes, figs, olives and raisins will 
grow to greater perfection here than anywhere 
in California; while the most of other fruits are 
as well adapted to our soil and climate as to 
any other portion of the State. 


The United States Signal Service reports 
show for the three places — Red Bluff, Sacra- 
mento and Los Angeles — for the eight years last 
past the temperature to be as follows : 




Red Sacra- 
Bluff, men to. 

Lowest temperature 24'K 22° 

Mean " " 64 61° 

Rainfall 7 years av 27m iqin 

" 8 " " 28.42 

The percentage of rainy, clear, and fair days at 
Red Bluff for eight years last past is: clear, 60 per 
cent; fair, 21 percent; rainy, 19 percent. 

The advantage of humidity Tehama possesses 
over Los Angeles is five per cent, thus render- 
ing irrigation unnecessary except to increase the 
production, as in any soil or climate water 
will do. 

TOur county sent to Sacramento Citrus Fair in 
1885, oranges, lemons, olives and pomegranates 
not from hot-house plants, but from trees 
grown in open air without any protection dur- 
ing their lives. The lemons were from trees 15 
years of age that had borne continuously for 
years without a failure; the oranges in some 
cases have matured their fruits at three years 
after planting. They grow in the black loam 
of the bottom lands, and they grow on the red 
and gray hills of the highlands; their beautiful 
verdure is always the same, and the luscious 
fruit ripens in midwinter. 

California fruits mature earlier than in most 
States, while Tehama comes in among the 
earliest in California, and in the future its bright 
climate and warm soils, its abundance of rain- 
fall, will bring not only the earliest but the 
choicest fruits to the markets of the world. 
Thousands of acres peculiarly adapted to fruit 
culture can be purchased for one-fourth to one- 
half the price similar lands now bring in older 
settled counties. 

He who will work can in a few years pluck 
the orange, the peach, or the fruit of his own 
choi"° from trees of his own planting, and eat 

them under the shade of his own vine and fig- 
tree on land worth §500 per acre, that cost him 
but one-tenth to one-fifth the money. 

Antelope Valley, 

Just east of Red Bluff, contains many thousands 
of acrea of land that will grow fruit or grain, 
and every acre of it is susceptible of irrigation 
from the Sacramento river from Antelope, 
Payne's and Mill creeks, that run through the 
valley. Fine crops of grain are grown there 
now as elsewhere in the county without irriga- 
tion, and for a third of the century not a crop 
failure, but experience teaches that one-third 
can be added to a crop by irrigation. The flume 
of the Sierra Lumber Company runs through 
the valley, carrying its lumber to R?d Bluff. 
The Antelope water company's mains also pass 
through this valley. Water, pure, cool and 
healthy, can anywhere be obtained at a depth 
of 30 feet. 

By using some of this abundance of water 
berries of all kinds can be made very prolific, 
and some varieties kept bearing for nine months 
every year. A narrow strip of land on Deer 
creek, cultivated to fruit by Chinamen in a very 
imperfect manner, turns off about §75,000 worth 
of dried fruit annually; better methods would 
double the yield, in the opinion of fruit men. 

Wood is plentiful; lumber is made in the 
mountaius and floated down in flumes to the 
valleys. Lumber will always be cheap and 
easily gott n in Tehama county. The hill 
lands are especially the home of the sweet 
grape. The raisin grape and the choice table 
varieties grow and mature in luxuriance. 
The wine grape, especially for the sherry and 
port wines, and most valuable for blending with 
the Sonoma and Napa valley grapes, on account 
of its great abundance of saccharine, arrives at 
greatest perfection on our hills. 

The wheat product of 1884 was 3,000,000 
bushels, with a large acre average. 

The broad waters of the Sacramento river (at 
all times a large stream) receive and carry off 
the entire drainage of the county. Red Bluff, 
at the head of navigation, is a beautiful town 
of about 3500 people. The river and railroads 
bring means of cheap transportation to Tehama 
county. With such a stream no fears need ever 
be had of unjust freight charges, as the water is 
free alike to all men. 

Streams, Forests and Qame. 

Tehama has a healthy climate. The Sacra- 
mento river, fed by mountain streams, the 
sources of which, lying in the hi^h lands of 
the Sierra Nevadas, whence they are ever re- 
ceiving fresh accessions of pure, cool, limpid 
water, are mostly perennial. Their descent 
before leaving the mountains being very rapid, 
give immense power for driving mills or 
machinery, very little of which, however, is 
employed. The pine-covered mountains east 
and west send their cool breezes laden with 
health-giving tonics to the plains below. The 
streams abound with trout, pike and other 
varie'ies of fish, and the ubiquitous catfish, 
the salmon and sturgeon all appear in season, 
affording rare sport as well as cheap and nu- 
tritious food. 

Red Bluff is the home of some of the most 
ardent sportsmen. It is but a few hours' ride 
to the finest deer-grounds in the State. Valley 
quail, mountain quail, grouse, rabbits, bare, 
duck and geese, and all in easy reach. 

Natural Scenery. 

Four hours' ride by rail brings us to the foot 
of Mount Shasta, whose crown is ever covered 
with snow, whose summit measures 15,000 feet 
above sea level. At the foot, wild flowers and 
grasses grow green and luxuriant, and sweet 
breezes forever blow. In summer never hot 
the evening always cool, the lovely valleys 
spread around, the mirrored lakes that greet 
one everywhere, the grand old peaks, deep 
granite canyons, the green sylvan glens where 
stately trees sigh and nod their heads in the 
breeze, all invite to rest and invigorate the 
jaded system with new blood and increased 
energy, sending you back home, after a time 
there joyously spent, rejuvenated and ready to 
meet cares and work, happy and fresh — all 
because of your few days in this, the finest, 
Grandest of Nature's summer resorts on the 
American continent. 

it is better to purchase land to which title is 
perfected, unless several can go together in one 
locality and work in unison for roads and 
needed means of communication. But to all 
who wish to secure Government land, there are 
plenty of citizens who will assist deserving 
persons in finding and locating such lands. 
Titles are universally perfected. They come 
through Spanish grants, confirmed by the 
United States; by United States patents and 
State patents. Incidental, disturbing elements 
must be carefully inquired into, and no intelli- 
gent purchaser of land will pay out his money 
until he has submitted his title to an intelligent 
land lawyer for approval. 

Taxes are light; for 1884 the State and county 
levy was §1 55 per hundred dollars; the aver- 
age assessed valuation of land was only $4.44 
per acre, thus making the taxes very light. 

Money and Land Needed to Start With. 

The information now given is sufficient to 
enable an intending settler in this county to 
determine quite closely what he may require 
and what it will cost. Much less money is re- 
quired than in any other country, on account 
of the cheapness and productiveness of land. 
Most of it is clear of timber; where it is not, 
unless quite a distance from town, the timber 
will pay for removing it — no stones to remove, 
no drainage, fencing is cheap, the climate is so 
mild that houses and barns are cheapened; but 
few warm clothes are needed, all necessaries of 
life are cheap, stock does not need either so 
much stabling or food as where the climate is 
cold. He who will work need not have a great 
deal of money, though the more one has the 
greater his opportunities. The right kind of a 
man may venture to start in on even a few hun- 
dred dollars, and by energy and intelligence 
win in the end. He can buy a piece of land 
and pay part down — say one-half — and if his 
means run short he can always find work at §25 
to $30 per month, with board— during harvest 
season, §2 to §3 per day. Each different man 
and different business will require different 
amounts of land. If but one branch of business 
is followed, such as horticulture, fruit or grape 
growing, or vegetable gardening, and irriga- 
tion is practiced, from five to 40 acres will do. 
Where land is cheaper and no irrigation is at- 
tempted, and more varied industries pursued, 
a larger amount of land may be safely pur- 
chased at the start — say one, two, three or 
more hundreds of acres. On part, one may grow 
grain, pasture a few head of stock, on some 
cultivate his own vegetables and some root 
crop, raise a few head of hogs and chickens, all 
of which will give both occupation and an in- 
come until his orchard and vineyard come into 
bearing, and add materially to his income. 
This can all be done in Tehama connty. The 
soil, the climate, the rainfall, the nearness to 
market, all insure success to the industrious 
and intelligent farmer. 

Red Bluff, Cat. 

Yolo County. 

Land Prices, Titles and Taxes. 
From what has been said of Tehama county, 
it will be supposed that the lands of such a 
favored locality are too high priced for the 
average settler, whose small store of ready cash 
will be needed to lay out and start his new 
possession. But the prices are relatively and 
intrinsically lower here than in any other agri- 
cultural county in the State. No real estate 
boom has ever been attempted here, and values 
are founded on real returns and actual sales 
have been confined almost exclusively for years 
to actual residents of the county. The county 
has never had the benefit of advertising as most 
counties of California -have; it has not made 
inducements for new residents; it has waited, 
knowing that time would make known its great 
riches and seekers would find it in the future. 
Good grain land, ready for the plow, can be 
had at from $10 to §25 per acre; good river- 
bottom land at from §40 to §70 per acre. 
Cheap lands can be had at $5 per acre and 
some even lower, from which trees and brush 
must be cleared. Besides this there is Govern- 
ment land to be had as pre-emptions, home- 
steads and otherwise. But these are mostly 
remote from market and roads must be built to 
open them up. Where prices are so reasonable 

[Written (or Ri ral Priss by J. R. Spsihsbr.] 
As there does not seem to be any one else to 
write np Yolo county, I will make the attempt. 
In the first place, I think that the public at 
large knows but very little of this northern 
part of the State, and it is probably our own 
fault in not letting it be known through the 
Press as have our southern brethren, and they 
are now reaping the reward of their energy. 
Many localities in the far West from time to 
time have advertised their country for no 
other purpose than to get up a boom in land, 
and frequently the transportation companies are 
at the bottom of it, and exaggeration has been 
so great in some States that the country has 
been called the " Fools' Paradise," and rightly 
named. But those charges cannot be brought 
against us in California; for, while we invite 
emigration, we have something solid and sub- 
stantial to offer, for it is apparent to any one 
that is at all conversant with this country that 
the population can be trebled without suffering 
any inconvenience. 

While wishing to place ourselves squarely 
before the public, and not to appear to be en- 
gaged in a " wild-cat " scheme to our own 
benefit and the public loss, I have written this 
preface to my article; and now I will say some 
of the things that can be said of Yolo county, 
and might be said of many of our neighbor 
counties around us. 

Oar county is bounded on the north by 
Colusa county, on the east by Sacramento 
river. The counties bordering are Sutter, 
Placer and Sacramento. On the south is Putah 
creek and the county of Solano, and on the west 
the Coast Range mountains and the counties of 
Napa and Lake. 

The principal streams that drain the county 
are Putah and Cache creeks, but there are 
numerous channels that carry the water off in 
the winter and are dry in summer. They head 
in the mountains west of us and run out on the 
level valley land and spread out and stop. 

The greater portion of the county is appar- 
ently level, but has a slight inclination to the 
east. The western boundary of the oounty is 
on top of the first range of hills, and runs 
northwest on the west side of Cache creek for 
some distance in the mountains, making the 
principal part of the broken country of the 
county in the northwest corner. The hills on 
the west are very abrupt, making but little 

broken land in comparison with the size of the 
county. The eastern portion, lying along the 
Sacramento river, is a tule marsh, covered with 
water in winter, where thousands of wild fowl 
gather and the sportsmen find plenty of sport, 
but dry in summer, and thousands of head of 
sheep and cattle find pasture after the feed 
dries up in the mountains. This strip of tule 
land is needed to carry off the overflow of the 
Sacramento river (as it extends to tide-water) 
and the drainage of the Coast Range mountains, 
as the banks of all the streams are higher than 
the surrounding country, and when the water 
once gets out there is no getting back till it 
reaches the tide-water of San Francisco bay. 
This marsh is from one to ten miles wide on 
the east of this county. 


The soils are adobe and a grayish loam in 
some places, mixed with sand. The adobe lies 
along the edge of the tule marsh for a mile or 
so wide, and in the west and southwestern part, 
lying along what is called Willow Slough, 
which heads at Madison, near Cache creek, and 
runs in a southeast direction for six or seven 
miles and then empties into the tules. The 
grayish loam soil runs from Dunigan at the 
north southeasterly to the southern part of the 
county, except where Willow Slough cuts 
through it. This belt is from 5 to 15 miles 
wide. The extreme southwestern corner is 
more or less mixed with fine sand and small 
gravel about the town of Winters, while along 
the streams of Putah and Cache creeks there is 
a sediment deposit that is a wash from the 
mountains, and is composed of a fine sand and a 
clay loam that is among the richest land in the 
county. Especially is this true near the sinks 
of the creeks, as the streams run out into the 
tules and spread out and lose their channels. 


I have not the data in regard to the average, 
but there has only been but one time since the 
country was settled that it has suffered, and I 
have seen a good average crop of grain raised 
when the ground was not wet over one foot, 
and that year it rained about eight inches; but 
that is not of frequent occurrence. I should 
judge from the estimates made that hi inches 
would be the average, and possibly higher. I 
think that I am safe in saying that this county 
will stand the lack of a heavy rainfall better 
than the upper Sacramento valley or the San 
Joaquin. We always raise a crop of every- 
thing we produce, but some years not so heavy 
as others. The extreme wet winters are not 
always the best for cereals, as too much straw 
is the result, which causes it to lodge, which 
makes it difficult to gather. 


The temperature in the winter will average 
about 45°. The extreme lowest is about 23° 
above, and the highest probably 70°. It does 
not often reach either extreme. I have not 
seen it lower than 23° during the last eight 
winters. The summer average is about 60 •, 
the extreme lowest about 50' and highest 110% 
which is equal to 85° or 90° in the Atlantic 
States; and even at that temperature, which 
does not last long at a time, and only in the 
middle of the day at that, sunstrokes are un- 
known, and the heavy work of the harvest is 
done during that time. It is always cool in 
the shade and at nights. When the sun begins 
to drop over the western mountains, the tem- 
perature begins to fall; and when evening 
comes the heat has gone and a laboring man 
can awake in the morning feeling fresh and 
vigorous for the labors of the day, which is so 
unlike experience in the corn-growing regions 
of the Mississippi valley. Many come here and 
get well who were troubled with weak lnngs 
and throat diseases, but, of course, there are 
some whom it does not agree with. The dry 
air of the summer is a certain specific for many 
who have contracted diseases in damp localities. 
There has not been for 20 years or upward any 
epidemics through the county, and were it not 
for persons that come here sick, our mortality 
list would be very small, and be supplied from 
age and high living. 


The principal business of the county is agri- 
culture, and wheat takes the lead. It is grown 
everywhere, even on the lower foothills of the 
Coast Range, and on all kinds of soil, and 
yields abundantly. If prices were as prolific 
theie would be no trouble, for every one knows 
the present depression in the wheat market. 
Still, the market will give a margin to the 
grower. Wheat and barley are the principal 
cereals grown in this county, but there are some 
corn and oats grown. 

Stock raising is a very important business in 
the county. Horses, cattle, sheep and hogs 
are numbered by the thousands, and their 
growth is a very profitable industry. Alfalfa, 
the principal feed for stock, grows to perfec- 
tion, and not only supplies feed for horses, 
cattle, sheep and the Angora goat, but supplies 
the place of the western corn for the hog. 
Many is the hog that gets into the slaughter 
pen which never saw any grain and nothing 
but an alfalfa field. 

Fruits of nearly every kind grow here to per- 
fection which are grown in semi-tropical coun- 
tries. The vine, fig, pomegranate, orange, 
lemon, almond, olive and many other kinds, be- 
sides the apricot, plum, prune, peach, pear, 
apple, Japanese persimmon and cherries. How 
many other kinds no one knows, for I have yet 
(Continued on Page IS.) 

July 3, 1886.] 







Bright, Galvanized, Telegraph, Baling, 

Annealed, Tinned, Telephone, Furniture, 

Coppered, Lacquered, Fence, Spring. 

Trade M»rlc 




c c 

^9 Territory Con- 
uc, trolled by the 
l-H S.FJ 





Best Stand, 
Best Feed, 
Best Shuttle, 
Best Attachments, 
Best Woodwork, 
Best Wearing. 



G. W. McNEAR, President and Manager. 


Storage 25c. per Ton per Month until Amounting to SI, Balance of Season Free. Liberal Advances Made 

at 6 per cent per Annum. Insurance at Lowest Rates. 


PORT COSTA is the best market to sell; by having wheat on the spot, ready for imme- 
diate delivery, often enabling the farmer to secure a much better price than is obtainable for 
wheat to come in from the country, which is always uncertain on account of the difficulty to get 
prompt transportation. 

The PORT COSTA Warehouses are regular for delivery of wheat sold on the Call Board. 
Frequently wheat is in demand for Call Board delivery, and brings much higher prices than 
wheat to arrive, as deliveries have to be made within five days after call, in lots of 100 tons, 
piled and inspected. 

Wheat stored in the Country Warehouses must ultimately be shipped to PORT COSTA 
and incur extra expense if delivered on Call Board sales, which can be saved by shipping direct 
to PORT COSTA from the harvest field. Wheat at PORT COSTA, when on the market for 
sale, can be Bold and cashed at once, with no fear of rejection or drawbacks of any kind, as the 

grain is on the spot for inspection. Ship your wheat while the bags are in good condition. 

Since the erection of Warehouses and Docks, by G. W. McNear, at PORT COSTA, millions 
of dollars have been saved to the farmers in freights alone. 

Grain received from car or barge without extra expense of any kind to shippers, and prompt 
returns made. Each farmer's lot always kept separate. 

Wheat will be piled in 100-ton piles, when requested, without extra cost, if notified when 

Holders of wheat at this point have the full benefit of competition of all buyers for milling 
or shipping. We also have superior cleaning and smutting mills for the handling of all grades of 
inferior grain. Ship your wheat to Port Costa, care of G. W. McNear, and prompt 
returns will be made. No charge for weighing into the warehouse. 

For further information apply to 

O. T7V\ lYJIoIIMEAJFt, 306 California St., SL F\ 


fACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jlly 3, 1886 

Yuba County. 

(Compiled for the KniL Press.) 

Lying obliquely southeast of Hutte, east and 
north of Sutter and bordered more or less by 
the western limits of Placer, Nevada and Sierra 
counties, is Yuba. It includes nearly 400,000 
acres, of which fully one-half are foothill lands, 
and 17"),000 valley, largely under tillage. It is 
amply watered by the Yuba, Bear and Feather 
rivers and their tributaries. Springs are abun- 
dant and well-water is easily obtained. Tim- 
ber covers the mountain sides in the eastern 
portion. Fuel is plentiful in every township. 
Sand and limestone abound in the hills, and 
bricks are made everywhere. 

Yuba, now classed among the agricultural 
sections, was formerly a mining county. For 
several years following the discovery of gold in 
this State, it had a large and busy population. 
In the foothills and along the rivers and gulches 
thousands of men were engaged in digging for 
gold; but placer mining began to decline about 
1856, and Yuba, like nearly all the other mining 
districts, at once experienced a falling off in the 
number of its inhabitants. This decrease con- 
tinued for some years, until new and permanent 
industries were established, and the character 
of the population had greatly changed. In the 
mountain and foothill section of the county, 
notably at Smartsville and in that vicinity, hy- 
draulic mining, which superseded the placer 
system, was, until a year or two ago, main- 
tained on an extensive scale. Hut as this sys- 
tem had entailed immense in jury to the river 
channels, destroyed a vast area of agricultural 
land in the valley, and seriously threatened the 

12 years, and is still rapidly appreciating. The 
city is handsomely laid out, and contains many 
fine residences, public buildings, schools, etc. 
In the days of its prosperity it was regarded as 
one of the prettiest towns in the State, and it 
hopes soon again to claim that credit. 

Other places of note are Wheatland, the 
center of a rich agricultural district, and one 
of the most prosperous of the smaller towns, 
with 700 inhabitants; Smartsville, Campton- 
ville, Strawberry Valley, Brownsville and 

The famous Briggs orchard, whence came the 
chief fruit supply oi the State 25 years ago, 
was located in the southern part of the county, 
on the bank of the Yuba. As long ago as 1860 
this orohard contained nearly 70,000 peach, 
6000 pear, 4000 cherry, 30,000 apple, and 16,000 
other fruit trees. To day its site lies buried 
under 15 feet of slickeos, on which the chief 
vegetation is a wilderness of willows and cot- 
ton woods. In order to overcome the effects of this 
filling of the rivers from mining flow, the levee 
system of the county has been brought to a 
high stite of perfection. Vast sums of money 
have been expended to bring the levees to their 
present serviceable condition, and it is believed 
that little or no danger exists of future over- 
flows. The Yuba river is said to have had a 
great quantity of its debris washed out the past 
winter, thereby increasing the carrying capac- 
ity of its channel, and this cleaning out and 
deepening will continue each rainy season, with 
increased protection afforded by the levees. 

Severe as has been Yuba's experience in the 
past, we trust there is a bright future in store 
for her. There are for sale within her borders 
large areas of cheap foothill lauds, well adapted 
to all the fruits. There are several thousand 
acres of vineyards in the county, in which all 
the grapes of the world grow to perfection. 

swimming rink, dining hall and spring house, 
and during the warm months present a scene 
of stirring activity, when the tourist, the travel- 
er and invalids long to leave the crowded walks 
and heated atmosphere of the city and seek 
rest and repose in the secluded haunts of na- 
ture. The natural scenery and surroundings of 
this quiet retreat are all that the lover of na- 
ture could desire, being situated in one of the 
most beautiful and charming of Napa county 
valleys; one which possesses rare attractions of 
climate and scenery. It is like a gem set in 
the bosom of the evergreen mountains, giving 
one an ideal picture of the " sweet vale of Avo- 
ca," with its winding streams spanned by rustic 
bridges, its curving roads, well-kept, and af- 
fording pleasant driven, revealing glimpses of 
comfortable farm cottages, half hidden by wav- 
ing trees and orchards. The green and fertile 
fields are broken by mountain spurs and hill 
pastures, whereon feed Hocks of sheep, herds of 
fat cattle and bands of horses. Among the sur- 
rounding mountains, and within a radius of a 
few miles, are various other health resorts — 
Walters Springs, Samnel Springs, and Anguin's- 
ou-the- mount tin — all more or less patronized 
for the curative properties of their mineral 
water and the invigorating influence of mount- 
ain air, etc. 

The moderate price of land and the ease with 
which homes are obtained by persons of lim- 
ited means, is due to the fact that as yet the 
iron progenitor of progress — the railroad — has 
not penetrated this section. It is, however, 
hoped that in a short time this disadvantage 
will be overcome, as interested parties with the 
necessary capital are now engaged in taking 
preliminary steps toward the building ot a rail- 
road, to run from tide-water through portions 
of Napa valley and Chilis valley, tr&vers'ng 
Pope, and continuing into the heart of Lake 


Yolo County. 

(Continued from page lit.) 

to hear of any kind that has failed that has 
been tried; but fruits will not grow promiscu- 
ously as they do east of the Rockies, but every 
locality is especially adapted to some variety. 
While many localities may grow many kinds, 
there are others that can grow but few. The 
adobe soil in some places will not grow any 
kinds successfully but the pear, plum, apricot, 
fig and apple, while the gray loam will grow all. 

This county has an irrigating ditch that takes 
water from Cache creek, which supplies water 
to the alfalfa fields around Woodland. Some 
fruitmen use it, but not as much as formerly, 
for men are learning that the best quality of 
fruit is raised without irrigation. 

The vine will grow anywhere it is planted 
except the very poorest adobe land, and our 
raisins and wine have a world-wide reputation. 
R. B. Blowers, the man that took the pre- 
mium at the world's fair at Philadelphia in 
1876, lives at Woodland, and I think we can 
produce an article of equal quality yet. About 
the large grape yields that can be substanti- 
ated, it is useless to speak, as we wish to con- 
fine ourselves to matters that people will give 
credence to. However true those other mat- 
ters may be, let people see for themselves when 
they oome here. 


Our standard of education in our common 
schools is much higher than any other State I 
know of, and we have a college at Woodland, 
the county seat, called "Hesperian college," 
with always a good corps of teachers, and 
which has turned out many of our best men of 
this coast. In fact Woodland can rightly be 
called an educational town, as it has three 
large public schools besides the college. The 
facilities for learning are not any better any- 
where than here, and people avail themselves of 
them. We are a reading people and will very 
favorably compare with many of the older por- 
tions of the Etst. ThiB coast is not heathenish, 
as is said of us in the Fast, as those who know 
us can testify. All the towns in the county are 
well supplied with churches; Woodland has 
seven, and other towns in proportion to popu- 
lation, and they are usually well filled. Only 
(in this inland county) during the warmest part 
of the summer, while many go to the mountains 
and mineral springs, can any noticeable falling 
off in numbers be observed; and I will say that 
religion is not so much worn on the coat sleeve, 
but goes down into the pocket and feels sorry 
in dollars and cents for the needy and unfor- 

We will say to all who have been looking 
toward this coast for some time in view of 
giving us a visit: "Come and see us." Y'ou 
are welcome; we will treat you well. We are 
desirous of a good, solid, substantial element in 
our population that, with us, will help develop 
the great resources of this golden West. 


The principal town is Woodland, the county 
seat in point of numbers, with about 3500 
populatiou. Winters is located in the south- 
west, Madison in the west and Dunnigan in 
the north, Cacheville in the center and Knights 
Landing on the Sacramento river, nine miles 
northeast from Woodland. All are railroad 
towns. IUvisville in the south and Washington 
in the east I forgot to mention. Woodland has 
two daily papers, the Mail and Democrat, and 
five hotels, the Byrnes not much behind the 
finest in the State. There are two banks, Bank 
of Woodland and Bank of Y T olo; two water 
works, one flouring mill (steam), ice works, gas 
works, two wineries, oneTorewery, two planing 
mills, three warehouses. Main street is lighted 
by electricity. 


Land will run from $10 to $150 an acre out- 
side of town limits, and there are large tracts 
in this county that are being divided up into 
small ones, and sold to settlers desiring to 
engage in fruit culture. There is land where I 
live that can be bought or leased for a term of 
years to either raise vegetables or fruit. 

If my description seems to be incomplete, 
the fact of my being engaged in horticulture 
and not used to writing will account for it. 
Woodland, Cal. 

Fruit Drier on Exhibition. 

One of the Meeker Sun Fruit Driers, with all the latest 
improvements suggested by the experience ot last season, 
is now on exhibition at the factory, 5th and Bryant 
streets, on and after Monday, Jan. 25th. 

As now arranged we consider it much the most per- 
fect and economical of any of the various driers to which 
the attention of fruit-growers has been called. Its vari- 
ous productions are the perfection of purity and excel- 
lence, and at the same time the most economical in cost 
of production. Fruit-growers are invited to examine and 
test the drier and the fruit prepared in it Those using 
this drier last season realized handsome profits on their 

Consumption Cured. 

An old physician, retired from practice, having had 
placed in bis hands by an East India missionary the 
formula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and 
permanent cure of Consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, 
Asthma and all throat and lung affections, also a posi- 
tive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all Nervous 
Complaints, after having tested its wonderful curative 
powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to make 
it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by this 
motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I will 
send, free of c:iarge, to all who desire it, this recipe, ,iu 
fierman, French, or English, with full directions for pre- 
paring and using. Sent br mail by addressing with 
stamp, naming this paper, W. A. Notks, 149 Power s 
ck, Rochester, N. Y. 

existence of Marysville, the chief city of the 
county, suits were instituted to enjoin the oper- 
ating of these vast hydraulic mines. After 
long, tedious and expensive litigation in the 
State and Federal Courts, the famous Sawyer 
decision was rendered in favor of the plaintiffs, 
and as there seems, to be little if any probability 
that it will ever be reversed by the United 
States Supreme Court, the business of hydraulic 
mining may be considered as practically at an 
end. Outside of these mines, and some small 
manufacturing enterprises, the main business of 
the population is that of farming and horticul- 
ture. The valley and such of the bottom lands 
as have escaped injury from the flow of debris 
are very fertile and produce enormous crops of 
wheat, barley, oats, corn, hops and the whole 
range of vegetables. The foothills, which for- 
merly swarmed with miners, are regarded as 
specially adapted to horticulture. All the fruits 
of the semi-tropics are produced at an elevation 
of 1000 feet above tide-water. There are a 
thousand bearing orange trees in Marysville. 
Sicily and other kinds of lemons are grown. 
Fig, olive, and all the nut-bearing trees flourish. 

The whole population of the county is about 
14,000, 6000 of whom are found in Marysville, 
the county seat, at the junction of the Y'uba 
and Feather rivers. As early as 1852 3 several 
flouring mills were in successful operation in 
the wheat-growing section, and in 1867 a woolen 
mill was established in Marysville, which turned 
out as high as §200,000 worth of goods in a 
year. It is still in successful operation, and its 
products stand high in market. In the same 
city several large foundries have been main- 
tained, the bulk of their business coming from 
the mines in Yuba and other counties. In 
early days there was considerable steamboat 
traffic between Marysville and Sacramento, but 
this has greatly declined since the California 
& Oregon Railroad was constructed to that city 
and across the county. Occasional trips are, 
however, still made between these points, and 
even between Marysville and San Francisco, by 
small trading steamers, but the bulk of the 
business is done by rail. For many years 
Marysville was at a standstill, owing to the con- 
stant danger apprehended from flooding in con- 
sequence of the filling up of the river channels 
with debris; but, since the decision of the 
Federal Court perpetually enjoining hydraulic 
mining, this has been greatly changed, and it 
is claimed that real estate there now commands 
higher values than it has done in the last 10 or 

There are probably more than 300 miles of 
ditches, or canals, in the mining section, on 
which fl, 000,000 have been expended. These 
ditches are capable of supplying water sufficient 
to irrigate nearly the whole agricultural portion 
of the country. Constructed originally and 
maintained for many years for mining purposes, 
they constitute a grand water-power which will 
doubtless be utilized in the future by tillers of 
the soil. 

In addition to farming and fruit-growing, 
considerable attention is paid to dairying and 
stuck raising. The grazing interest of the 
county is large. There are extensive ranges in 
the mountains for all kinds of stock. 

The schools are as good as in any of the 
Fastern States. There are churches in all parts 
of the county. The press is represented by 
some of the ablest newspapers of the State. In 
short, it is hard to imagine any place offering 
the settler superior advantages to Yuba county. 

Secluded Haunts. 

JEtna Hot Springs in the Beautiful Pope 

At St. Helena one takes the stage for Pope 
valley, one of the most charming, but, as yet, 
secluded valleys in Napa county. Among its 
numerous attractions are .Ktna Hot Mineral 
Springs, a rural retreat and health resort. It 
is pleasantly situated at the upper end of the 
valley, at the base of the evergreen and fertile 
Howell mountain, which has in the past few 
years achieved an enviable reputation as a fruit- 
producing and vine-growing region, and is 
noted as a region of wondrous beauty, of fer- 
tility of soil and splendor of climate. 

The springs have been open to the public as 
a sanitarium and rural retreat for a period of 
eight or ten years, and during the past few 
years the grounds and buildings have been 
greatly improved and remodeled, until at the 
"present time they comprise a considerable rural 
village. A daily stage, conveying visitors to 
and from the springs, conneots with St. Helena, 
where a two hours' ride by rail brings you to 
the grand city of the Pacific Coast. The village 
comprises, besides numerous pleasant and roomy 
cottages, a postofhoe and public hall, bathhouse, 

county, piercing its rich valleys^and^famous 
mineral regions. 

Howell Mountain. 

Rising above the valley and partially encir- 
cling it is the beautiful and evergreen mount- 
ain of Howell. Along its green-crested sides 
and rising higher and higher until we reach its 
pine-fringed summit, the might of man has 
cleared in places the forest of its heavy growth, 
revealing the dark, loose and fertile soil. Many 
Bweet and comfortable homes nestle amid its 
pine-crowned bights, and midway up its ver- 
dant slopes is located the semi-tropical or ther- 
mal belt. Here flourish citrus fruits — the 
orange, lemon, fig, and, unsurpassed in richness 
of flavor, the purple clusters of the vine. 
Many acres of vineyard and orchard are planted, 
and many more acres of evergreen forest wait 
for strong arms and brave hearts to hew homes 
in this enchanting wilderness. The climate is 
uniform, the summer heat is tempered by the 
invigorating breeze from the ocean. Out of the 
reach of fog, out of the track of the north wind 
and above the frost belt, its attractions can 
scarcely be enumerated. Among its frowning 
chasms and aerial peaks is some of the grandest 
and most romantic scenery in Northern Cali- 

To the traveler, the tourist and health-seeker, 
and lastly, though not least, the emigrant, in 
search of a pleasant location and comfortable 
home, this lovely valley and its circle of mount- 
ains with their maDy advantages of soil, cli- 
mate, productions, beauty of scenery, rural re- 
treats and health resorts, offer better induce- 
ments and finer opportunities than many older 
settled and better known sections. *, * 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any sulwcribcr who 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intend* to pay 
for it, let him not fall to write us direct to stop it. A postal 
cord (costing one ceDt only) will suffice. We will not Know- 
iniilv send the paper to anyone who does not wish it, but 
if it is continued, through the failure of the subscriber to 
notify us to discontinue It. or some irresponsible party re 
nuested to atop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time it Is sent. Look t'AREri'LLY at the label on 


Cheap Money for Farmers. 

Farmers in this State will be glad to learn that 
hey can borrow on mortgage any amount, from 
$5000 to $500,000, from S. D. Hovey. 330 Pine St., 
San Francisco, at 6 to 7 per cent and taxes. •* 

Jctr 3, 1886.] 

f AClfie RUftAU fftESS. 





In Valley and Foothills. 

On River and Plain. 

740-Acre Stock Farm, Vineyard and Or- 
chard ; two-thirds can be irrigated. Situate 4 miles 
north of Folsom. l arge orchard and vineyard in full 
bearing; good crop of alfalfa; will 1)5 sold cheap. 
Great Bargain ! Could be divided into 10 good farm9 
of 74 acres each. Call at once for particulars. Price, 
$28 per acre. 

130 Acres. Thirty thousand bearing grapevines and 
300 assorted fruit trees, with abundance of timber, and 
20 acres alfalfa. One mile from Folsom. One cf the 
best homes in Ca'ifornia. Price, $7500; J cash. 

160 Acres Best Fruit Land, one mile east of 
Loomis. Great bargain. $45 per acre. 

160 Acres. Thirty acres in vines; all good fruit land, 
6 miles N. E. jof Folsom. $4000. 

80 Acres. Best fruit land, neir Ophir; well improve'', 
with best quality of fruit trees and vines. Price, $4500. 

40 Acres. Same character and similarly improved, 
and adj fining the above, both situate in Ophir, Placer 
county, Cal. $2500. 

All of the above are capable of irrigation; will be sold 

1007 Acres, on the east bank of the Sacramento 
River, at Kirkville. Finest soil in California. $75 per 

480 Acres Grain Land, 11 miles southeast of Sac- 
ramento. Improved, with crops, well fenced and good 
buildings. $35 per acre. 

160 Acres Improved Land, with crop. New two- 
story frame dwelling, large bams, granary, sheds, etc., 
with 5 acres of orchard and vineyard. Nine miles 
southeast of Sacramento. Price, $6000; J cash. 

160 Acres, 4 miles southeast of Florin, Sacramento 
county, improved, with 1C acres bearing vines, etc. 
$30 per acre. 

2574 Acres Improved Land, with buildings. 
About 0,0 acres meadow; sufficient timber for ranch 
use; all good grain land, abounding in living springs 
of sweet, clear water. Situate two miles weBt of 
Shingle Springs. Price, $7000; J cash. 

With many other smaller farms. Also, 9000 acres Hay 
Land in Lassen County, 3000 acres other lands adjoin- 
ing, commanding 20,000 to 30,000 acres best quality out- 
side range, making the best cattle range in California. 
An abundance of good water. All well fenced with 
barb wire on juniper posts. This is the celebrated 
Meadow Ranch Besides a great number of dwellings 
and city lots situate in the city of Sacramento. $50,000. 

43TMI the above lands are for sale cheap and title 

Call and get information at office. Room 
3, up stairs, Bryte's Building, southwest 
corner J and Seventh Sts., Sacramento. 

For information, address 


U. S. Commissioner, 
P. O. Box 204. Sacramento. Cal. 


If you want to Buy or Sell a 
Farm, apply to or call upon 


1 01 5 Fourth St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

Oldest and Largest Real Estate House in 
Northern and Central California. 




310 California Street, San Francisco 


t3TR. C. Galleoo, late Inspector of Bags for San Fran 
Cisco Produce Exchange. 

A Good Opportunity for a Ma- 

A variety of good Tools, Patterns, «tc, with business 
for sale cheap by a party retiring from business. A 
splendid opportunity tor an enterprising mechanic 

Address A. B. C, care of this paper. 

Rich and 

Careful attention paid 
to Country Orders. 

523 J St., Sacramento. 

Are within easy reach of all by tailing the 

j : ■■» ^— 


The various lines of which run from foot of Market Street marly the entire length 
of that great Tuouougiifake. 

mi Lines pass the MECHANICS' PEUILIDN and near to 

plaGes of 

\\ few minutes 
during '" 
the day 



Runs to Mission Dolores, 25th Street Station S. P. R. R„ and 28th Street. 

1 — g) "^j^^ j^ 1 "^^ ^ — * — ~~ ' 



lands passengers at the jr also lands passengers on 

Stanyan St. entrance of GOLDEN GATE | .Stanyan Street near the GRAND CONSERVATORY 
PARK and directly opposite to Y an <* within a short walk of 




CAL. j 



(. Proprietor. 



Clean Bweep on Plymouth Rock Chicks at 
Great California Poultry Snow at San Francisco, 
Jan. 11th to 16th, 1886. The Bi st ia the Cheap- 
est. Illustrated Catalogue sentfreeon applica- 
tion; worth 91 to any breeder of poultry. 
Send me your name on a Postal Card; 5000 
copies of fine Illustrated Catalogue for free 


Homes amid Fruit 
and Flowers. 

The Langford Colony has been located 
on the rit h alluvial soil of the Mokelumne 
Valley, two miles from the flourishing rail- 
road town of Lodi; one mile from Harmony, 
a station on the San Joaquin and Sierra 
Nevada Railroad, on the bank of the 
Mokelumne River. 

The soil of this Colony produces Corn, Alfalfa, all 
kinds of Vegetables, every Fruit of the Temperate and 
Semi-tropic zones; all of the nut-hearing trees; without 

It is the favored home of the Peach, Apricot, Orange, 
Lemon, Fig, Wine, Table and Raisin Grape. 

This Land will be sold in quantities to suit the pjr- 
chaser, on time, at low rates of interest. 

A settler here can support himself from the first day of 
location, and in two and one-half years can have an 
independent income. 

For soil, wafer, climate, market, school and church 
facilities, this Colony has advantages superior to any 
ever offered the home-seeker. 

Orchards and Vineyards on land less fertile than this 
yield from $300 to $500 per acre. 

itSTSEND fob Pamphlet. 


Agent for Langford Colony, 




Monarch Fence Machine, 


With one of these Machines a farmer can build his 
own fence cheaper and better than he can buy it, or 
make it by hand. TRY ONE. Send for Catilogue. 


628 MarKet Street, San Franc lsco 

Mechanics' Tools, 

Hardware, and Machinery. 


Berkshlres, old and young, registered, at farmers 
prices. Jersey Bull, 5 months' old. solid faun, very 
arge; also A. J. C. C. Bull, fashionable Btrain. Inquire 
Room 28, Merchants' Exchange, San Francisco. 



[Jcly 3 1886 

Stockton Notes. 

[Written for the Rural Tress by Mrs. \V. D. A.] 

June 12th the hardest norther ever known in 
June blew, twisting and lodging heavy grain 
into tedious cutting, and rattling out the brit- 
tle but juicy heads from three to five bushels 
to the acre, and snapping off many heads from 
the tall, slender straws. It was well that grain 
was so much advanced, for it shrunk late sown. 

These longest days of the year, the weather is 
breezy and comfortable. 

Harvest has begun. The resolute army has 
gone forth with combined machines and headers 
to the ingathering of the greatest harvest since 
1880. It is estimated to take 4000 'nules to cut 
the crop of the State. Truly, "there is work 
and bread for all; and the sun shines always 
there." And it does shine always here, if any 
place on earth. Bread is cheap; work is plenty 
:or patient, saving workers. Clothing is cheap, 
and summer calls for little. 

Houser, Minges ft Shippe's harvester factory, 
the largest on this coast (doubtless largest in 
the world), ha; sent out all machines made this 
year. Holt, Myers and other shops have ma- 
chiues running to the great satisfaction of 
owners. Harvesters in good grain average 300 
sacks daily with live men and from 10 to 18 
and 20 horses, cut fur 82 an acre and waste far 
less than headers, though they are still used by 
owners and where many trees are in fields, and 
because all harvesters do not dump the straw 
for stacking. 

No fires have occurred. Much grain is turn- 
ing out better than expected; other a little less. 
The bulk of the crop is not insured, though 
many have deemed it necessary because of care- 
less tramps. Wheat is worth only §1.20 per 

Butter is worth from 15 to IS cents. It is a 
good thing that Congress has taken time to 
hear the people; that the House has passtd the 
bogus butter bill with five cents a pound tax, 
and the Senate dare not do otherwise, for 
maker and consumer have been cheated long 
enough, and the making of tallow butter dimin 
ishes the number of cows kept, consequently 
runs down the fauns. 

A word about gardens possible here, this and 
many other years, with a little watering: 
Peas put in the first October rain, on table 
April 0th— last year, April 2d; cabbage, 10th; 
beans and potatoes, May 1.3th; cucumberB, June 
12th; corn, June 18th — fine ears without worms. 
Onions sown November 1st aid set and 
watered in May, Yellow Danvers and Silver 
Skins will be large August 1st. Of course, 
some years, frost may nip corn, tomatoes, cu- 
cumbers and squashes. Striped beetles always 
come the last of June, and late beans and vines 
have to be dusted with ashes, air-slacked lime 
or dubt, and given plenty of water. I save 
Hubbard squashes thus for plenty in winter; 
cut the last ons for pies June 22d. 

The 2.'ld the city voted on putting the liquor 
license up to $50 a month. Strenuous efforts 
were made on both sides, but saloons, by "a 
flowing matter of whisky," won by .'.SO major- 
ity; 2100 votes being cast. Some best citizens 
voted against it, urging that if men wanted to 
make beasts of themselves they would get it 
somehow. This may be so, but it would shut 
up some of the doggeries that draw into their 
toils the weak with their earnings. Ice-water, 
cake and ice-cream were furnished by ladies, so 
that none need go to saloons. If women could, 
the city would soon be rid of these vice-breed- 
ing retreats No sadder sight is seen than 
men stinding around the many fine saloons that 
line Main 6treet. Ninety -seven licensed saloons 
flaunt in Stockton. 

Dr. W. H. Mays, Superintendent of the State 
Insane Asylum, in a recent article, says 25 per 
cent of the insane are drunkards, and that it 
costs 8150 to keep a patient a year, and that 
most inebriates live years but are rarely cured, 
dementia usually succeeding. Not less than 80 
inebriates are cared for in this asylum year by 
year, at a cost of §12 000 a year. 

Spellman & Knealy, of Stockton, are to build 
the Gridley monument, theirs being the lowest 
bid— S177U. Something over 81400 was raised 
last year and put at interest, so that lees than 
8300 will have to be raised. The dedication 
will be next Decoration day. The State ought 
to help the family. The following has been in- 
troduced in the House of Representatives by 
Hon. Jas. A. Louttit : 

A Bill — To compensate Reuel Colt Gridley for 
services rendered during the late war. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury 
be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to pay to 
the heirs of Reuel Colt Gridley, late of California, 
the sum of $io,ooo, out of any sum now in the 
Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to compensate 
the said Reuel Colt Gridley lor the amount expended 
and services rendered by him during the late war in 
raising funds for the benefit of the United States 
Sanitary Commission. 

Cautious citizens and the City Government, 
as the Court-house, jiil and Hall of Records are 
to be built and the delinquent tax-list printed, 
decided not to incur the expense of celebrating 
the Fourth, but the firemen determined to 
parade and with fireworks flame through the 
sky the story of 1775. 

Stockton l'arlor, Native Sons, have taken the 
4 rmd old day into their hands, tco, and mean 
to have a nice celebration. 

The bill to legalize trades unions was passed 

in Congress, so we have an authorized body 

Anti riparian and riparian rights are all the 
talk now -a mighty subject with many sides. 
The riparians are willing that a part of the 
waters should be taken for irrigation, but not 
for monopoly. An Anti-Riparian Club is or- 
ganized here, which claims that the cattlemen 
monopolize the waters of most of the State. 

Stockton, June $6. 

Small Farms. 

A reader of the Rural, at Selma, Fresno 
county, asks us to publish the following: 

Selma, FreBno Co., Cal. 

Editor Irrigatok:--I noticed an ar icle in 
the Bulletin of the 5th inst., headed " Califor- 
nia Lands." The writer says: " Could small 
tract* of 20, 30 or 40 acres be readily obtained, 
the State would at once receive a considerable 
increase in population, for snull farms are being 
sought for, but few are being found. We think 
such statements as this should not go unchal- 
lenged, as they tend to stop the influx of immi- 
gration to California." 

I traveled all the State south of San Fran- 
cisco last fall, and have been from San Fran- 
cisco to Los Angeles within the last month and 
found no scarcity of small farms; in fact, nearly 
all the valley land upon which water can be got 
in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego 
counties is being sold in small tracts, the prices 
of which certainly rule high; but FreBno and 
Tulare counties have thousands of acres divided 
into small tracts, and would have much more if 
there was any demand, the general opinion be- 
ing that the supply is so much greater than the 
demand that it does not pay to subdivide, be- 
cause a man has to wait so long for purchasers 
and give such good terms to secure sales. Here 
in the southern part of Fresno county there are 
colonies being founded where land can be 
bought in tracts to suit over five acres, very 
reasonably, and some of ii, will be sold without 
any payment, the purchaser contracting to build 
and improve, and paying seven per cent for five 
years on the purchase money, so that men of 
very small means can procure good homes, and 
there are thousands of acres of land that can be 
rented for wheat at one-fifth the crop. Of 
course there are also lands in small tracts for 
sale in the northern part of the State, but the 
irrigated counties take the lead, as they are es- 
sentially adapted to the cultivation of email 

But so long as people will stay in San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles and wail for what they 
have not energy to inquire about or hunt up, 
so long will there be a scarcity of small farms, 
and plenty of people to write such paragraphs 
as the above mentioned, which are calculated 
to do great harm to this State ; like the old cry 
which went to the East that all California was in 
the hands of large holders and the prices of land 
were high. Such statements may apply to cer- 
tain portions of the State, but when applied to 
the entire State are falsehoods, which ought not 
to be allowed to go out to the world as truths. 

L. S. 

In accordance with the above we would state 
that this excessive demand is not for small 
farms unimproved but for well-improved places. 
There are but few improved places for sale; the 
owners, knowing their value, hold them at a 
very high figure or will not sell at all. As the 
writer of the above says, there are plenty of 
small tracts of unimproved land to be had at a 
very low price and on reasonable terms. — 
Selma Irrigator. 

Sacramento Notes. 

Mr. Van Gelder, of C. W. Reed & Co., the 
well-known Sicramento nurserymen and fruit- 
shippers, dropped into our sanctum one morn- 
ing last week. Their firm, he remarked, plants 
everything with a view to shipping — no hing 
for canning or drying. Speaking of the sea- 
son's yield in Sicramento county, Mr. Van 
tielder put apricots at a quarter crop. Growers 
there have given up planting Moorparks and 
the Peach 'cot is now the favorite. Peaches 
will scarcely exceed half a crop. The varieties 
chit fly raised are California and Early Craw- 
ford. Of pears, plums and prunes an average 
quantity is looked for, the stone-fruit, however, 
being not so heavy as last year. (J rapes are 
doing finely and give the same generous promise 
as in other districts. 

John Miller, of Walnut Grove, was in Sacra- 
mento June 24, and informed the Record Union 
that reports published concerning the lower 
Sacramento river country were hardly as favor- 
able as the facts warrant. While the fruit crop 
is short, the better prices being paid on ac- 
count of numerous buyerR will make the income 
to growers very satisfactory. Fruit-shippers 
are paying, in entire crop lots, to be delivered 
on river bank in crates, for peaches, three cents 
per pound and upward, and for prunes 81 per 
box and more. 

The tules are fast becoming dry enough to be 
plowed, and within two weeks will be put out 
to beans, potatoes and barley. 

Take a Receipt. 

Always takk a rf.cbut from a newspaper agent. Not 
simply because a few out ot many are tricky or carel.-88. 
but because accidents will sometimes happen to tbe best 
of busincs men. It is a favor due to be publisher that 
every subscriber sball take a receipt from the agent, or 
clerk whom they pay. All our receipts have a corres- 
ponding stub which agents are accountable for and are 
required to return. 

About Obtaining Patents. 

Patents are Virtually Contracts. 

The Patent Law provides that iu case a patent, which Is 

the evidence of the cont act, is not executel iu lompliancc 
with the requirement; of may ho MUHdlod and 
rendered void HettOC, H U cf the greatest importanco tj 
every Inventor that liii patent or contract he ( Willfully and 
accurately drafted, ia order that i : may afford him complete 
protection for fall invention during the life of bis pute t. 

Secure a Good Patent 

An inventor should firvt ascertain whether or not his tin 
provemeut has heeu pittnted to another. This nquiies an 
exhaustive search among all the patents in the class to 
wLich the invention relates. If, by this •'prelimia iry ex- 
amination," the improvement is fouud to have been pre- 
viously i„veuted, our e'.ieul will receive, for tbe small sunt of 
$o for tbe examination, a verbal or written report showing 
definitely wherein his inveution has been ant ci pitted, 
thereby saving him further expense and perhaps much time, 
anxiety, ft;. 

To avoid all needless delay, however, and secure patent! 
at the earli st mom nt practic ble, inventors will do well to 
forward a mod 1, f rawing or slieteh, with a pJUio, fu 1 and 
comprehensive descrlptiou of their inventiou (statiug dis- 
tinctly what the particular points of improvement are), with 
>"15 as a firi-t in tallnu-rit of fees. If the improvement ap- 
pears to us to be novel and pat ntahle, the necessary papers 
for an applica'iou for a patent will be prepared immediately 
and forwarded to the inventor for his tdgoature. When be 
receives the appiiru-ion and Audi it enly p epare 1, he will 
carefully fdgn and return the same plainly addressed to us 
with postal money order or express receipt for our own fee 
The case will then be promptly filed by us in the Patent 
Office, and vigorously prosecuted to secure the be t patent 
possible. [This course ll the most expeditious and satis- 
fa tory, as no time is lo t in transmitting correspondence 
relative tj the preliminary steps.] When the r»t nt is 
allowed the Inveutor will he duly notified, and on sending 
the final Oovernmeut fee of $20 to us, we will order the 
issue of tbe patent, and forward the same as soon as it is 
secured from the Patcut Office. 

Tb • payments are thus divided and made ea:y. We make 
DO pretense of doing c!iea;» work, fn order to entice custom, 
nor do we afterward make additional charges to bring the 
bill up to a fair compensation. We do our work honestly 
and thoroughly, and WO never give up a case so long as t h.-r ■ 
is a of obtaining a patent. The Agency charge, in- 
cluding drawiugs, rarely exceeds $40, an I for this we do a'l 
we can without appealing the case. 

Models and Drawings. 

Models are now seldom required by the Commissioner of 
Patents, and generally ouly in intricate cases. Perfect draw- 
ings ■ f practical working machines are more satisfactory to 
the Patent Office thau tbe old cumbersome system of stor- 
ing up an immense bulk i f countless models. 

Drawing* or sketches, sutHcieut to il ; untratc the invention 
clearly, w tb a description ti at will enable us to make a full 
set of perfect drawings tor the Patent Office, is all that we 
require. A model will an wer our purpose as well, however, 
i i cases where tbe Inventor can more cas-ly furnish it. 

The value and even tbe validity of a patent oft n depends 
on the character, clearness and sufficiency of its drawings. 
There are thousands of existing patents in which the lm> 
provementa are but partially or poorly illustrated in the 
.drawings When an attempt is made to OepOM of such 
paten's, the vaguenes j and defects ot the d:aw»Dgs eft n 
prejudice capitalists and manufacturers against the inven- 
tion, whil. In reality it may be of g eat value, and would 
meet with lead/ s»le had it been Fkillfully, completely and 
a tistically j ortrayed. Iu all cases prepared by u*. the 
drawings are made vnder <» :r personal Fuper.ision, by 
skilled draftsmen in our constant employ, and every precau- 
tion is taken to have the inven Ion ful'y and clearly shown 
by different views, bo that the improvement will be readily- 
understood by tbe Kxaminer.; i:i the Pa' cut Office, and com- 
prehended by tbe public when the patent ia granted. 

Advantages to Inventors on the Pacific 

The firm of Dewey & Co. has edited and published the 
Minimi and BommPIO Pnsss continuously si'.ice 18t>0, 
a period of 23 years. Few agouts, who are sti 1 engage! in 
the business, have bad BO long -extended practice in patent 
soliciting. The members of the firm g've pcriou 1 atten- 
tion to tbe application i intrust jd to their care; and their 
familiarity with inventions and with local affairs in the 
Pacific tates and Territories, enables tlicin to understand 
the wauts of inven-ors on this coast IT Ore readily and 
thoroughly, as we believe, than any other agents in America. 
Thus there is saved a great deal of the time which ordinary 
—when d stan*. agcu I are employed - is wasted in p elimi- 
DM7 writing back and forth. 

Th's happy-combiuatiou of Ion? business experieuco to- 
gether, and wide connections, has placed our firm iu a posi- 
tion unquestionably most fortunate for affording InvcntOM 
prompt and leliable advice, and the belt facilities f.>r secur- 
ing their full patent ligats with s fe'y and i.ispatc!» at 
uniformly reasonable rates. 

Every patentee of a worthy Inv ntion is guaranteed the 
gratuitous publication of a clearly-ctatcd and 00 rect de- 
scription of his inventiou, in one or mere of our iuflueu'ial 
and reliable newspapers, affording just the circulation best 
calculated to widely inform the class of readeis especially 
interested in the subject of Ins invention. 


A Caveat is a confidential communication made to tbe 
Patent Office, and is therefore filed within its secret archives. 
The privilege secured under a caveat is, that it entitles the 
caveator to receive uotice, for a period of one year, of any 
application for a patent sub3equeutly filed, which is ad- 
judged to be novel and is likely to interfere with the intui- 
tion described in the caveat, and the caveator is then re- 
quired to complete his appl cation for a patent within three 
uon:hs from the date of said notice. Caveat papers should 
he very carefully prepared. Our fee for the service varies 
from flJ) to ^'2J. The Government fee i» * addi louai. 

To enable us to prepare cave t paper?, we require only* a 
sketch anl description of the invention. 

Rejected Applications. 

Inventors who have rejected ca»es (prepared either b; 
themsehea or for them by other agents) an 1 desire to ascer- 
tain their prospects of succ sa by further efforts, are invited 
to avail themselves of our unrivaled facilities for seciring 
favorable result*. We have been successful iu securing Let- 
ters Patent in many previously abandoued cases. Our terms 
are always reasonable. 

Inventors doing business with os will be notified of the 
state of their application in the Patent Office whenever It la 
possible for us to furnish such information. 


Patent Solicitors, Office of Scientific Press. 252 Market 
St Elevator entrance. No. 12 Front St., S. F. 

OEO. H. STRONO. W. B. EWER. A. T. W w, y. 



Cures all Diseases originating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD ox 
LIVER. Rheumatism, Neuralgia 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula , 
Tumors, Salt Rheum and Mercurial 
Pains readily yield to its purifying 
properties. It leaves the Blood pure , 
the Liver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 
J. R. CATES & CO. Proprietors, 

•417 Sansome St. San Francisco 



Puts 10 Tons in a Box Car. 
Bales from 1 to 15 tons per day. 

Any young man can earn more on an invest- 
ment of $600 in this press than can be earned 
in expending $2000 for any other machine. 

Sold on Easy Payments. Address 


we sell: 






8ekd for Catalooib. 

UNCLE Sam has found it at last! 
A sure remedy for Torpid Liver, 
Sick Headache, Habitual Constipation, 
Chills and Fever, and all affections of the 
Kidneys and Liver. This is a Now Com- 
pound, and one trial will convince yon 
that it is the Cheapest and Best Remedy 
in tho Market for Diseases of Kidneys, 
Liver and Stomach. If you .want a pure 
vegetable compound, that is positively 
guaranteed to contain no mercury, go to 
your Druggist, and get a Bottle of tjie 
Arkansaw Liver and Kidney Remedy. 
Price, $1.00 per Bottl e. „ 



Mechanics' Institute Fair, 

Opens August 24th, Closes September 25th, 

--IN TIJB1K — 



PACIFIC CO\sT, including a magnific nt collection of 
Oil and Water Color Paintings, Art Work, and Photog- 
rapliv: MACHINEhY in operation; a SPECIAL FLORAL 
EXHIBIT each week; tho fln'st rUspiay of FRUITS, 
GRAINS, and VEGETABLES ever before presented to 
the people, and a Grand Instrumental Concert day and 

if 1 . «• San Franc'sco and North Pacific Rai'rnad Coin- 
pan) and the South Pacific Coatt Railroad Comiany, and 
the steamers under the manag ment of Messn*. Goodall, 
Perkins & Co. will transport perishable articles consigned 
to the Mechanics' Institute Exhibition free of cl ar- e, 
and other articles at half rates. 

LIBERAL PREMIUMS of Gold, 8i'ver and Bronze 
Medals, Diplomas and Cash will be awarded. Membeis 
of the Institute entitled to Season Tickets at half rates. 

Prices of Admission— Double Season Ticket, ?5; s'ng'e 
Setson Ticket, £t; Adult's Snide Admission, 60 Coins; 
Children's Single Admission, 25 Cents. 

Full information given or sent on application to the 
Assistant Secretary, 31 Post St. 

W. P. Sxotrr, Sec'y. P. B. Corhwal', Pre«. 

J. H. Gilmore Sup't. J. H. Ci'lver, Ass't Sec'y. 

July 3, 1888] 

f ACIFI6 FyjRAl* f RESS 


GEO. F. PRATT, Sec'y and Gen'l Manager 


C. S. CHAMBERLAIN, President. 

(Incorporated June 22, 1885.) 






FACTORIES— Oakland, Cal., and Lowell, Mich. 

California Office and Factory— Cop. San Pablo Ave. and Peralta St., Oakland. 


No. 5— Side Spring Piano-Box Buggy, without Top. 

No. 10— Same kind, except with Corning Body, without Top. 

No. 100— Lowell Business Wagon, Plain Body, with one or two seats, and 
with or without drop-end gate. 

No. 5-Side Spring Piano-Box Buggy, with Top. 
No. 10— Same kind, except with Corning Body, with Top. 

These Buggies are hung on the long, easy side spring, the springs being outside of 
the body, instead of under it, thereby obtaining the entire benefit of the spring. 

105-Lowell Business Wagon. Panel Body, with one or two seats, and 
wlih or without drop end-gate. 

These Business Wagons have movable seats. These wagons are intended to take the place 
of a heavier wagon for light delivery purposes, and are also very handy for use on Fruit Ranches. 
Being hung low, they are especially adapted for Sewing Machine Wagons. With an extra seat 
they make just the wagon for family purposes. 


We are convinced that no manufacturer can successfully make all the numerous styles of vehicles that are called for, as good, or as low in pries, as one who confines himself to a few styles. 
By making a few styles, we can give closer attention to each one, and the result will be more perfect work, and therefore better satisfaction to our customers. All of our Vehicles are made with 
the same discriminate care as if ordered by special customers, and hence those who desire a strictly first-class job can obtain it from us without being subjected to the over-tax of fancy prices, 
and not receive a corresponding value therefor. We are making a few styles, and while there are many kinds of Vehicles we cannot furnish you, our great point is, that on those we do make, 
we can offer you very superior advantages and defy all competition. Would call particular attention to the fine Wheels and Bodies we are using. 

These Vehicles must not be classed with the cheap Eastern goods which are made only to sell. They are as good as the best made and less in price. We make and sell first-class, 
substantial, and durable work at about the price of Eastern cheap work. Buying our material in large quantities directly from the manufacturers', and using the latest improved 
machinery, we are enabled to do this. 

We have Single and Double Harness, HAND MADE, made from OAK LEATHER, on which we are prepared to meet the 
closest competition. 

ONSend for Circular giving full description of the material used, terms of warranty, etc. We particularly invite a personal inspection of our factory, where can be seen the material 
used, the process by which they are manufactured, and the vehicle in different stages of construction. We ask you for a sample order, guaranteeing that we will give you satisfaction in price 
and quality. WRITE FOR PRICES. 

Lowell Manufacturing Company, 

r>. o. 




[Joly 3, 1886 

Grain Storage and Shipment. 

The Great Establishments on Carquinez 

At the meeting of the American SDciety of 
Mechanical Engineers, held last month in Chi- 
cago, a paper on "Handling Grain in Califor- 
nia" was jead by John H. Cooper, of Philadel- 
phia. The writer treated first of the charac- 
teristic California invention, tho combined har- 
vester and its operation, matters with which 
readers of the Ri'ral Press are quite familiar. 
This year the manufacturers of these machines 
have been unable to fill all the orders received for 
them. Another portion of Mr. Cooper's paper 
treats of the grand warehouses lately con- 
structed on Carquinez Straits, and this part of 
his essay, with the engravings, we reproduce 

A glance at the map of California shows that 
almost the whole of the watershed from the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, which rise along the 
entire eastern boundary of the State, is de- 
livered into the beds of two great connecting 
rivers and valleys: that of the Sacramento 
coming down from the north and that of the 
San Joaquin running up from the south, both 
areas forming an immense basin and covering a 
space in the aggregate apparently one-third of 
the whole State. The one natural outlet for 
all these waters is through a chain of bays, 
chief of which is the Bay of San Francisco, 
extending to the southward from the open way 
to the sea, and lying nearest to it. The waters 
first unite in Suisun bay, which lies to the 
extreme eastward, thence they pass to north- 
eastward through the Straits of Carquinez into 
the Bay of San Pablo, which rounds the 
northernmost end of the group; from this on 
the flow is to the southward, meeting the 
waters of San Francisco bay, whence all move 
westerly into the Pacific ocean by way of the 
Golden Gate. Somewhere on the shores of 
these grandest of bays, a shipping point would 
naturally be selected; not necessarily very near 
to the city of San Francisco, because the main 
line of railway does not reach it, nor yet, as 
thoy are made on any available part of the 
shores of any one of these bays, because of 
their very wide and shallow beaches, which 
would necessitate long and costly approaches 
and track extensions, providing it is desirable 
to build a warehouse, as it must be, beside the 
deep waters. 

The location, although 35 miles from San 
Francisco, is well chosen; it lies opposite the 
town of Benicia, on the southern shore of the 
Straits of Carquinez, two miles northeast of 
Martinez and one mile southwest of Port Costa; 
the port of entrance of all west bound trains, 
which is made over the back of the Solano, the 
largest ferry-boat, so called, in the world. 

The available ground for building is nar- 
row between the place of deep water and 
the lines of railway which run closely to the 
bulk of the hills. In plan the littoral edge 
is curved, with the greater circle at the base 
of the hills; the radius roughly stated is 
a mile, having its center located somewhere 
within the precincts of Benicia. This slender 
segment of wetted foot- land embraced in the 
site of building and track departures has a 
chord of 325C feet. Within this crescent figure, 
curving with its curve to a radius of 47'23 feet, 
the buildings and approaches have been 
erected, the whole structure resting upon driven 
spiles, which are surmounted by a solid and 
even floor above the level of the main lines of 
railway. The scour of the outflowing waters 
during the run of the tide through this bend is 
sufficient to keep it as now, a very deep chan- 
nel, always open. 

A panoramic view of the whole structure is 
offered in Fig. L, as it now stands, beyond 
the waters of the strait, with a line of ships at 
wharf, trains of cars upon the railway ap- 
proaches, and with a background of rounded 
hills, the usual horizon of a California land- 
scape. This is reproduced from a photograph 
taken from .the Bjnicia side of the strait, and 
admirably pictures the immense storage and 
shipping establishment erected by and con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Nevada Ware- 
house and Dock Company. 

The improvements of this company, compris- 
ing the docks, buildings, and railway switch 
connections, cover, under franchise grants of 
the Board of Supervisors, 3250 feet in length, 
and a width from of 150 to 300 feet, or there- 
abouts, of State submerged land. The dock 
frontage of 2300 feet will afford space for eight 
or ten large ships, with facilities for hauling 
into or changing berth and loading, which are 
nowhere else to be found. The warehouses, 
of which there are two sections, one of 770 
and the other of 912 feet in length, 
have in their greater extent a width of from 
110 to 170 feet, with over 190,000 square feet 
of floor area, and 20 feet clear hight for storage. 
Besides which, under the trestle supporting the 
covered elevated double railway track on the 
water front side of the warehouses, is an area 
of over 80,000 square feet, completely protect- 
ed from weather apd largely available for stor- 
age should there be occasion to use it for this 

The elevated double track, which, by an 
easy rising grade from the main line of railway, 
brings the grain-loaded freight cars on to a 
platform 50 feet wide and 11 feet above the 
floors of the warehouses and wharves, is com- 

pletely covered and protected from weather. 
This elevated road is one of the grand 
features of the establishment. It extends 
the entire length of the whole ware- 
house system, whence bags of grain from the 
cars can be slid down chutes to the warehouse 
floor or into the holds of vessels by aid of grav- 
ity alone. These tracks are on the water-front 
side of the warehouses, while another track ex- 
tends the whole length of the warehouses on the 
shore side, all of which connect with the tracks 
of the Southern Pacific Railway. This accom- 
plishes a meeting of rail and water transpor- 
tation in a way most favorable to the economical 
handling of the staples of the country. 

Between the approaching ends of the two 
warehouses is a epace of 150 feet. On the ele- 
vated railroad side of this, and near midway, is 
a handsome three-story office building with 
high attic, mansard roof surmounted by an 
ornate cupola. The first story on the wharf 
level is. fitted up for offices and occupied by 
grain-shipping firms. In the second story, 
on the level of the elevated railway track, are 
arranged the counting-rooms of the company. 

The third story is provided with sleeping 
apartments and conveniences for the resi- 
dent manager, while the high attic contains 
capacious water supply tanks. Additional 
buildings, including a hotel for the accommoda- 
tion of the large staff of weighers, clerks, ship- 
ping agents and others, have been built follow- 
ing the completion of the warehouses and to 
meet the exigencies of the growing business. 

j veyer. The upper pulley, E, carrying the ele- 
I vator belt, is secured upon a shaft whichis driven 
: by the main line of shafting through counter- 
shafts and bevel gears. The lower elevator 
j pulley, E, is carried in a tightener slide beneath 
the table '/*, upon which the bags are placed, 
ready to be slid on to the rests of the elevator 
belt over a grating in the table top through the 
slits of which the rests pass in their upward 
flight. The carrying capacity of these elevators 
is 20 sacks per minute. 

The conveyer D is an endless double chain of 
iron links embracing steel axles, with a flanged 
wheel running loosely upon each end of each ; 
the links are connected crosswise by strips of 
wood securely bolted, three to each pair of 
links. Upon these strips of wood the bags are 
delivered lengthwise at D by the elevator E. 

Continued double tracks, composed of light 
iron bars, " edge laid " upon wooden stringers, 
extend above and below the roof tie beams near- 
ly from end to end of warehouse. The conveyer 
is capable of b<ung driven in either direction at 
a speed of 1G5 feet per minute, by proper open 
and crossed belts upon countershaft pulleys ; 
spur gears being employed to overcome the 
great resistance of so long a linkage laden with 
weight of many bags of grain at once. 

The in Its run on large pulleys at high speed 
on a level with the tie beams and within com- 
mand of hands at warehouse floor by conven- 
ient strap shifters. 

The cross conveyers, of which there are four, 
run from the main conveyer to points over the 

into car or ship, or they may be sent from the 
middle of the warehouse to either end. 

This machinery will deposit bags of grain 
into hold of ship as fast as they can be taken 
from stacks and weighed and tracked over the 
warehouse flaor to the nearest elevator. 

The number of bags that can be gotten out of 
a car, slid down the chutes, and delivered upon 
the conveyor by one elevator in one hour, 
is about 1200. The main conveyer has 
a longitudinal movement in either direc- 
tion throughout the whole length of the ware- 
house connecting with four conveyers moving 
transversely toward car or ship, and provided 
with seven elevators extending from floor to tie- 
beams of the roof, equally spaced along the 
main line of transfer. When these are taken in 
connnection with the elevated railway, upon 
any part of which cars can be placed, with 
the wharf extending the whole length of the 
warehouse where ships can lie in berth, and the 
faculty with which numerous chutes can be 
placed in descending lines from any chosen 
number of elevated points, it can be readily 
seen that the whole area of the warehouse floor, 
the entire lines of wharf and railway, are 
within easy reach. Finally, it may be add- 
ed, that to any point desired on these a 
continual stream of bags of grain can be auto- 
matically sent and delivered. 

At present this system of handling bags of 
grain is confined to warehouse No. 2, but a sim- 
ilar plant can be extended throughout the en- 
tire area of warehouse No. 1, by carry ing the 


The power for driving the grain clean- 
ing and grading machinery, the sack 
elevators and carriers, the fire pump 
and other machinery, is furnished by a 
100 horse-power O'Neil cut-off engine and hori- 
zontal tubular boiler, and iB carried by a line of 
shafting under the main floor, through the 
grading house, across the western end of ware- 
house No. 2 to the water side, where it is fur- 
ther employed to operate a swinging crane for 
discharging ballast and a series of " gipsies," or 

elevated railway, delivering the bags to a hight 
about level with the top of a car body. They 
are run at a speed of 220 feet per minute, and 
are composed of heavy belts with cross strips of 
wood, the ends projecting beyond the edges of 
the belt and resting upon and are guided by 
ways framed to and supported by the building. 
The return fold of the belt is allowed to sag 
freely, and by its own weight produces suffi- 
cient grip upon the 5 foot driving pulley C, 
which is located beneath the main conveyer so 

conveyer and shaft lines for driving the eleva- 
tors across the intermediate space between the 
two under a covered way and over a supported 
framework at even hight of present conveyer 
and in same line therewith. 

Ths followiug statement will show the ton- 
nage of grain handled at Nevada dock, Port 
Cista, from June 1, 18S4, to June 1, 1885: 

Fla-,'9 of Vessels Loaded. No. 

American 55 

British 98 



small, vertical windlasses, set at distances of 
200 or 300 feet apart between the tracks of the 
elevated railway, and around which a turn of 
rope can be thrown as they revolve, to draw 
loaded freight cars to any desired point, when 
there is no locomotive at hand, to haul ships 
into the dock, change their berths, and perform 
other pulling service. 

The grading house is provided with the best 
and most improved grain cleaning and grading 
machinery, and has a capacity of 600 sacks per 
hour, or 800 tons in 24 hours. 

Ernes of 0", 5" and 4" iron water pipes ex- 
tend from the steam pump in the engine-room 
the entire length of the warehouses and dock 
range ; these are furnished with 33 hose con- 
nections, at distances of about 128 feet apart, and 
on each side of the warehouses to which sections 
of standard San Francisco Fire Department 
hose are attached ready for use. An auxiliary 
tire engine pump and boiler for rapid steam 
generation are located and arranged for quick 
use in case steam is not " up " in the larger 

A cross sectional view of warehouse No. 2, 
cut through the end near the space between the 
two where the motive machinery is placed, is 
given in Fig. 2, showing, in a general way, 
and without much regard to exactness of dimen- 
sion or fullness of detail, the mechanical appli- 
ances for elevating the bags of grain to a higher 
level and for conveying them back and forth 
and across the warehouse. The relative posi- 
tions of ships at wharf and the cars upon the 
elevated railway are plainly seen. 

The elevators, of which there are seven, are 
located at nearly equal distances along the line 
of the main conveyer, D. They consist pref- 
erably of broad, heavy belts to which steel 
brackets or rests are riveted in cross lines of 
three each, each set properly distanced to give 
time for hands to place the bags upon them, as 
also to enable bags to get out of the way of one 
another in transit from the elevator to the con- 

as to receive the bags therefrom and 
send them across the warehouse in 
the direction of the arrow F over the belt 
returning pulley, C This pulley is carried on 
adjustable beariugs in a framework supported 
upon the floor of the elevated railway. 

The gravity transfer of the bags is conducted 
on inclined chutes, on which, when worn smooth 
by use, and having guiding strips on each edge, 
the bags are found to run on a descent of about 
one in four. 

These chutes are portable and adjustable 
every way, and are shown in some of the po- 
sitions in which they are used. Nos. 1 and 2 
extend from car door to table, T, where the 
bags are placed in succession against, and 
to be taken by the up-going belt of the 
elevator. Nos. 3, 4, 5 and G are placed to right 
and left from the conveyer to any stack, S. 
No. 7 is fixed in position between the main con- 
veyer and the cross conveyer, and Nos. 8 and 9 
conduct the bags into the hole of a ship from 
the pulley C of the cross conveyer. 

The discharge of the bags from the main con- 
veyer at any desired point is effected by a 
smooth-faced board placed upon edge close over 
and at an acute angle with the line of the con- 
veyer. The head end is firmly secured, and the 
tail end rests loosely in a vertical slit. This 
arrangement, simple as a railway switch, acts 
as well in practice. It yields to the bags 
at first contact, and then Btraightena out 
automatically with the persistence of a spring, 
throwing the bags from the conveyor "end on," 
to finish their journey down the chntes, thus 
illustrating the ease with which movement is 
made after motion begins, when the difficulty of 
"starting" friction is overcome. 

Bags of grain can be brought from any part of 
the warehouse to be cleaned and graded, if 
necessary, and returned to be restacked after 
this process has been completed; they may be 
sent from either end to the other extreme end, 
taken over the distant cross-conveyer and put 

German 5 

Norwegian i 

Dutch 1 

Italian 2 

French 1 

Total number 161 

Total quantity of grain in warehouses on 
storage at any one time during the year, 78,000 

The total quantity of grain put on board of 
vessels out of cars, craft and warehouses for the 
year, 327,688 tons. 

These warehouses were erected under the 
superintendence of Mr. Ira Bishop, who also in- 
vented and patented the bag handling machin- 
ery, which was planned and made at the shops 
of the San Francisco Tool Company at the time, 
under the management and superintendence of 
Mr. John Richards. 

The engines, boilers and main lines of 
shafting were made and erected by the Union 
Iron Works. 

It is an agreeable task to write of things seen 
in a land the visiting of which was a delight, 
the leaving of which was a regret and the retro- 
spectof whichismore thanaremembrance. When 
so many substantial evidences are seen, as now, 
of prosperity in agriculture, in manufactures 
and in commerce, we may lament the waste of 
work and life in the rage for getting grains of 
gold, but wc can feel glad that this has given 
way to the more peaceful pursuit of raising 
golden grain. No longer does glitter of metal 
alone tempt the fortune seeker from Eastern 
homes and occupation. The insignificant nug- 
get which first met the eyes of James Marshall 
in the saw-mill race at Coloma, fancy may form 
into the first link of a golden chain which now 
represents $1,500,000 000 of the world's wealth 
of precious metal. Vast as is this sum, it is 
trivial when compared with the value of the 
yield of the soil, and the worth of this is not to 
be measured wholly by the money which it 
brings in the world's market. 

July 3, 1886.] 






And best of Hardened Plow Steel Bottoms, with Land Gauge 


This new departure in the construction of 
Sulky Plows is fast winning immense popu- 
larity everywhere. The J. I. C. Gang, with 
two 12 or 14-inch bottoms weighs only 600 

It Cannot be Strained or Broken. 

It is the easiest managed Gang Plow, be- 
cause it has a power lift, and the lowering and 
raising of the Plows is done by the horses. 


Is constructed on the same principle as the 
Gang, and is made of steel throughout. 
Weight only 400 pounds. Made with 14 and 
16 inch bottoms. 

The above Plows are, without doubt, the 


And therefore the strongest and easiest man- 
aged. Order one on trial and be convinced. 
Prices same as for iron-frame Plows. 

ARTHUR W. BULL, Sole Agent, 



Also Agent for "Racine Chilled" Plows and the "Case" Steel Walking Plows, 







Wyandottes, Plymouth Rocks, Light Brahmas, Hou- 
dans, Langshans, White Leghorns, Buff Cochins, 
Partridge Cochins, Creve Coeurs and 
Bronze Turkeys. 


Held in San Francisco, Jan. 11th to 16th, 
1st on White Leghorns. 
2d on Houdans and Light 

2d on Bronze Turkeys. 

Cochins I have added to my 
Yards since January. They 
will speak at the next show. 

OTBy sending your address 
on a postal card, I will send you 
a finely illustrated Catalogue 
free, worth one dollar to any 
breeder of poultry. 

SALE after Sept. 

I have a fine lot of them, and, 
for the quality of the birds, 

An extra fine lot of White 
Leghorn Cockerels to sell now; 
hatched in February. 

Remember that if you are 
breeding Thoroughbred Poul- 
try, the Best is always the 

5000 Catalogues for free dis- 
tribution. Don't forget to send 
me your name. Address as 
above and mention the Ritral 



Seaside Resort! 


Camping Ground. 


Witliiii the Means of All! 



Choice Building Lots 


Water Supply. 


New JRink! 

School Facilities. 



The Methodist Camp Meeting Commences Jur>e 10, 1886. 

lie Cal. Annual Conference of the M. E. Church Commences about September 9, 1886. 
Is Open the Year Round. Seating Capacity, 450 Persons 

TERMS FOR BO \RD— By the Week, $7.00, by the Day, $1 ; Single Meals, 50 Cts. 

for Further Informaiion, address SUPERINTENDENT "Pacific Grove," Monterey, Cal. 





Carriages, Buggies and Wagons. 



Factory Sonttl BeM, III 201 Market St., San Francisco. 



[July 3, 1886 



The next term of this well-known Institution will 

commence on 

Wednesday August 4. 1886. 

For Circulars givinj; particulars, address 


Mills Seminary P. O., Alainoda Co., Cal. 


San Francisco, Cal. 


Young Ladies and Children, 

1222 Pine St., San Francisco. 

Thorough training in practical studies and accomplish- 
ments, and p!oasant surroundings, are the principal ad- 
vantages offered. 

Fall Term Opens July 26, 1886. 

For Catalogues and particulars, apply to MKS. S. B. 

RKrr.RKNCBS— Kt. Hcv. W. L Kip, Rishop ot California; 
Rev. C. O. Tillolsun, Santa Cruz; Hon. C. H Hartson, 
Napa; John I). Yost, San Francisco; F. A. Hihn. Santa 
Cruz; E. J. Wilson, Vallcjo; Capt. A. D. Wood, San Fran- 
cisco; Eugene Sherwood, San Francisco. 




Fall Session Will Open July 28, 1886. 

Faculty Consists of 12 Members. 


Classical, Philosophical, and Scientific Courses leading to 
the degrees of A. B., B. Ph., and B. S. 

Preparatory Department Course In Music, 
Art, and Elocution. 

of teachers of experience and ability, ohosen with 
special reference to their work. 

The Commercial Department is well provided with 
faclities for acquiring a Thorough. Practical Business 

Delightful climate, pleasant surroundings, with home 
on grounds where parents may know that their lOHMd 
daughters are carefully guarded, and under the direct 
supervision of the faculty. 

For Catalogue or information, address 

A. E. LASHER, President. 

California Military Academy, Oakland, Cal. 


Write lor Circular. I .im Ai;cnt for this l'ress/ 


Manufactu * 

G25 Sixth Street, San J^ranciseo. v 


El Cajon, Cal., August 1, 18S5. 
We have pressed 400 tons with our Whitman Hay Press. 
We have pressed from sin 14 tons a day; in grass hay, from 
8 to 10 tons per day with ease; we have pressed in grain hav, 
8 tons in 6 hours. In grain hay, hales run from 1 80 to 840 
pounds; in grass hay, 1 25 to 190. We have pressed 1 90 
pounds with 1 feeds, which the 1 ' ' Press cannot do, as 
their fee! box is smaller. Our bales arc much smoother and 
more tightly than those made in the * * * Press. We 
have averaged 15 tons a day in wild oat hav. 



PRESS No. 1 $270 00 

PRESS No. 2 300 00 

The No. 1 Press makes a bale 16x18 inches, vari- 
able length, and presses 8 or 10 tons a day. The 
No. 2 Press makes a bale 18x22 inches, variable 
length, and will bale from 10 to 14 tons i day. 

These are unquestionably the BEST MADE and 
FASTEST Perpetual Presses, and are guaranteed 


Special Feature— Commercial Department. Next Term 
begins July 19, 1SS6. Send for circular. 

COL. W. II. O'BRIEN, Principal. 

A Srlrct School eor Young Lames.— The next ses- 
sion will begin Monday, August 2, 1886. For catalogue 
or information address the Principal, Rev. Edward B. 
Church, A. M., 1036 Valencia St., San Francisco, Cal. 



1020 OAK ST.. - - OAKLAND, 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 28th. 1896. 




Monday August 2, 1886 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 



24 Post St. S. F 

Senvl for Circular 



First-class Boarding School for Boys. 

Preparatory, Commercial, and Academic Classes. 

Prejiaratory Department, $:<0 per school month. Com- 
mercial and Academic Department, $3r> per school month. 

Next Term will begin Monday, August 
2, 1886. 


Oakland, - - - Alameda Co., Cal. 

A Preparatory School for Young Men and Boys. 
j&TSext Term will commence on Monday, July 1!), 


Healthful location, pleasant home, and thorough 

School. Send fur circular, 

D. P. SACKETT, Principal. 

• Telegraph Institute 


Open day and evening for /? 
both sexes. Expenses less C//Q ^7 S/s> s; 
than one-half the usual HjV wls-yc j 
rates. Excellent board in (7 
private families from $Hto $10 per month. Ad. 
1r>-s^, for College Journal hihI Circulars, 
J. C. BAINBKlDGE, Principal. Stockton. CaL 


The Business Train- 
ing School of the Pa- 
ct nc (Joast. Graduates 
assisted in obtaining 
employment send for 
College Journal Ad- 
dress E. C. Atkinson, 
Sacramento, ual. 

Intkrkst Mads East, the 

shortest and. most practical method, by mail, 50 cents. 

ACME " WHEELED The Z. O. 50 P. C. 


As shown above, with two rakes 
like this, $178. The cheapest 
stacking outfit. Will stack, 
from swath, 40 or 50 tons per day. 



Will Riding Attachment. 



Hardware, Iron, Steel and Coal. 


Two or Four Point. Painted or Galvanized 


Sporting Goods 




Fishing Tackle of Every Description. 


Snell Seminary for Young Ladies, 


Fall Term Begins Monday, August 2, 1886. 

0"Full Seminary Course of Instruction given. Pupils fitted to enter the State University 
and Yassar or Smith College. Send for Jujjlir r 

MARY E. SNELL. > D . , , 
RICHARD B. SNELL, | Principals. 



It exterminates House Flies, Mosquitoes, Moths, Ants, Bedbugs, and 
all Destructive Insects upon Vines, Fruit Trees, Plants and Shrubbery. 

IT WILL PAY TO USE IT, for it reduces the bills for kalsomin- 
ing, paper hanging and house cleaning. It preserves from damage 
clothing, bedding and carpets. It saves and renders productive vines 
and fruit trees, and renders ornamental plants and shrubbery thrifty 
and beautiful. 

BUHACH IS A NECESSITY in the city residence, the farm-house, 
the miner's cabiD, the hotel, the restaurant, the saloon, the orchard, 
the vineyard, the poultry yard and stable. 

IT IS ECONOMY TO USE IT, as it protects from loss, increases 
personal comfort and adds to the general happiness. 

Manufactured Solely by the BUHACH PRODUCING and MANU- 
FACTURING CO., 154 Levee Street, Stockton, Cal. Branch Offi.e, 49 Cedar St., New York. 
^"Sold by Dkcg<;ists and Grocers Everywhere. 


Nearly Identical with the Celebrated Ems of Germany. 

For Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Liver and Kidney Complaints, Dyspepsia, Malaria 
and General Debility, these waters prove highly curative. Situated at the head of Pope Valley, 
1400 feet above sea- level. No malaria; no mosquitoes. A tine swimming bath attached. Camp- 
ing grounds free. Stage leaves St. Helena daily (Sundays excepted) on arrival of a. m. train 
from San Francisco. For circulars of cures performed and analysis of the waters, address W. 
H. LIDELL, Proprietor, or S. J. STEUART, Superintendent, Lidell, Napa Co., Cal. 
TERMS-SIO to $12 per Week. 

Rkphrknces is San Fmmcisco— Ex-Mayor A . J. Bryant, Alvinza Hay ward, Prof. W. T. Wenzell, Ex-Lleut.- 
Oov. Macbin, D. O. Mills, Dr. G. B. Crane, Rev. Dr. Coyle, Dr. R. H. Plummer, Thomas Agnew, Capt. T. H. Barber, 
Prof. A. J. Bacur. 

July 3, 1886.] 

pACIFie F^URAId press. 

The Fell Field Fire. 

As the fields get dry at mid-summer, the 
yearly reports of wasting fires flock in. Our 
exchanges the past fortnight have been bring- 
ing sorry tales of crops turned to smoke and 
ashes. From Los Angeles and Tulare counties, 
all along up the San Joaquin valley, through 
Fresno, Merced and Stanislaus, come accounts 
of how the flames were discovered, how they 
made headway and devoured grain and stack 
and pasture, or were checked and subdued by 
the quick-rallying, hard-fighting ranchers. 

Some of these conflagrations have proved ex- 
ceedingly costly. Near Horr's ranch, on the 
18th of June, several thousand acres of grain 
were destroyed; at Los Banos, two days later, 
3000 acres, the damage being estimated at $25,- 
000; and at Altamont, Alameda county, that 
same Sunday, wheat, barley, hay and grass were 
consumed to the value of $15,000 or $20,000. 
Here and there, a header or harvester was 
burnt up. In one instance a horse was so badly 
roasted that it was necessary to kill him; and 
some of the stubborn fire-fighters themselves 
were severely scorched. 

The losses were in some cases covered, or 
partly covered, by insurance; in others, hapless 
rentors saw the result of their year's toil an- 
nihilated in an hour. But in any case, so much 
labor was lost. 

These disasters are ascribed to various causes. 
Malicious incendiaries and wanton tramps are, 
perhaps, chargeable with a few; thoughtless 
boys at play and reckless campers have started 
others; sparks from a passing locomotive are 
believed to have kindled more than one, and 
the hot journal of a header is debited with 70 
acres near Los Angeles. 

But carelessness on the part of some one — 
employer, hired man or visitor — especially in 
dropping matches lohen the cigar was lighted, 
or in throwing away the stump when he had had 
his smoke, appear? to deserve the blame for far 
the greater part of all these cruel, dishearten- 
ing calamities. 

We leave it for our readers to draw the lesson 
and point the moral. 

Sanitarium Improvements. — The Rural 
Health Retreat, at Crystal Springs, near St. 
Helena, has hitherto been conducted as one of 
the best, and most successful sanitariums ever 
attempted in California. Lately its capacity 
has been iucreased some one-third by the ad- 
dition of 18 rooms for guests and patrons, en- 
larged departments and apparatus for bath- 
ing, and a good-sized hall for gymnasium 
and other purposes. These, with other 
improvements about the place, with its effect- 
ive management and attentive corps of helpers, 
every one of whom is interested in the welfare 
of their patrons, insure the permanent success 
of the institution. We consider the Retreat, 
in its beautiful location and honest deportment, 
the most successful institution ever attempted 
in this part of the Union for the benefit of its 
sick and over-worn guests who come from all 
parts of this coast and the United States. 

The Cyclone Windmill. — The "Cyclone," 
built by the Pacific Manufacturing Company at 
Santa Clara, is the result of years of study by 
one of the best practical windmill-men in the 
United States. Claiming to be less complicated 
and more durable than any other mill in the 
market, it is also thoroughly self-regulating, 
and when the force of the wind reaches a cer- 
tain point, an automatic latch locks the vane 
parallel with the wheel and stops its running. 
The power, too, is applied to the pump with a 
minimum of friction. Preferring a small profit 
on many sales to a large profit on few, the pro- 
prietors have cut the prices down to $65 and 
$75 for 12 and 14-feet mills respectively. If 
you need a windmill, we would refer you to the 
advertisement in another column, and the de- 
scriptive circulars issued by the company. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Jarkd C Uoao — California. 

J. J. Baktbll — San Joaquin Co. 

G. W. IinqaIjLS — Arizona. 

E. L. Richards— San Diego Co. 

R. O.Huston— Idaho and Montana. 

Gko. MoDowbll— Santa dura and Santa Cruz Co's 

J. B. Patch, Nevada and Utah. 

M. S. Prime— Shasta Co. 

Frank W. Smith— Oregon and Wash. Ter. 

A. Caldbrwood— Napa Co. 

Fencing. — One of the largest and most un- 
necessary wastes of forest products is in fencing. 
"Fencing in" instead of "fencing out" animals 
should be the object of fences. Such is very 
generally the case in this State, particularly in 
its southern portion. The rule should be made 
general everywhere. It would save a mint of 
money and conserve immensely our forest 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

The Leading Agricultural Home Newspaper 
and standard authority on all branches 
of California Agriculture. 

It is the chief medium for the dissemination of in- 
formation concerning fruit-growing in Calfornia. 

It has the fullest and most accurate Reports of 
Horticultural Meetings, and is the best record 
of the Experience of Individual Fruit-Grow- 
ers in all parts of the State. 

Its market reports are prepared with care and the 
greatest reliability possible for the benefit of the 

The Pacific Rural Press has more circulation 
and influence in the Pacific States and Territories 
than all the other agricultural weeklies in the United 
States combined. Advertisers can reach nearly all 
the leading reading farmers through its columns. 

A well-known horticulturist who was in attendance 
upon the meetings of fruit-growers, writes; "The 
greatest praise that could be bestowed on the Rural 
Press at the late Fruit-Growers' Convention, and 
which shows, undoubtedly, the well deserved pop- 
ularity of that paper, is the fact that almost all the 
members of that Convention were subscribers to the 

It is a Farm and Home Journal of the highest 
class, pure in tone and well informed on all matters 
of industrial interest. It is handsomely printed and 
illustrated. It is a 20-page weekly, and is furnished, 
postage paid, for $3 per year in advance. Single 
copies, 10 cents, prepaid. 

Established 1870. Yearly subscription $3. Send 
for samples, Address, 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
No. 252 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, Jo those 
who pay fully one year in advance of date, a requested, 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price $1) $0 25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations ; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3. — Dewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt 50 

4. — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages. Illustrated 25 

6.— Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 
pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 

Rural Press, "good as new" Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates 
9. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, Books and Period- 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 25 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — SI worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 
14.— Dewey's Pat. Newspaper Fileholder (18 to 36 in.) . 5 

15- — European Vines Described, 63 pages 05 

19. — Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1500 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23.— Architecture Simplified, 60 pages 15 

Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive, 
35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .25 
Note. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 252 Market St., S. F. 
Send for any further information desired. 
Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 
Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

The Hay Press Suit. 

Quincy, Ills., U. S. A., June 24, 1886. 
Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco, Cat. 
Gentlemen: We take pleasure in informing you 
that the suit, Dederick vs. Ertel, in the U. S. Circuit 
Court at Springfield, 111., has been dismissed by the 
complainant, and at his costs, 22nd inst. Yours 
truly, Geo. Ertel & Co. 

Our subscription rates are three dollars a year, in 
advance. If continued subscriptions are not pre- 
paid, in advance, for any teason, twenty-five cents 
extra will be charged for each year or fraction of a 
year. No new names placed on the list without 
cash in advance. Subscriptions delinquent up to 
March 1, i826, will be charged fifty cents per an- 
num up to that date. After that date, at the rate 
of twenty-five cents per annum. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific- Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents In Dkwbt & 
Co. s Patent Office Library, 252 Market St., S. F. 


344,076. — Rock Drill — Brady & Filzpatrick, 
Virginia City, Nev. 

343,981. — Cable Railway — R. F. Bridewell, 
S. F. 

344,243. — Bureau — S. J. Bryant, Reno, Nev. 
344,040.— Advertising Puz/.le — L. O. Granger, 
S. F. 

344.180. — Adding Machine — Edward Halsey, 
San Jose, Cal. 

344.181. — Arithmetical Apparatus — Edward 
Halsey, San Jose, Cal. 

344.182. — Tax Calculator — Edward Halsey, 
San Jose, Cal. 

343.998.— Boiler Tube Cleaner — W. H. Keep, 
Stockton, Cal. 

344,051. — Liniment — J. W. Lauer, Mountain 
View, Cal. 

344,121.— Water Level Indicator— W. S. 
Mayers, Ft. Apache, A. T. 

344,129. — Two-wheeled Vehicle — Newell & 
Litten, Fresno, Cal. 

344,004.— Quartz Breaker and Pulverizer— 
E. I. Nichols, S. F. 

344,199. — Device for Tapping Cans — C. E. 
Quigley, Oakland, Cal. 

344,215.— Hopple — J. T. Stoll, Sacramento,,Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and sreneral patent business for Pacific Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates and in the shortest possible time. 

Rural Health Retreat, St. Helena. 

At Crystal Springs, near St. Helena, under the 
above title, is one of the best conducted sanitariums 
in the United States. Its managers are determined 
to make it one of the leading and most thoroughly 
conducted health and pleasure resorts on this coast. 
It is not designed as a money-making institution, 
but a pleasant rural home for all worthy classes who 
seek health, rational amusement and genuine recre- 

We herewith give a good illustration, drawn from 
photographic views, of the hotel, or main building. 
Its location commands one of the most lovingly 
beautiful and "constantly delighting" views to be 
found in all California. The air is pure and health- 
ful. There are several new and commodious cottages, 
equally favorably located, connected with the retreat. 

The aim of the institution is not simply to restore 
the health of its patrons, but what is often more im- 
portant, to enable them to retain it and avoid illness 
in future. 

Its situation cannot be surpassed for beautiful 
scenery and convenience of location from San Fran- 
cisco. It is on the slope of the Howell mountain 
range, overlooking Napa valley, and almost over- 
hanging, as it were, the eastern suburbs of St. 
Helena. Howell mountain has long been reputed 
as one of the choicest localities in the State for health- 
recuperating qualities, and is yearly gaining in popu- 

The pure, soft water of Crystal Springs would be 
a great desideratum in any home. The Retreat is 
under the management of Elder J. D. Rice, who 
gives constant, careful and conscientious attention to 
his duties. He is well supported by faithful and 
competent assistants. 

J. S. Gibbs, medical superintendent, is a graduate 
from a thorough medical and surgical course in New 
York city, where he afterward had nine years' prac- 
tice. He was recently associated with Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, superintendent of the Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium, at Battle Creek, Mich., said to be the 
largest institution of the kind at present in the world. 

Dr. Gibbs has associated with him Dr. W. P. 
Burke, a graduate from Ann Arbor, Mich., and 
Cooper, Cal., Medical College. 

We advise those wishing further information, who 
cannot conveniently at once visit this place, to address 
"Rural Health Retreat, Crystal Springs, St. Helena, 
Napa county, Cal." 

A Safeguard. 

The fatal rapidity with which slight 
Colds and Coughs frequently develop 
into the gravest maladies of the throat 
and lungs, is a consideration which should 
impel every prudent person to keep at 
hand, as a household remedy, a bottle of 

Nothing else ^ives such immediate relief 
and works so sure a cure in all affections 
of this class. That eminent physician. 
Prof. F. Sweetzer, of the Maine Medical 
School, Brunswick, Me., says : — 

"Medical science has produced no other ano- 
dyne expectorant so good as Ayeii's Cuerky 
Pectoral. It is invaluable for diseases of the 
throat and lungs. 1 * » 

The same opinion is expressed by the 
well-known Dr. L.J. Addison, of Chicago, 
111., who says : — 

"I have never found, in thirty-five years of 
continuous study and practice of medicine, any 
preparation of so great Value as Ayer'sCherry 
Pectoral, for treatment of diseases of the 
throat and lungs. It not only breaks up colds 
and cures severe coughs, but is more effectivw 
than anything else in relieving even the most 
serious bronchial and pulmonary affections." 


Cherry Pectoral 

Is not a new claimant for popular confi- 
dence, hut a medicine which is to-day 
saving the lives of the third generation 
who have come into being since it was 
first off ered to the public. 

There is not a household in which this 
invaluable remedy has once been in- 
troduced where its use has ever been 
abandoned, and there is not a person 
who has ever given it a proper trial 
for any throat or lung disease suscep- 
tible of cure, who has not been made 
well by it. 

in numberless instances, cured obstinate 
cases of chronic Bronchitis, Laryngitis, 
and even acute Pneumonia, and has 
saved many patients in the earlier stages 
of Pulmonary Consumption. It is a 
medicine that only requires to be taken in 
small doses, is pleasant to the taste, and is 
needed in every house where there are 
children, as there is nothing so good as 
ment of Croup and Whooping Cough. 

These are all plain facts, which can be 
verified by anybody, and should be re- 
membered by everybody. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 


Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. 
Sold by all Druggists. 



REV. H, E, JEWETT, II A., - Principal. 

SIXTEENTH SCUOOL YEAIt begins Tuesday morning, 
July 27th, 188fi. Boarding and Day Scholars received. 
Send for Catalogue. 



— IN— 

Colusa County. 

I have In hand, and offer for sale on easy terms, some 
13,000 Acres good farming lands in parcels of from 
80 acre* to 3000 acres, located in different parts of the 
county. Titles, U. S. or State Patents. 

For further particulars apply to the undersigned at 
Colusa County Bank. 



Lands for Colonies and Individuals 


Send lor large, Illustrated Pamphlet., of great interest. 

Real Estate -A- gouts . 


There is a vast difference between charla- 
tans aud scientific opticians, judging by the 
numerous misfits calling at Muller's depot, 135 
Montgomery street, x 


[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Goroh, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. 8. A. 


Red Bluff. 


S. Francisco. 

Lob Angeles. 

San Diego. 







































June 23 30. 






















































a w 








s W 





















s w 




s w 















s w 




























S W 





















































Explanation. — CI. for clear; Oy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard time), with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. 


f ACIFI6 FyjRAb p>RESS. 

[Jcly 3, 1886 

breeders' directory. 

Six lines or less in this Director}' at 50c per line per month. 


JAS T BROWN, IS Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of t horoughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 

O. J. ALBEB, Santa Clara, Cal .breeder of Langshans, 
Partridge Cochins, Pedigreed Scotch Collies, W. C. B. 
Polish, Wyandottes, B. Leghorns, B a R. Q. Bantams. 

T D MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

sale at all times of all the most popu ar and profitable 
varieties. Please inclose stamp for new circular and 
price list to R G. Head, Naj.a. Cal. 

D H EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St., S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyaudottes. 

J N LUND, Box 118, Oakland, Cal. Wyaudottes, 
Langshans, L. Brahmas, P. Rocks, B. Leghorns, B. B. 
R. Game Bantams, T. Guineas, Uom'g Antwerp Pigeons. 

D. D. BRIGGS, LosGatos, Cal. Fancy Poultry breeder 

AXFORD INCUBATOR— Best in the world; never 
beaten in competition; from *37 50 to $s5.0u. Pekin 
and Rouen Ducks; best in the State; 47.60 per trio, or 
$io0 each per uoz. Itggs, S3.U0 per doz. For particu- 
lars address L P. Clark, May field, Cal. 

Cal. Send 'Z-cent stamp for Illustrated Catalogue. 

W. C DAMON. Napa, Wyaudottes, W. and B. Leg- 
horns, P. Rocks, 1. Brahmas, Pekin Ducks. 

MRS M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and most 
),rofltable Land and Water Fowls. Publisher of the 
Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book and Guide. Price 
40 cents. Send 2-cent stamp for Illustrated Circular. 

Prop'r, Martinez, Cal., imp'er aud breeder of the finest 
■trains VV\andottes, P. nocks, Langshans, Houdaiio, 
Creveeoours, W. Leghorns, L. Brahmas, Bronze Turkeys. 

E. C. CLAPP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas, 
1*1) mouth Rocks and Silver Spang led Hamburgs. Fowls 
and Eggs. Ex. and P. o. Money oruer otlices, Pasadena. 


J. H. WHITE, Lakcville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstcin Cattle. 

Full bloods aud grades on hand aud for sale. Address 
G. B. McNear, Secretary. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES. Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for oiroular. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. 0., Penn's Grove, 
Soncma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager Breeder) 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

C. registered, is owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 

R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

Estate of M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choiae lot of young stock for sale. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devntis, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

GEO. BEMENT, <3l SON, Redwood City. Aj rehire 
Cattle, Southdown Sheep, Berkshire and Essex Swine. 

SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for Bale. 

H. S- SARGENT, Stockton. Thoroughbred Jersey 
Cattle, and Poland-China Hogs from imported stock. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
reoorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshires. 

L L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Sonora, Tuol- 
umne Co., Cal., breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. 
Pigs now ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 


E ASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
hred Spanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale 

Calf Feeders 

For Rearin 9 s * oc ' < by Hand. 

Both Proved Successful and Indispensable. 

ink's Calf Nipple is just as important for calves as the nursing bottle is for children. The saliva fluid is 
iry for proper digestion of the food, and without the Nipple the calf drinks loo fast, takes the milk in bulk 


necessarv for proper digestion 

and causes bloating, scours and indigestion. The Feeder was invented to raise better cilves with less trouble. No 
air swallowed, no fingers chewed, no ears sucked. It teaches the calf to feed from the pail without assistance. The 
Nipple always connects with the milk aud the calf will soon wean itself. Price, 75 cents; post-paid, 85 cts. 

Rice's Patent Calf Weaner, 

Prevents Calves and Cows Sucking Themselves or Each Other. 

Habits most injurious to the animal and costly to the owner. It Is no hindrance 
to either eating or drinking, does the animal no injury, has been thoroughly tested, 
is used and enoorscd by the best stock raiders in the United States and England, 
approved of by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and 
acknowledged by all to be the best thing ever made for the purpose. 

PRICES.— For Calves, 60 cents; post-paid, 55 cents. Yearlings, 75 cents; post 
paid, 80 cents. Full-grown animals, $1.00; post-paid, $1.12. 


Has proved an entire success, for the relief and 
permanent cure of Garget, or stoppage of Milk, or 
when from any ciuse the teat cannot be handled in | 
the usual way. Farmers are well aware that cows' 
teats are frequently injured by being stepped on in 
the stable, or ton, in the pasture; they are also. 

liable to be troubled with cracked teats when first turned out in the Sprim;, making milking a very painful opera- 
tion; and injurious experiments arc too frequently resorted to, from the result of which many valuable animals are 
rendered worthless, because their owners have not the means at hand to give the needed relief. The article which 
we offer is a simple instrument and can be applied by any person. Will quickly give relief and permanent cure in 
all cases without the slightest injury to the animal. We guarantee them to be made of Coin Silver. A single tube 
answers for an entire herd, and is cheap insurance against lo?s. Price. 75 cents each, post-paid. 

Bdson's Cream Tcstor. 

Consists of a frame holding six glass tubes graduated at the sides of the 
glass so as to show the per cent of cream in freshly-drawn milk. The 
frames are substantially made of wood, carefully graduated, and the 
glasses easily removed for cleaning. Actual tests prove that common or 
grade cows give equally as good results in cream and butter, when pains 
have been taken in selection, as Jerseys, Holsteins, or other imported 
stock, but in order to have common stock do this, they must be bred 
from deep and rich milkers, the bull as well as the heifer, and the best 
authorities place more dependance on the bull than on the heifer, thus 
showing that we should take great care in the selection of cows to raise 
bulls Irom. It iB calculated that iO pounds of milk will make one pound 
of butter, but instances have been known where 12 pounds made one 
of butter, thus showing that it is not the cow that gives the largest flow 
of milk that produces the most butter. It should be our aim to get a 
large flow of very rich milk. How should we do this? By testing our 
milk, and only keeping and raising stock from cows that give not ess 
than 15 per cent, and it would be better to say 20 per cent of cream. By 
a dairy of cows that would be a pleasure as well as a profit to you. Price of 

thin mcth< 

>d, you would soon ha 
$1.00 each; Large Size, $2.00 

G. G. WICKSON & CO., 38 California St., San Francisco. 



Using: the Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 


J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., importer and 
breeder of Shropihirc Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPBB, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroc 
»nd Rerknhlrn Swine Hiirh graded Rams for naln 

Ferry. Cal.. breeders of Merino Sheep. Rama for sale. 


J. D ENAS, Napa Cal., breeds pure Italian Queens. 
The best honey and wax extractor; manufacture* comb 
foundation, sections & hive material; send for circulars. 


Packages, 26 cents. Makei 5 gallons of a delicious, 
sparkling and wholesome beverage. Sold by all drug- 
Is. ots, or sent by mail on receipt of 25 cents. C. E. 
HIRES, 48 N. Delaware avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 


This Mill has been in use on this Coast for 5 years, 


Four years in succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 200 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon. 

It is the most economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The MHIb are all ready to mount 
on wagons. 

[ thank the public for the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 



Will Clean 1600 Bags 
of Wheat in a day. 

Manufactured by 

& SONS, 


Send for Illus- 
trated Circulars 
and Price Lists. 


K I, F. C T II O ■ M A C X F, T 1 C B 
BELT. A G.ilvauic B<«ly-{ 
Battery, entirtly dMb 
from all otlier applinuceM 
It givraan Electric Current 
wlla or tt ithnut a ids. Vitr 
*■■ ;j a or Weaklier* of male 
or ]',.:•■ ■i*-o>i ly and i* rmanently cured. «?"Elcctr*c Bu»- 
pCMory lor men furnished free of duUfa Descriptive ciruuUn. 
with price Utt, testimonials, etc., fur-warded to any addicu. 
704 Sacramento St., cor. Kearny, San Francisco, Cat, 

Tlio Famous 


L. M. GoTTSciiAiiK i " The best instrument now exist- 
ing in both hemispheres." 


Sol* aobntb. 607 Market St., San Francisco, 

Houses a,hd Cajtle. 



On his Ranch at Vina, Tehama County, Cal. 
For prices and catalogue address 

Room 69, C. P. R. R. Building, 

Cor. 4th and Townsend Sts. , 

8an Francisco, Cal. 


Kentucky Jacks and Jennets, 
Work Horses and Mules 


Some of the Stallions were imported from Europe, 
others from Illinois, and some young ones were bred in 
Californ a from imported stock. Toe prices will be less 
than animals of equal value can be purchased else* 


Call at or address Patterson's Ranch, Hueneme, Ven- 
tura County, or Patterson's Ranch, Grayson, Stanislaus 
County, or for further information call on or address 
JAMES M. PATTERSON, No. 8 Divis St., 8an Francisco. 



Pure-Bred Southdowns, 

From the Celebrated Sheep of Long John Wentworth, 
Chicago, 111. Address 

R. H- CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, - San Mateo Co., Cal. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hartford Tulare, Co., Cal. 

Breeder of pure-bred Poland China Pigs of the Black 
Beauty, Black Bess, Bismarck, and other noted families. 
Imported boars King of Bonny View and Gold Dust at head 
of the herd. Stock recorded in A. P. O. R. Pigs sold ai 
reasonable rates. CorresDondence solicited. Address as aboje. 

For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View. 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in 1880. Pigs from Im- 
ported Boar and Sow, S'25 each; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, $10 to $20. Our Imported Pigs are as 
nice Pigs as there are in the State. Address 

I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 

From imported stock direct from England, bred by 
Russell Swanwick, President Roval Agricultural College 
Farm, England, from the Celebrated STUMPY and 
SALLIE FAMILIES. Young stock always for sale 
at lowest possible rates. Address ANDREW SMITH, 
Redwood, or 218 California St., 8. F. 


thers suffering: from 
i debility t-xh minting 
■ i . •< i premature 
of young: or old are 

^Mt- f&ii *A li'Vf>0*^ H'Tiu- » famous ElMNi 
^ G *^7Y s J->^ MuittMllr Belt. Thousands 

fn every ^l : Y- strtte in the Union have been cured. 
Elcetrlel -"V/ (v instantly felt. Patented and sold 10 

Whole family can wear same belt. Electric 
Ku*pennorieM free with male belts. Avoid worthless 1m- 
itntiun^ ami ho^us eompanies. Eleetrle Truurii lor 
JCuptiire. 700 cured in*85. Send stamp for pamphlet. 



Builder and Superin'd't 
Preliminary Drawing* 
and Estimates furnished 
gratuitously. Plana and 
Specifications prepared 
with accuracy. No. 6 
Eddy Street, 8. P. 

1 Akgbll's LrvKK Pills cure rheumatism and headache. 

Joly 3, 1886.] 

f ACIFie I^URAId press. 



Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
mento, and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1885 
as the best machine made. 

It will hatch any kind of Eggs 
letter than a Hen. 
Send Stamp for Illustrated Cir- 
cular to GEORGE B. BAYLEY, 
Manufacturer, 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal 

N B. — A large line of Poultry 
Appliances, such as Wire Netting, 
Bone Mills, Chopping Machines, 
etc. , for sale at the lowest rates. 

The Pacific Coast Poulterers' 
Hand Book and Guide; price 40c. 

The Halsted 
Incubator Co. 

1011 Broadway, 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $20 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Poultry and Eggs 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 




Free from Poison. 

Cures thoroughly the St' A It 

BEST lemedy known. Costs 
tha'i 1 cent per head 
|ir for dipping. Reliable testi- 
monials at our oflice. For 
particulars apply to 
CHAS DUI8ENBERG & CO., Sole Agents, No. 314 
Sacramento Sticet, S-*u Francisco. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



Have taken the First 
Premiums at the State Fair 
for the last three years. 




ISTOrdrrs promptly filled. Address 

PRANK BULLARD. Woodland, Cal. 



Bred fron. Importations from the leading registered 
Hocks of Vermont, offered at prices reduced to suit the 
times. The finest lot of Rams on the Pacific Coast 
Ewes in lots to suit. E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, 
Fulton, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



Price Reduced to 


if Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
In a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 

fiolsonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
ates the fleece, and greatly adds to the yolk. It destroys 
all vermin. It is efficacious for almost every disease (In- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to. 


San Francisco. CaL 


Bred by Mr. J. H. Sto- 
bridoe. Sired by his Im- 
ported Vermont Registered 
Buck, and out of his prem- 
R ium flock of breeding ewes. 



Haywards, Alameda Co., Oal. 



by practical experience, found that the JUDSON POWDER especially, is the best adapted to REMOVE 

FROM 5 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 
roots clear out of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONE-HALF the cost of Grubbing. 

In most instances, Giant Powder, or any other "High Explosive," is too uick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong enough. 

XSTFor particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BAKDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 






Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


Money advanced on Grain in Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY. Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager 

Headquarters for all Varieties of FANCY CHICKENS, 


Publisher of "Nile*-" Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
ca| the Pacific Coast. Price, 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose 6tamp for information. 


J" orsoy cfc? Holstein Cattle, and. Hogs. 

Address. WILLIAM MILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 




Impoverished Condition of Blood, General Debility. Green Sickness (or Chlorosis), 

Chronic Dysentery, Dyspepsia, Neuralgia, Skin Diseases, Etc. 

Obtained from a Spring near Glenbrook, Lake Co., Cal. 

The Chemical Analysis shows the contents In a U. S. Wine Gallon to be as follows: 
Sulphate of Protoxide of Iron, 48.775; Sulphate of Magnesia, 9.477; Sulphate of Lime, 6.516; Sul- 
phate of Alumina, 2.940; Sulphate of Sodium, .128; Chloride of Sodium, 2.136; Oxide of Iron, .154. 

W. T. WENZELL, Analytical Chemist, San Francisco. 
Large numbers of the leading physicians of this State, whose attention has been called to the CHALYBEATE, 
recommend it. For sale by all Druggists. 

M. MACD0NALD, General Agent, 19 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Milk Oil Sheep Dip 

the g^eat REDUCTION in PRJQE, 
IN TriE W0RJ-D. S A FE , 5 U R E. 


S A M ±. CABOT, SOLE man'fr. AND 
patentee. 70 KILBY ST. BOSTON, MASS. 




Weather Vanes, Tower Finials, Settees, etc. 

Agent Champion Iron Fence Co. 

18-20 Fremont St., San Francisco. 


Is shipped anywhere to operate on trinl against o!l other 
Presses, purchaser to keep the one doing mn§t and best work 
for ire least money. GEO. ERTEL & CO., Quincy, 111- 


lieves everv care and CURES all 
riirable ones. Retains some ruptures without a Thusb. 
Can be used with any truss. A Grand Remedy! Price, 
83.00. jySend for Circulars. 

J. H. WIDBER, Druggist, 
No. 701 Market Street, San Francisco. 



This is the Greatest Novelty ever 

offered, and a boon to Farmers. 
f Traces and Doubletrees done away with. 
Collar p>. 50, 
, Lines 2. 
f Bridles 3.15 

SontC.O.D.liyExp 's.™ 

TRUMAN, ISHAM & HOOKER, San Fraiicisco. 
If not Satisfactory, we pay ALL FREIGHT 

S. B. SWIFT, M. D. 


Late Veterinary Inspector of Cattle tor the State 
of Kentucky. 

Operative Surgery and Treatment of 
Chronic Lameness Specialties. 

43TOrders may be left at the St. George Stables. 
Trlbphonr No. 6024. 
Residrnck— 782 Harrison St., bet Third and Fourth. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 600 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety.529 Commercial St,, S. F. 



Patented March 23, 1886, 

$100 Reward to any one 
who will produce one of 
equal merit at the same 

It is the Cheapest, 

By more than one-half, of any other 
in the market. 

money refunded. I am in every 
way responsible. Refer you to the 
Editor of this paper. 

Circular mailed free to any ad- 

State, County and Shop 
-»-a,o Rights for Sale. 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


At Sacramento, Sept. 6th to 18th. 


The Attention of the Farming Community 

of this State is particularly called to the Liberal 

Awards, and advantages offered for 

The importance of an exhibit made by separate coun- 
ties, showing the productive qualities of the various sec- 
tions of our State, has become more apparent each year 
since the system was inaugurated by this Board. Keener - 
nizlng thfl interest made manifest in the past by both 
the public and the exhibitors, through whose energy and 
enterprise valuable agricultural lands have been brought 
to the notice of the world, and counties with small popu- 
lations have increased in a manifold degree, by reason of 
the producer having come forward with hi-* products that 
were of such quality as to enable him to meet all com- 
petitors, the Board have deemed it proper to increase 
the premiums in this Department, and to that end have 
appropriated $2000 to be distributed among thj various 
counties making displays under the following provisions: 
To those who may have charge of the exhibits, we 
would call their attention to the fact that these awards 
will be made for the most extensive, perfect, and 
varied exhibit, of Farm Products (exclusive of 
live stock) exhibited as a County Production. 
Thus it, will be seen that it is to be wholly devoted to 
the products of the farms located in the county where 
the exhibit is made from, and does not include manu- 
factured goods *if any kind or character except those 
grown and raised in the county from whence the display 

For the best display, as per explanation 
above, First premium of $500, cash. The 
remaining; exhibits shall receive premiums in pro- 
portion to their excellence, as compared with that re- 
ceiving the First Premium. Competition to be between 
counties only. That is to say, that the entire exhibit 
made by one countymust compete against the entire 
exhibit of another county. The premium awarded to 
each county exhibit will be paid to the committee in 
charge of said exhibit. 

The State Board of Agriculture earnestly desires the 
hearty co-operation of the various subordinate Granges 
throughout the State, in making this exhibition of Cali- 
fornia's products a success, whereby the varied products 
of different localities may be fully shown. We would 
ask the appointment of a committee from the Grange in 
each county to call upon and urge the patrons to make a 
display representing their respective counties. 

Address the Secretary at Sacramento for Premium Lists 
and other inforAition. 

JESSE D. CARK, President. 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Sacramento. 



Hoedown & Feeder Works, 

Center and Church Sts., Stockton. 



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Outfit in the world. Savea S30 per day over any other. 
(Perfect Guarantee.) 


Tim Eureka Improved Windmill, 

12-foot Size. Strong, Simple, Durable, 
Self-Regulating, Beautiful in appearance, 
Noiseless, Central Motion, Solid Wheel. 

No little rods, woeif screws or spider legs to pet uut 
order. Save agent's commission by applying to 
manufacturer and inventor. Pamphlets free. 

E. B. SAUNDERS, San Jose, Cal. 


Durable, Practical, Safe, and Efficient. 

Pumps and Wooden Tanks 


JOHN STOWELL, Prop'r and Manuf turer 

N. E. cor. California & Market Sts., Stockton, Cal 
P. O. Box 454. 




With Diamond Dyes, for 10 cts. They never 
fall. 82 fast colors. They also make inks, color photo's, 
etc. Send for colored samples and Pve book. Gold, 
Silver, Copper and Bronze l'alntsforany use— only 10 
cents n uk'iro. Druggists Bell or wc send post-paid. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO., Burlington, Vt. 

Recommended by Professors Milliard, Cooke, etc. 

Powdered Potash & Caustic Soda 

Makes a pure Soap at a cost of 91 per 125 lbs. Send for 
directions to T. W. JACKSON & CO., 

304 California St., S. P, 



[July 3, 1886 

Note. — Our quotationsare for Wednesday, not Saturday 
*e date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, June 30. 1886. 
Trade is dull. The approach of the National 
holiday and the general disposition to wait until con- 
ditions of supply and demand in different crops dis- 
close themselves more clearly, naturally tends to 
make things quiet. It is not yet settled that there 
will be such an immense amount of wheat in the 
world as buyers would have it believed. Our latest 
mail advices bring the wheat review of Mr. H. Main 
Jackson in the London Farmer of June 7, in which 
he says: 

It is not yet at all an assured fact that the begin- 
ning of a new cereal year will find the world weight- 
ed with a superabundance of wheat. America is 
likely to exceed her yield of 1885 by ten million quar- 
ters, but the yields of England and the continent are 
by no means secure. Even in Southern Europe a 
fair June is needed, and in France and Germany a 
fair July as well. The English harvest will not be 
safe till August is past, and the present aspect can- 
not be said to promise an average crop. In India 
there has been a good yield, but the crop was needed 
badly by the inhabitants of India itself, as well as by 
the shippers at the ports. At Lahore, before harvest, 
prices had risen to 24s per quarter, which with rail- 
way and freight charges, estimated at 18s per quarter, 
equal 42s on the English exchange. This price 
showed clearly that wheat reserves were used up. 
We must again caution our readers against being 
too much depressed by those who have wheat to buy 
or bags to sell. The disposition in either case is to 
exalt the probable aggregate of wheat and define 
values accordingly. The latest by cable from abroad 
is the following: 

Liverpool, June 30. — WHEAT— Steady, Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 6s 4d to 6s 7d; off coast, 32s@32s 
6d; just shipped, 33s; nearly due, 32s 6d; cargoes off 
coast, firm; on passage, quiet but steady; Mark Lane 
wheat and Maize, quiet; English country markets, 
quiet; French, firm; wheat and flour in 1'aris, quiet. 

Foreign Review. 

LONDON, June 28. — The Mark Lane Express in 
its review of the British grain trade for the past week 
says: The welcome summer weather has had a 
marked effect on crops, but it came too late to save 
a large proportion of the cereals. The outlook, ex- 
cept for the best Wheat districts, has been very dis- 
couraging. Trade has been in favor of buyers. 
Sales of English wheat during the week were 37,795 
quarters at 31s id, against 34.746 quarters at 32s 8d 
during the corresponding period of last year. In 
Flour, trade is exceedingly dull. Foreign wheats 
have favored buyers. Foreign flour is cheaper, es- 
pecially American. Twenty-seven cargoes of wheat 
arrrived. 7 were sold, 3 withdrawn, and 14 remained, 
including 9 of American. In trade forward there is 
no inquiry. At to-day's market wheat was dull and 
6d lower. Flour was dull and 6d lower. 

London Wool Sales. 

London, June 28. — There was an average attend- 
ance at the wool sales to-day. Price^ere firm. 

New Yorlr Wheat Market. 

New York, June 27. — The close was heavy at 
bottom figures, with losses of Y% of a cent for July 
at 84 cents and August at 84^ cents; % of a cent 
for September at 84K cents; October at 85 % cents; 
November at S6'A cents; and January at S8'A cents, 
and H of a cent f° r December at 87 % cents. 
Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 27. — The market continues 
about the same as a week ago. The camion and 
apparent indifference of a portion of the trade, as 
well as a large number of manufacturers, remains a 
noticeable feature, although within a day or two 
signs of increasing interest among actual consumers 
have been noticeable, and attempts to depreciate the 
improvement fall rather flat in the face of the large 
movements of supplies and fuller rates obtained at 
all points. Among the sales were 1000 pounds of 
spring California at 21 cents. In the Boston market 
the buying of manufacturers has been but little if 
any larger than for the two previous weeks. Among 
the sales were 2000 pounds of Territory at 23 to 24 
cents. In the Philadelphia market firmness was well 
sustained, with some slight advances. Among the 
sales wete 10,000 pounds of scoured California at so 
to 57 cents. 

New York Hop Market. 

New York, June 27. — The market remains strong 
and is fairly active. Interior reports continue to 
speak of the presence of vermin to an extent that 
seriously threatens the crop. There is a probability 
that strictly choice goods might realize 12 cents cash, 
but 100 bales of very good quality actually sold at 
11 cents; Pacific coast crop of 1885, common to 
choice, 5(5jio cents. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS — The syndicate prices are still nominally 
as follows: Calcutta Wheat, spot, 10c; buyer June, 
ioV4c; buyer July, io5fc. Potato Gunnies, nom- 
inal; Wool Bags, 29(a;32C. The market is quiet, 
however, and as bags are offered outside the ring 
for 9c, the corner is not working very actively, 

BARLEY— Our quotations show a reduction from 
last week. The market is quiet. Call sales have 
been made as follows: Buyer '86, after August 1st 
— 100, 83!4c selltr '86—100, 77KC. Seller '86 
— 200, 78J£c; 200, 7854c; 200, 78Jsc; 100, 78Jic; 
100, 78 ftc; 300, 79c. 

BEANS — Beans are doing better, and an advance 
has come in nearly all kinds but Limas, which are 
nominal. Dried peas are lower all around. 

CORN — The market is still running on western 
corn, there being no California in sight. Prices are 

DAIRY PRODUCE — An improvement has come 
in both butter and cheese, as noted below. 

EGGS— Eggs have sharply advanced several cents 
per dozen. California eggs are very scarce, and 
Utah f"d Western by rail are bringing high prices. 

FEED— Bran is $1 lower per ton. Hay is quiet 
and in good supply, though extra choice lots sell 
high. Quotable as follows: Alfalfa, $6@9; barley, 
$6@8; oat, $7@9; wheat, $9® 12 fc? ton; extra choice, 
do, $i3@i4- 

FRUIT — Descriptive notes are given below. 

HOPS — Hops are showing more life, and dealers 
report contracts for coming crop at 9 to 10c per It). 
This is no price, and growers should not be misled 
by early contracts for single bales made to influence 
values. The great reduction in crop should make 
hops valuable this year. 

OATS— Oats are abundant and quiet at un- 
changed prices. 

ONIONS— Onions are doing letter this week, ow- 
ing to light supplies. 

POTATOES— Potatoes have improved during the 
last few days, and good lots are selling well. 

PROVISIONS— Lard is reported weaker. Bacon 
and hams are firm and in good shape. Our list 
shows an advance of '/ic per lb. on all grades 
of hams. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Turkeys have the lead 
this week at an advance. Other fowls are lower. 

VEGETABLES— Descriptive notes will be found 

WHEAT— Wheat is quiet and expectant. Rul- 
ing rates are lower than at our last report, as shown 
in our list. Call sales have been made as follows: 
Buyer season— 900, $1.27^; Buyer '86— 300, $1.24^ ; 
200, $1.24^; 300, $1.24^. Seller '86—4400, $1.- 
17%. Buyer '86—300, $1.24^. Seller '86 — 100, 

WOOL — The improvement continues and the 
w orld's markets are all promising. Fuller notes will 
be found below. 


Market Information. 


The market has a stronger tone but no higher for 
Beef cattle. The offerings are not liberal for this 
market. Heavy purchases are reported in the in- 
terior on speculation and for shipment to the East. 
An attempt was made to advance mutton, with 
success in Oakland, but in this city there is no ad- 
vance although some butchers report having paid 
half a cent advance for wethers. The market would 
be higher the next two months were it not the fear 
that a large firm's killing 30,000 head of sheep w ithin 
that time will keep the market down, as the firm, so 
we are informed, is not disposed to advance the 
price. In hogs an attempt was made to establish 
an advance, but free offerings and an inactive de- 
mand tend to keep prices down. The market for 
horses is quiet, with no urgent demand reported in 
any quarter. The demand for matched horses, for 
general use, is fair at Irom $400 to $600 a span. 
Quite a number of medium size work horses were 
sold the past week at from $100 to $150 each. 

Lambs closed strong, with an advance likely to 
take place the last of the week. 

The following are to-day's meat prices: Beef — 
Stall fed 6^(6 7c $ tt>; grass fed, extra, 6&@654c; 
first quality, 5X@6c; second, sC&s^c; third, 
4Kc Calves, small, 7>A@8'Ac; larger, 6@6Kc # 
ft). Mutton — Ewes, 4@4'Ac; wethers, 4!?@5c. 
Lamb — Spring, $'A@6c $ lb. Pork — Live hogs on 
foot, 4@4'Ac for both grain and dairy fed; 2}^@2}ic 
for soft; dressed, 6@7c for hard, and 4@sc for soft. 
Grass-fed stock sell on foot, gross weight, at one- 
half the price they fetch dressed; stall-fed, on foot, 
fetch one-third less than they sell at dressed. 


The demand is reported to be less than it was 
claimed would rule. Several reasons are assigned; 
viz., farmers are slow to make purchases, believing 
the prices asked are too exorbitant and that values 
are apt to rule lower in the months of July and 
August. It is reported that bags are offering on 
this market from unexpected quarters which disturbs 
the pool. Sales have been made of Calcuttas as low 
as & l A cts cash in round lots. The bag pool is en- 
deavoring in all manner of ways to keep prices up 
and dispose of their holdings at a big profit 

Dairy Product. 

Butler has ruled steady and firm throughout the 
week, with choice to extra choice grades fetching an 
advance on top quotations. Outuide or distant or- 
ders are light, owing to the very low (lower than ever 
before known) price ruling at the West for cream- 
eries, allowing many sections heretofore supplied by 
this market to draw supplies from Chicago. 

Cheese has been and continues very weak under 
heavy supplies and a strong selling pressure. 

Turkeys advanced last Friday fully one to two 
cents a pound. As receipts are still light, prices will 
probably not go lower. 

Hens, roosters, broilers, ducks and geese ruled 
barely steady up to Tuesday, when they all weakened 
off. The consumption is very light, not more than 
one-third of what it was last year at this time. 

Poultry cloied strong to-day, with sales of some 
choice fat hens at $7.50 and even $8.00 a dozen. 


The English wheat market sold 6d per quarter 
lower for cargoes off coast and nearly due, and 2d 
per cental lower for spot. The decline was not un- 
expected and was discounted before it took place 
by buyers in this market. 

The local wheat market ruled weak up to Monday, 
when an improved tone set in, in sympathy with a 
better feeling abroad. Sellers in our market do not 
appear disposed to press sales, thereby keeping val- 
ues fairly steady with an advance paid at times by 
buyers to meet an urgent want. 

Barley has ruled weak and inactive in this market, 
but in the interior higher prices have been and are 
still paid than here. Heavy purchases are reported 
to have been made for New York, and western 
account. The grade wanted is from 45 up. Old 
brewing barley is very scarce with higher prices 

Letters received the past few days from points on 
the west side of the San Joaquin, and from different 
places in Colusa, Sutter, Butte and Yolo counties, 
report much more damage to crops by the hot winds 
than had been estimated. It is safe to say that the 
crop of the State has been damaged all of 10 per 
cent and may reach 15. It now looks as if this 

State's surplus for export the season of 1886-7 w '" 
not be much more than the exportable surplus of 
1885-6. The yield will be more this year, but the 
carry-over of old wheat and flour will be about 
225,000 tons less. 

The consumption of barley is very heavy, all of 
one-half more than last year at this time. So that 
although we have a larger crop, yet the increased 
consumption will offset the increased yield. 

Oats are in light stock, which with light supplies 
keep prices steady. 

Private cables from Liverpool, received to-day, 
give the wheat market strong, with an advancing 
tendency. Our market is strong with %1.22'A bid 
this afternoon for No 1 shipping. 


As indicated in last week's report, both potatoes 
and onions are stronger, with an advance of 10 to 15 
cts obtainable. 

Asparagus and rhubarb are hardly worth quoting, 
owing to very light receipts. The same can be said 
of peas. 

String beans have been a drag, with very low 
prices ruling. The canners are still buying. Yes- 
terday, the market was cleaned up on green peppers 
at an average price of 8 cts per pound. 

Cabbages are still in active demand for shipping, 
causing the gardens to be kept well cleaned of all 
desirable heads. 


Apricots have continued in heavy receipts, but 
prices were maintained with an advance obtainable, 
owing to heavy shipping, local and canning de- 
mands. On Monday over 8000 boxes of apricots 
were received, yet they sold at a better figure than 
on Saturday. 

Plums are coming in more freely, with the quality 
beginning to show an improvement. Prices ruled 

Apples have been advancing, with astracans sold 
to-day at $i.75@$2.oo a box and $2.25 asked. 

Peaches jumped up to $1.65 a basket for choice on 
wharf, but since fell back, with $1.10 the top to-day. 

Pears are coming in more freely, but the quality 
being poor, they do not attract attention. Choice 
will go as high as $2 to $2 50 a box for Bartlelts. 

Currants have sold for more money. Large, well- 
conditioned have sold up to 13.50 a chest with a 
quick demand. The range was $2.25 to $3.50. 

Raspberries, strawberries and blackberries have 
moved off freely, but at lower figures, with canners 
buying. Receipts have been more liberal of rasp- 
berries and blackberries. 

Oranges are lower and very weak. Common Los 
Angeles are hard to sell at over $2.25. 

Limes are strong, owing to the pool not offering 
on the market only enough to meet the demand. 


The market is again higher, with heavy sales re- 
ported at the advance. All of i to 1 % cents ad- 
vance is obtainable on last week's prices. This ad- 
vance was fully set forth in the Rural Press early 
in the season, and if growers sold at low prices they 
can only blame themselves. Several clips of medium 
to fine wools, fair length, clean and healthy, sold 
at over 24 cents, with some reported at over 25 cents 
per pound. 


The tonnage-movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 

1886. 1885. 

On the way 305,637 20,861 

In port.disengaged 31.731 93.858 

In port, engaged 43, 900 19,288 

Totals' 381,268 311,007 

The above gives a carrying capacity as follows: 
1886, 615.028 short tons; 1885, 497,711 short tons. 
Increase over last year, 117,317 short tons. 

Hops are very strong, with 11 cents freely bid for 
future delivery; but growers are not contracting, as 
crop advices at the East and in Europe are unfavor- 

Choice to extra choice hay continues to rule very 
strong, with some sales afloat at $13.50 per ton — 
jobbed out at an advance. The market at the close 
to-day was weaker under freer offerings. 

Hams and bacon are very strong, with anoiher 
advance obtainable. The stock is light and demand 

Bran and middlings, under heavy receipts, are 
weak and lower. 

San Francisco, June 30, 1SS6. J. E. F. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
nal, and making it3 value more widely known 
to others, and extending its influence in the 
cause it faithfully serves. Subscription rate, 
$3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents,) if 
ordered soon enough. If already a subscriber 
please show the paper to others. 

Domestio Produce. 

g 7 





Bayo.otl 1 20 Jt 1 25 

Butter 1 25 <§ 1 50 

Castor 4 00 @ - 

Pea 1 65 ft* 1 75 

Red -fill 

Pink lUflll 

Large White.... 3 00 @ - 
Small White.... 1 65 @ 1 75 

Lima 2 00 @ 2 25 

Fid Peas, but eye 1 50 <3 - 

do green 1 00 ® 1 121 

do Niles 1 25 @ — 


Southern 3 G 

Northern 4 4 


California. 4 i 

German 64C 



Cal. fresh roll, lb. 15 ft} 

do Fancy br'nda 19 ft} 

Pickle roll 20 ft* 

Firkin, new 15 ft* 

Eastern 10 @ 


Cheese. CaL. lb.. 6 
Eastern style... 

Cal., ranch, doz.. 

do, store 



Eastern, by ex.. 
Pickled here.... 
Utah. y 

Bran, ton 14 00 (814 50 

Cornmeal 25 00 @2o (HI 

Hay 6 00 #14 00 

Middlings. 16 00 ©17 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 $ 28 50 

Straw, bale 30 @ 50 

Extra, City Mills 3 75 @ 4 25 
do Co'ntry Mills 3 60 fi 4 10 

Superfine 2 75 a 3 CO 

Barley, feed, ctl. 77i@ 85 
do Brewing.. 1 40 (3 1 60 

do new 871® 921 

Chevalier 1 40 ft* 1 65 

do Coast... 1 10 m 1 20 

Buckwheat 1 05 i 1 10 

Com, White.... 1 00 1 1 U) 

Yellow 1 00 ft} 1 10 

Small Round. 1 15 ft} — 

Nebraska 90 @ 1 00 

Oats, choice 1 35 

do No. 1 1 25 

do No. S 1 20 

do black — 

do Oregon 1 25 

Rye 1 20 

Wheat, No. 1... 1 20 
do No. 2.. 1 15 
Choice milling 1 25 tfl 

Dry 164® 

Wet salted 7lft} 


Beeswax, lb 21 @ 

Honey in comb. 6 «$ 
Extracted, light. 3|@ 
do dark. 8 ft} 

Oregon — @ 

California. 7 ft} 


Red 35 « 

SilversHn. new . 65® 
NUTS— Jobbing. 
Walnuts, Cal. lb 71jft} 
do Chile. 74<§ 
Almonds, hdahL 8| 

Soft shell 10 6* 

Brazil 11 « 

Pecans 10 8 

Wednesday, June 30, 1886. 

Peanut* 3 ft} 4k 

Filberts 13*4 14 


New ctl — @ — 

Burbunk — uj — 

Early Rose 50 if 90 

Cuffey Cove — (a 

Jersey Bluea... — ft* — 

Petaluma. — ft* — 

Tomales — (a — 

River reds — ft* — 

Humboldt — M — 

do Kidney.... — % — 

Chile 90 ■ 1 CO 

Si| do Oregon... <t — 

6 Peerless 60 & 90 

Salt Lake 
Sweet ctl. 

Hens, doz 5 50 ft} u 50 

Roosters 5 00 & 8 50 

Broilers 2 50 ft} 5 00 

Ducks, tame. . . . 3 50 ft* 5 50 
do Mallard. ... — - ft* 

do Sprig — ft} — 

121 Geese, pair 1 25 ft* 1 50 

I do Goslings ... 1 00 ft} 1 50 
71 WUd Gray, doz -at - 
121 White do... - I - 

Turkeys, &> 14 ft} 19 

27l|_dq Dressed. 


tail and wing.. 10 4J 
Snipe, Eng., doz. 2 50 a 
do Common.. 1 id ft 

Quail — i 

Rabbits 1 00 I 

Hare — i 

Venison — i 

Cal. Bacon. 

Heavy, lb 8 I 

Medium • 8 u 

Light 104S 

Extra Light... 13 ft 

Lard 7 i 

Cal.SmokedBeef 12 ft 

Hams, Cal lOij 

do Eastern.. 12 i 

Alfalfa. 11 <j 

Canary 313 

Clover red.. 

1 40 

1 22J 

1 21j 
1 171 

White 4!. 

Cotton JO 

Flaxseed 2j 

Hemp 6 

Italian RyeOraas 26 

Perennial 25 

Millet, German.. 10 

do Common. 7 
Mustard, white.. 



Ky. Blue Grass.. 

2d quality 18 i 

Sweet V. G 

Red Top 15 

Hungarian.,.. 8 
Lawn 90 

MeSqilit. 10 

Timothy M 


4) Crude, lb 2 

3] Refined 6) 


— ci'Eino— 1886 
9 Humboldt aud 

f Mendocino ... 
60 |8acfo valley.... 
85 Free Mountain . 
|N*hern defective 
9 |s Joaquin short. 

— do long 

— Cava'v & F'thll. 
12 Oregon Eastern. 

121i do valley 20 (d 

121 Southern Coast. 14 W 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Wednesday. June 30. 1886. 

Apples, box . 50 ft* 

do red 1 25 <g 1 

Apricots, bx 60 ® 

Bananas, buncb. 2 00 ft* 2 
Blackberries, ch. 6 00 C<* 8 
Cherries blk 1 00 M 1 

.1.) white Kill 

do Royal Ann.. iO B 1 
Cherry plains... 35 ftr 

Cranberries 7 00 (a 10 

Cmrants chest .. 2 25 l<r 3 
Gooseberries lb.. 1 ft* 

do English 2 (a 

Figs, bx 25 W 

Limes, Mex 9 00 #9 

do Cal. box . . . 25 ft* 
Lemons, Cal.,bx 1 00 @ 3 

do Sicily, box. 9 00 @ 10 

do Australian. — & 
Nectarines box. — ft* 
Orauges, Cal.,bx 1 75 <B 2 

do Tahiti. M 18 00 «Ol 

do Mexican.M 7 50 @12 

do Panama... — @ 
Peaches, bx. . . 75 ft* 1 

do bask 75 @ 1 

Pears bx 1 25 

do basket 

Pe r b i iu m o u s, 

Jap, bx — ttg 

Pineapples, doz. — ft* 5 
Pomegranates, b 1 00 ftj 1 

Plums lb 2 64 

Prunes bx — @ 

Quinces bx — ft* 

Raspberries ch.. 6 00 ft* 9 
Strawberries ch. 4 00 w 7 
Apples, sliced, lb llj| 

do evaporated. 6 ftj 

do quartered .. llf 
Apricots 10 ft* 

do evaporated 12tft* 
Blackberries.... 9 (g 

SS 1 



9 ffl 



Figs, pressed.... 

7 i 

5 <j 

4 if 

i 6 

do pared. .... 



Pears, sliced.... 


1 2, 

do evaporated 

8 | 

! 10 

2 i 


Plums pitted.... 

5 ft 

i 6 


6 <fi 

Raisins, Cal. bx. 1 75 S 

! 2 00 

'.int Currants. 


- ft* 50 

\rtichokes. doz. 35 @ 
Asparagus box.. — & 

Beets, ctl 1 CO fttj 

Cabbage, 100 lbs. 60 

Carrots, sk 

Cauliflower, doz. 

Celery, doz 

Cucumbers box. 

Eggplant, ft. 

Garlic, Td new. . 
Green Com, sk. 

do. sweet doz. 
Green Peas, sk. 1 00 

Lettuce, doz 10 

Mushrooms, bx. 1 00 

do cultivated. 15 @ 
OkTa, dry, tb... 15 <H 

do gretn 15 ft* 

Parsnips, ctl 1 50 W 

Peppers, dry lb. . 1" -it 
do green, lb... 8 a 
Rhubarb box... 50 @ 
Squash, Marrow 

fat, ton 15 00 fj 

do Summer bx 20 
Tomatoes box.. 1 00 
15 String beans. 
— Turnips ctl. 






Inferior Article 


More Profitable 
to some one 



July 3, 1886.] 

f ACIFie r^URAlo f RESS. 




Self-Regulating Napa Mill. 



At Buell & Co.'s Planing Mill, Center St., Stockton, Cal. 

A trial of 12 years in California has proved its excel- 


Tailor Square for Dress Cutting 

Always receives highest award at the Mechanics' Fair. 

Office, No. 224 Stockton Street, S. F. 

Where lessons arc given and Patterns cut to measure. 
43T Agency for Hall's Adjustable Dress Forms. 


The German Savings and Loan 

For the half year ending June 30, 1SSG, the Board of 
Directors of The German Savings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of four and thirty. two 
one-hundredths (4 32 100) per cent per annum on term 
deposits and three and sixty onc-hundredths (3 CO-100) 
per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, payable on and 
after the 1st day of July, 1S86. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

B32 California Street, cor. of Webb. 
For the half year ending June 30, 1886, a dividend has 
been declared at the rate of four and one-half (4J) per 
cent per annum on term deposits, and three and three- 
fourths (3j) per cent per annum on ordinary deposits 
free from taxes, payable on and after July 1, 1886. 






?| 9 Geary St. IS $£0 


£? ' o. n !?" 

ft OFFICE B, a a>2c 

C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Game, 65, 66, 67 California 
Market, S. F. 43TA11 orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 


A New Invention ! Tho "Perfection* 
Belt Truss, with Universal Joint Movo- 
inentaud Self-adjusting Spiral Spring: 
GivcsuniverBalsatlsiaction. Price, from 
•3 to 16. Call or Bend for deacrlptiva 
circular. Address, J. H. "WIDHKIi, 
(Druggist) 701 Market Street, cot Third, 
Ban i'ranciaco. 
















Fennell's Cynthiana Horse Boots, J. H. Fenton's Chicago Specialties, 
Dr. Dixon's Condition Powders, Gombault's Caustic Balsam. 

Jockey Saddles, Bridles, Whips, Jockey Suits, Boots, Spurs, Sweat and Cooling Blankets, 
Linsey Woolsey Suits, Bandages, Sheets, Hoods, Scrapers, Weights. 

Heavy Concord Team Harness, $25 a Set! 

Spring Wagon Harness, from $25 a Set ! 

Buggy Harness, $10, $15, $20, and upward! 
£=» on cl for Prices. 

Photo- Relief Engraving. 

Fine Pictorial Encravings 


Best and Cheapest Practical Methods 
No. 659 Clay Street, S. F. 



Engravings Copied, 

Enlarged or Reduced. 

Also Photographing on Wood and 

Other Special Photo Work, 

including the reproduction and printing of photo- 
graphs for salesmen, stereopticon views, port-aits, 
scenery, natural specimens, etc. All promptly and 
reliably done by the most successful and best 
approved processes. Favorable rates guaranteed to 
transient customers, and all trade, professional and 
commercial firms. 

Send, as early as possible, with full description as 
practicable, of any work wanted, stating size and for 
what use plates are wanted. Photographs, and other 
prints similar to those desired, will aid us in making 
definite estimates. 

If requested we will send an assistant to give in- 
formation and make estimates in the city. 

Call and see specimens, or write for samples and 
prices and any further information wanted, to 

S. F. Photograving Co., 

659 Clay St., S. E. cor. Kearny, S. F. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

By B. J. Kendall, M. D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses. Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and hest treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal iredicinesused 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed on fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 7Jx5 inches. Price, only 25 
cents, or five for $1, on receipt of which we will send 
by mail to soy address. DEWEY & CO., 

252 Market St., S. F. 


T 1 1 n F" P aKe8 > c '°t n bound. Sent post-paid 
II Hp at reduced price of 75 cts. per copy 
U U la I U I IL. by DEWEY & CO. , Publishers, S. F. 

A practical treatise by T. A. Garet, 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. 196 

American Exchange Hotel, 

Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to be the 
most convenient as well as the most comfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in tho city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Per Day, According to Room. 

<S"Hot and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to and from 
the Hotel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS , Proprietors. 


Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, Asthma, Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbago, 
and Deafness. 

Everybody should have it. 
G. G. BURNETT, Ag't 

327 Montgomery St. , S. F. 
Price, $1.00. Sold by all Drug 

gists. iHTCall and see 

Office— 426 Kearny St. 
San Francisco. 



First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. 


GEORGE H. LEMMAN, Proprietor. 

Goods taken from the Dock and from the Cars ot the 
C. P. R. R. and S. P. R. R. Freo of Charge. Storage at 
Current Rates. Advances and Insurance at Lowest 
Rates. Telephone No. 327. 4 



the customer 
kccpiijg the on© 
that suits 

Order O i trial, nrtdress for circular and location of 
WestBri and Snmhern Storehouse! and Agents. 
P. K DEOERICK & CO., Albany, N. Y. 

Commission Merchaptg. 


Shipping and Commission 

San Francisco and New York. 

Receive consignments of Produce for sale in San Fran- 
cisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, England, Aus- 
tralia, etc. Make advances on approved consignments. 
Fill orders for staple goods in New York and other mar- 
ket*. Effect fire and marine insurance in best offices. 
Charter vessels and engage freights for all tradea Agents 
for line clipper ships from Philadelphia, China, etc. All 
business has faithful and watchful attention. 



Commission Merchants 




drain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

808 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. O. Box 193ft. SAN FRANCISCO 




—AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

aSTPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 

Commission Merchants 


Hides, Pelts, Furs, and Tallow. 

360 TOWNSEND ST., S. F. 

ia'Consignments Solicited and advances made on 

Geo. Morrow. [Established 1854.) Geo. P. Morrow. 




38 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 





Wholesale Grocers 


305 and 307 FRONT ST., 

Bet. Sacramento and Commercial, San Francisco 
P. 0. Box 1940. 
|S"SpeciaI attention given to country traders.*^ 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

brick storks: 
240 Davis St. and 120 Washington St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants, 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 



Commission Merchants, 

404 and 406 Davis St , S. F. 
tSTSpecial attention paid to shipping. 


Commission Merchants, 

422 Front St., and 221, 223, 225 and 227 Washington St. 
Consignors receive the benefit of our large shipping trade. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments Solicited. 624 & 626 Sansome St., S. F. 


fACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[July 3, 1886 

banks and banking- 



Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shams of SlOO each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Reserved Fund and I'aid up Stock, $81,1 78. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I c. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBEKT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 



A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa Comity 

H. J. LEWEI LING Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD SantaClara County 

J. C. MERYKIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Volo County 

I. C. sTEBLE San Mateo County 

THOMAS MrCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRES-<EY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and coun'ry produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made. 

promptly and proceed! remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 


Cashier ana Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1SS2. 

union" savings bank 


CAPITAL $200,000 


ASSETS $1,931,000 

A. C. Henry, J. West Martin, G. J. Ainsworth, 

J. C. Ainsworth, S. Huff, R. S. Farrelly, 

R. W. Kirkham, A. A. Moore, D. Henshaw Ward, 

Hiram Tubbs, C. E. Palmer. 

Wbst Martin, Pres. C. E. Palmkr, V.Pres. & Trcas'r. 

INTEREST allowed upon all deposits reruaininp 
three calendar months, beginning from the first of tlu 
month succeeding the date of deposit. 

Remittances from the country may be made by Killing 
or Check upon Banks in San Francisco, and book will 
be returned. 

LOANS made only upon Mortgage of Real 
Enta' e and Bonds at current rates. 



device shown in the al>ove engraving is covered by 
Letters Patent awarded to me by the U. S. Government, 
and are warned against making and using the 6ame with- 
out my consent. 

AH those desiring the Angular Supporting Arms or in 
formation about them, will be furnished therewith by 

Red Bluff, or Tehama, Cal. 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery. 

including Crape (-rushers and Stcmnicru, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 

R. A. SWAIN & CO., 

No. 16 Post Street, 

San Francisco 






They arc constantly receiving the latest Novelties, and 
arc otTeiing goods at very low prices. 

Visitors are invited to look at our Stock, even if they 
are not prepared to purchase. 


WAWTFn f '"" DR. SCOTT'S beauti- 
ffflnlLUf. Electric Corsets. 

Sample free to f&OM becoming agents. 
No risk, quick sales. Territory given. 

Ct^" Satisfaction guaranteed. Address 

^R. SCOTT, 842 Broadway, NEW YORK. 







Has been subdivided into 20-acre lots with convenient ROADS AND DITCHES on the land 
Situated 1J miles N. W. of SELMA (a fast-growing Railroad town US miles S. W. of 
Fresno and the second in the County) and 2 miles S. of Fowler, also a Railroad town. 


Vine, and 



Some of it being specially adapted to Gardening. It has 


Having a main Canal (iO feet on the bottom, running through the land and all necessary main 
distributing ditches, making it a very desirable location for a Colony, as its 


Cannot be surpassed in the County. 



^Correspondence solicited and lands shown free of charge. 

L. SHARPE, Selma, Cal., or 0. J. WOODWARD, Fresno, Cal. 

San Diego County! El Oajon Rancho ! 

16,500 acres, known as the Jarvis Tract, situated 13 miles from San Diego, surrounded by 
high hills, protected from winds and fogs — the most equable climate in the world — rich soil and 
ovely surroundings. Will be offered as a whole or in subdivisions, from 10 acres upward, at 
priced according to desirability, from $10 to $75 per acre, part cash, balance on time. The 
wonderful Raisins and Olives grown in this valley command the admiration of every one. Water 
from 6 to 12 feet. No irrigation, and Fruit and Raisins cured by solar heat. All the Semi- 
Tropical Fruits raised to perfection. 

Also 1000 acres, the Smith Tract, adjoining, now in grain. 

G. W. FRINK, General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bureau, 

618 Market St., opp. Palace Hotel, and 16 & 17 Post St., San Francisco. 


Riverside, California. 


San Diego. California. 

The American Churn 

Excels in the art of Churning, 
Wanning, Salting and 
Working Butter. 

INDRICAL IN FORM, leaving no possible 
opportunity for cream to Btick to corners (as 
is invariably tbe case with other than round 
churn*); thus works easily, rai idly, and will 
not make streaked butter. There is no 
partially churned cream mixed 
with the bntterto make it streaked 
or impair its keeping quality. The 
dai-her follows the radius of churn body 
loosely while the blades give the cream a 
rapid counter-current to and fro movement, 
agitating the cream thoroughly and making 
granular gilt-edge butter in from 2 to 10 

We Guarantee Satisfaction, 

And will send on trial to responsible parties 
Price L'st of American Ciiitrss. 

No. 1-With legs, M gallons $ 6 00 

No. V— With legs, 7 gallons S 00 

No. 3— With legs, 9 gallons 10 00 

No. 4— With logs, IS gallons 12 06 

No. 8 -With legs. 18 gallons U 00 

No. e— Power, 20 gallons 20 00 


Dairy and Farm Machinery, 

38 California St., San Francisco. 

1886. 1887. 

Mission Rock Grain Dock and Warehouses, 


Regular Warehouse for S. F. Produce Exchange Call Board. 

Storage Capacity for 75,000 Tons of Grain. 



W. C GIBBS, Sec'y. 

Freight paid, fire insurance and loans effected, and proceeds forwarded free of commissions. Money advanced 
at lowest rat-;8 on grain in warehouse, interest payable at end of loan. Storage season, ending June 1, 1887, at 
reduced rates. < >n all wheat shipped to Mission Rock by barges, freight rates guaranteed the same as to Port Costa. 
All applications for storage or other business addressed to CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent. 
OFFICE, 3X8 CaliforniA JS»t.. Room 3. 

Lands for Sale and Jo Let. 


The owner of this Celebrated Raocho offers to sel 

•3500 ACRES 

In lots to suit. It is situated in the great 
Salinas Valley, four miles from Salinas 
City, and suitably adapted to plant a 
Colony or subdivide tor farming or 
fruit raising. 

art'"' particulars inquire of 

At the Buena Vista Rancho. 

Or J. C. HOAG. 308 Van Ness Ave., S. F. 


40,000 ACRES 

Of good land in Fresno, near the County Seat. Some of 
this land is already irrigated, and all can be easily irri- 
gated. It is adapted not only to grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1000 ACRES 
Of the above land for sale at the low price of 8£0 per acre. 
Apply to 

402 Kearny St.. San Francisco. 

50 ACRES. 

of the New City Hall; on road to San Mateo, 
and well ad tpted to hoe sto- k raising or dairy purposes. 
Railroad passes through the property. Commutation 
tickets to city only 6J cents i er trip. Price, $12,5uO. 
Terms, one-ttfih cash, balance easy. Apply to 


8 New Montgomery St, S. F. 

$125 PER ACRE 

IN TRACTS TO SUIT; adjoining the site of the great 
Stanford University at Menlo Park; one bun from San 
Francisco, in rpp r S\nta Clara Valley; one mile from 
station; fine climate; beautiful scenery; excellent roads; 
title perfect; easy terms; first-class location for a home 
or an investment. 
£&~Map8 and particulars of 

26 Montgomery St., San Irancisco. 


£> GOO ^ ci'CS of rolling adobe hills, 
situated in Tehama County. Well watered by numerous 
springs, etc. Several thousand acr*s suitable for culti- 
vation. Good two-story House, Barn and other out- 
buildings. Seven miles of fine wire fence. 

Cheapest tract of land in Tehama County. Price, $6.00 
per acre. Fair time and interest. Apply to 

R. E. ARMSTRONG, Cottonwood. Shasta Co., Cal. 
Or J. E. CKOOKS, Benlcla, Cal. 

N. B.— Upon proper notice, Mr. Armstrong will take 
intending purchasers from Cottonwood to the ranch and 
return, free. 


noma County; 7 miles southwest from Santa Rosa; 
'H miles from railroad station; fenced in 7 fields; 3D acres 
v. ry thrifty, full bearing Zinfandel vine": 2| acres heavy- 
bearing orchard; ordinary 5-roomed house and other 
buildings, good and complete; including all of the crop, 
9 head of catt'e, 6 horses, full set of farming utensils, 
poultry, hogB, wagons, harnesses, etc; 313, OUO; best and 
cheapest ranch in California; really worth 82o,0U0; posi- 
tively every foot rich cultivatable land; i cash, balance 
on mortgage, if desired. Fine diagram, full and reliable 
naviculars of N. D. SICKKLS, 336J Rush St , 8 F. 

$500 to $50,000. 

and Orain Ranches in every County in the State. Send 
Stamp for Catalogue. We can find quick sale fer your 
farm, large or small, if it is cheap and you will send us 
full description. If you want to buy, tell us what you 
want, and we can suit you. 

339 Kearay St., San Francisco. 



Tim*, Labor and 
Fuel Saved Prac- 
tically Fire Proof. 
Best aii'l Cheapest 
For Circulars send 

' & CO., 


CHIHE3CV funflshe* pare water, pays 
■nt well, and the busine--* is pro- 
d by patents, We make every- 
thing knuivri mul belonging to welt 
sinking. Are the largest w in ks In tho 
business. If interested send 15 cents 
for mailing you our catalogue 
Of 860 engravings. 
Advance Tur fa in e 
Wind Mills, Steam 
E n g . m ■ . Art< siaji 
pumps, Ac Tho 
Ahic>Icud Well 
Work*. Aurora. 
11L, I b. A. 

Fruit Fnnra vinnQ Thc f " ^t.bwtandchaap- 
riUll Cliyi dVlliyb. , - and En 

PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC. graving* of WuiU, Vege- 
tables. Houses, Farms, Landscapes, etc., made by S. F. 
PxiOTOOKAViNQ Co., 659 Clay St., S F. 

Jolt 3, 1886.] 

pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS, 


For Vacation Time at the Mountains, the Seaside, or 
in the Social Circle, Ditson & Co.'s Music Books are an 
unfailing source of entertainment. 

Minstrel Songs, ow and New, $2.00 

College Songs (With new popular songs), 50 Cents. 
War Songs (Grand Army and Patriotic), 60 Cents. 

Choice Vocal Duets, »i-°o 
American Ballad Collection, &o cents. 

The last is a large sheet music s'ze book, and all con- 
ain just the songs that make the time pass merrily in 
hotel parlors, boat rides and excursions. 
For Piano. 

PianO ClaSSiCS, Moderately difficult and very 
tasteful Piano Pieces, SI. 00 

For Summer Readino there is nothing more delight- 
fully fresh and fasci"ating than 

Th» Letters of M o/.art. 2 volumes, each, 81.25 
The Letters of Mendelsshon, 2 vols., each, SI. 50 
Beethoven's Letters, $1.50 
Beethoven's Biographical Romance, $1.50 
Mozart's Romantic Bioeraphy, §1 .50 

The Soprano, a Musical Novel, $1.00 

These, with the various lives of the great tone masters, 
are most valuable as we'l as interesting, and should be 
in every public library. , 

Any book mailed for retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO., - 867 Broadway, New York. 


1,300 Engines now in use. 
40,000 Horse Power now running. 
Sales 2,000 H. P. per month. 

tarSend for strated Circular and Reference List. 


Sole Agents for Pacific Coast Sc Territories 
21 and 23 Fremont St., San Francisco. 






Is recognized as 
the Best. 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
double bearings for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating. 

With no oo springs, or springs o any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 8 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
eome only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
Inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept In stock. Address, 



San Francisco Agency-JAMES LINFOBTB 
116 Front St.. San Francisco. 


W. D. C0MST0CK, 

5th and K Streets, Sacramento, Cal. 



^"Inquiries attended to. 

Orders promptly filled "& 


A. & J. H4HN, Prop'rs, 
No«. 278, 275 , 277 and 2 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 
Rates, $1.25 to $2 Per Day. 
Stage offices for Collegeville and Oakdale, Roberts and 
Union Islands, and 1 i-e's Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit 
ted in the best style for the accommodation of the public. 

J. N. KNOWLES, Manager. EDWIN L. GRIFFITH, Secretary. 



Sperm Whale, Klepbaixt and. Fish. oils. 


Especially adapted for Vineyards and Fruit Orchards. OFFICE — 28 California St., San Francisco. 

If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale, 
ii mill MiTtrirTmmtwitvwrnntiFmBnti 'iTiiuriiTimngi*i —™— ■ t 













375,000 TREES. 1,000,000 ROOTED VINES. 


Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian Prunes, Plums, Figs 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Ornamental Shrubs, Greenhouse Plants. 

8,000 WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS— The fig of commerce, home grown, for sale thecoming 
season. Sixty varieties of Grapes, rooted and cuttings, including all the best Wine and Raisin 
varieties. Catalogue free. 


P. O. BOX 175. Fresno, California. 




























Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 



private asylum for the Care and Treatment of Mental anil Nervous Diseases. 

The Proprietary Institution called THE PACIFIC ASYLUM, where the Insane of the State of Nevada have been 
kept for several years, was opened as a PRIVATE ASYLUM for the care and treatment of Mental and Nervous 
Diseases, on the 10th of August, 1882, the Nevada patients having been removed to the new State Asylnm at Reno. 
The buildings are capacious and comforiable, having been constructed for the accommodation of over 200 patients, 
and they are pleasantly situated in the suburbs of Stockton, and are surrounded by attractive grounds of 40 acres in 
extent, with cultivated gardens and pleatant walks. Its advantages over public institutions in facility of admission 
and procuring extra accommodations, if required, are obvious. For terms and other particulars apply to the pro- 
prietor and Superintendent, DR. ASA CLARK, Pacific Asylum, Stockton, Cal. ASA CLARE, M X*. 

Reference — Dr. L. C. Lane, San Francisco. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rFree Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, proprietor. 

a. „ 
9 3 

C 5- 

and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at M«- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $65. Horse 
Powers from $50. P. W. KROGH & CO., 61 
Beale Street, San Francisco. 


Established in 1858. 

Apricot, Plum, Prune and Peach on Myrobolan Plum 
stocks. Bartlett, Winter Nelis, B. Clairgeau, B. Hardy 
and ether varieties, 1 and 2 years. A full stock of 1 and 
2-year-old Apple Trees, Peach on Peach, Nectarine, 
Quinco, Fig, Grape, Currants, Gooseberries, Almonds, 
Walnuts, Chestnuts, etc. Prices reasonably low. No 
scale bug. Also Myrobolan Plum and Pear Seedlings, 
home grown. Address W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 


Permanently and Thoroughly Cured. 

New Jerusalem, Ventura Co., Cal.. Apr. 16, 1886. 
For twenty-three years I had been afflicted with Stam- 
mering. Aftor two months' instruction under Professor 
Whitehorn, No. 1 Fifth St., S. F., I cannot express my 
feelings of gra'itude for being relieved of my affliction. 
I now have full control over my articulation, and can 
talk well. I think there can be no method of treatment 
more perfect for the cure of impediments in speech than 
Prof. Whitehorn's, and earnestly request all Stammerers 
to avail themselves of his instructions. 

Harvey Walbridok. 
All Impediments of Speech permanently and 
thoroughly cured. Highest Testimonials. 

No. 1 Fifth Street, San Francisco. 

Are you using Wellinjr- 
ton'slmproved Egg Food 
for Poultry ? If not, why 
not? Every Grocer, Druggist 
and Merchant Sells this Egg 



Self-Tramping Hay Press. 

Patented July 22, 1884, by JACOB PRICE, and manu- 
factured solely by the PRICE HAY PRESS COMPANY, 
at San Leandro, Cal., has the following 


31 Tons (259 Bales) in one day (13 hours); 
136 Tons in one week. 20 Tons 
per day average for weeks 


(Petaluma) HAY PRESS 
With Latest Improvements (Price, $350), 

Invented by JACOB PRICE, 
and manufactured by the 
San Leandro, Cal , has for 
20 years past been the lead- 
ing Press of the Pacific 
Coast, and though now dis- 
placed in the large Hay- 
producing sections by our 
rapid Self-Tramping JUN- 
IOR MONVRCH. is still in 
large demand back in the 
hills, on account of its 
cheapness. We have got 
them up in splendid shape 
this year, having imported Eastern Hard Maple for their 
construction. We have them made of White Oak also. 

ISTFor Large Illustrated Catalogue of the finest line of 
Hay Presses in the United States, address me at SAN 

Superintendent PRICK HAY PRESS CO. 

American Fruit Evaporator. 


DRAFT. — Its air currents pass unobstructed by trays 
over and under all fruit. 

HEAT.— First class portable furnaces; different temper- 
atures suited to different stages of curing; heat always 
under control. 

CONSTRUCTION.— Best wire cloth in trays. Trunks 
bolted solidly together. Every machine either left or 
right-handed. Ra.voe of sizes. Rate, ease and economy 
of work. Prices.— Nothing cheap but price. Illustrated 
manual free. Correspondence solicited. 

H. C. BRISTOL, General Agent, 
Frank Bros.) 319 Market St, San Francisco. 


No. 110 EDDY ST., bet. Mason and Taylor, 

Saii Francisco. 

A First-Class Lodging House, 

Located In a new building with all modern improvements 
and newly furnished wi'h elegant furniture. 

Accessible to seven street car lines, leading to every 
part of the city, and is within a few minutes' walk of ten 
restaurants and four theaters and places of amusements. 

Rooms let by the day, week or month, en suite or 
single, at reasonable prices. £0*Poople visiting the city 
can bo accommodated with board by the meal, if desired. 
MRS. J. C. JONES, Proprietor. 

iTV If ' y "^7 I'usitivi-I v cured Hi (1(1 ijuvs hyltr. 

^SHomcV KI'.-ctro-Mtlicne'tlc licit- 

■Truss, combined. Guaranteed the 
'(inly one iu the wnrlti irencrntiiig 

oconi ■ Eleatrio Kagnmo 

rrrnt. Srlcntillc, Powerful, Durable, 
'Comfortable ami Effective. Avoid frauds. 

Over n.oon cured. Bend stamp for pamphlet 


Concrete Apparatus 

RANSOME. 402 Montgomery St., S. F. Send for Circulars 



[July 3, 1886 


Tie "Wild Irishman" Tricycle Plow, 

tk«.« (-12-inch *SS 00 

Sizes 14 "'<•" 87 r, ° 
blze8 ( 16-inch 90 00 

Terms: Note payable .Ian. 1st, '87, without interest. 

Each Plow has a 'soiling Coulter and Extra Share. 

This Plow is attracting great attention. There is no 
aide draft or pressure on the horse's neck. Will turn a 
square, clean comer without raising. Don't fail to ex- 
amine this flow. Gave great satisfaction last season. 


No Clogging or Chocking Up. 

Can be worked in trashy or on ground where other 

kinds will not. 

This is the Cheapest Trill, because it saves an 
returns more for the investment. 

Glidden's New Pattern "Superior" Barb Wire. 

The Latest Improvement in Barb Wire Made Entirely of Steel. 

The strongest, lightest, best, and most easily seen by man and beast. Each ounce in weight makes a difference 
of $1 per mile for each strand used. Hence a four-strand fence a mile in length, made from wire weighing 20 
ounces per rod, will cost $12 more than the same length of fence if mado from wire weighing 17 ounces per rod. 
Before you purchase your wire look over these figures. It will pay you to buy the " Superior " or " Acme ; " the 
advantages they possess are many, and the quality is guaranteed. 



IF. „iSlCH J— 


The Fleming Boss Stacker. 

Boss Stacker, $80. Boss Rake, $50. 

The Fleming Boss Stacker and Rake is without doubt 
the most economical method of stacking hay or straw. 
The Rake is used instead of Sulky l!ak», go dcvil or 
buck. One man on the Kak -, and a man and boy with a 
team, will stack more than 16 men with ordinary imple- 
ments. It pays to buy this. Iion't neglect the opportu- 
nity to secure the best implement in the world, at the 
makers' cost to build. 



Weight 2200 ft*;. 
A crew of three 
men — four canine 
i to advan- 




VKjv Five ropes ; 
' il' i M*, lls '-'l<>n the ba 
^WsygW Capacity 10 

5 tons per day. 
best press 
he money in 
the world. 



Price, $300. 



and Best 
Record ! 


Press On The Lightest, Strongest, and Cheapest Wagon in the World. 


Hay babd with the Monarch last year brought 
froin'il to 92 per ton more in the market than that 
haled in other presses. 

Forty thousand in use, and only six havje been in any way disabled ; axles slightly 
bent— not one broken. True merits lead. Bead our Guarantee. 

Also a full line of Extras. Agents for McCormick Mowers, Reapers and Twine Binders, Randolph 

David Bradley Mfg. Co. A full ptook of Plows, Cultivators and Harrows on hand 
Headers, and John Dodd's Rake. Send for 1886 Catalogue. Address 

421-427 Market St., 

San Francisco, 





The BEST is the CHEAPEST, and when the 
CHEAPEST is also the BEST, 

The matter of selecting is at once settled without further consideration or discussion. Therefore, 
if you want a Wind Mill, send to the 



And you will receive by mail a circular and price list giving full description of Mill, prices, and 

All Infringements Forbidden under ot "- m f-- 

N. B. — An active Agent wanted in every town on the Coast. 

Penalty of the Law. 


Gbo. Haoar, President. W. B. Harrington, Cashier. 
B. II. Bi rton, Ass't Cashier. 


[Incorporated Sept. 15, 1870 1 

Capital paid in Coin, - - $500,000 00 
Surplus Earnings, - - - - 140,000 00 


National Bank of D. O. Mills & Co Sacramuxto. 

Bank ot California San rRANCisco. 

American Exchange National Bank Nkw York. 


Gko. IIaoar, W.F. Good, John Booos, 

Euan Mills, 

W. P. Harrikoton. 

Should consult 
Am erica n 

California Inventors 

asi> Foreign Patent Solicitor*, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats. Kstabli-hed hi 1860. Their long experience as 
journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better service than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of infor- 
mation. Office of the Knmra and Scientific Press and 
Pacific Ki bal Press, No. 252 Market St., San Francisco, 
^levator, 12 FroDt St. 



Grain Separator 

(Known as the Oregon Cleaner) 

Has proved itself to be the only 
Cleaner that Successfully Cleans 
the Grain from the 

Every Mill is Gi arantf.rd and it should be in- 
spected by every intending buyer before purchas- 
ing elsewhere. 

I also build a Cleaner for Com- 
bined Harvesters. Fanning Mills and 
Warehouse Mills of large capacity. 

For further particulars send for Illustrated 


Successor to BEST & ALTHOUSE, 
513 Fifth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

LEFFELS improved 


NO COMPOUND, but Nature's Remedy for 
Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Throat, Lung and 
Kidney troubles, a Specific for Croup. Every family 
should have it Beware of immitation. The genuine 
article has the name of WM. M. HICKMAN, 
Druggist, Stockton, on the labeU 


Vol. XXXII.— No. 2.] 


J $3 a Year, In Advance 
1 Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

A New Plum. 

We give on this page an engraving of a new 
plum, which is expected to be of much value at 
the East, and will therefore interest California 
growers. Whether it would prove of value 
here, where we can grow so many varieties 
which do not succeed at the East, and conse- 
quently have a much larger test than they have, 
is of course a question which can only be de- 
termined by growing it in comparison with the 
other kinds we have. As a new candidate for 
notice in the horticultural world we give it 
place in our columns. 

The Shippers' Pride plum originated in the 
State of New York, near Lake Ontario, and 
from what can be learned, it has stood the 
coldest Eastern winters without injury. The 
tree is described as an unusually thrifty grower, 
sometimes making a growth of over eight feet. 

Its productiveness seems to be an established 
fact, the original tree having never failed to 
produce a good crop since it was old enough to 
bear, and some seasons so large as to need sup- 
port to prevent the branches from breaking. 
The fruit is of large size, it being no uncommon 
occurrence to find specimens measuring two 
inches in diameter each way, as it is nearly 
round; it is what Mr. Charles Downing called 
a semi-cling, of a handsome dark purple color, 
excellent for canning, and an unusually good 
shipper, arriving at its destination in good 
order, and keeping for a long time in excellent 
condition. Some specimens, said to be below 
the average, were sent to the meeting of the 
American Pomological Society, at Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich., last fall, and elicited much com- 
mendation from their large size and handsome ap- 
pearance. The Shippers' Pride ripens at the 
East from the first to the middle of September. 
It seems to combine many if not all of the essen- 
tial qualities of a market plum. The variety 
has been propagated for sale by H. S. Ander- 
son, of Union Springs, New York. It has ap- 
parently secured the favor of the leadirg East- 
ern fruit experts. The late Charles Downing 
said of the plums: "They are large, showy 
plums and will no doubt sell well in the mar- 
ket. Promises to be valuable for market and 

Speaking of new plums, it is interesting to 
mention an announcement of a new prune from 
Shasta county, originating in the yard of W. 
W. Elmore, of Anderson. We find the follow- 
ing description of it in an exchange: 

It is a prune of a sweeter taste than the 
French or German and ripens three months 
eBrlier. Mr. Pettygrove, an experienced fruit- 
raiser, calls it a mongrel, and accounts for it 
from a French prune and cherry-plum tree 
being planted in close proximity, and a seed 
dropping from one of the trees into the ground 
germinated and burst forth a hybrid, the fruit 
taking its flavor from the French prune, and 
early ripening from the cherry plum. This 
tree has attracted the attention of many fruit 
men, and Mr. Elmore has refused a handsome 
sum of money for it. The fruit, which is now 
ripe, has been sent below for exhibition. 

Death of a California Cattle Kino. — 
Thomas Hildreth, for over 30 years a promi 
nent cattle dealer and mining operator, died 
June 29th, at his home in San Jose, of gastric 
hemorrhage. He was a native of Kentucky, 
but has resided in San Jose with his family for 
a score of years. His pioneer associates speak 
of "Uncle Tom" as a whole-souled, generous 
man, whose passing away they regard with 
deep sorrow. His hospitable spirit was- indi- 
cated by the understanding among all who ever 
had occasion to visit Dunphy & Hildreth's 
ranches that "everybody is welcome at Tom 
Hildreth's camp." Though rough in manner 

Mission Grapes in Texas. 

We find in the Two Republics, published in 
El Paso, Texas, an account of the fruit 
grown there, in which it is said that the best 
grape they have there for table use is the old 
Mission grape, introduced by the San Fran- 
ciscan monks when the Spaniards first came to 
this country under Coronado. They have of 
this grape two kinds, one of light, mottled 
claret color, and one of a deep blue, covered 
with a beautiful bloom. They are almost black. 
The skin is quite thin, and they are juicy and 
luscious beyond any other L grape we have ever 

How Sparks Makes the Sparks Flv. — It is 
telegraphed from Washington that Land Com- 
missioner Sparks has canceled for fraud during 
June 153 entries and filings, and held for can- 
cellation 127 entries, embracing in all about 
40,000 acres of land. He has also recommended 
criminal proceedings against 32 persons for tim- 
ber trespass and 15 civil suits to recover $145,- 
000, the value of timber stolen by them. 


he was of kindly heart; no one ever applied to 
him in vain in time of need, and many deeds of 
kindness and charity are placed to his credit in 
the record of his life. He had been ailing for 
some time, and the worry of business complica- 
tions probably hastened his death, at the age of 
68. He leaves a wife and large family of 

Vitioultdral Statistics. — The directors of 
the Grape-Growers' and Wine-Makers' Associa- 
tion have decided to attempt the preparation of 
a directory which shall include all in the grape 
industry, and the statistics of their acreage and 
production. After a general discussion upon 
the subject, at a meeting in this city on Tues- 
day, it was resolved to instruct the secretary, 
Mr. Rixford, to communicate with F. W. 
Morse, of the State Viticultural Commission, to 
ascertain just what progress the commission 
has made in gathering such statistics. Mr. 
Morse has from many districts full reports, 
from others partial reports, and from others 
none at all. It is the intention of the associa- 
tion to co-operate with the commission in gath- 
ering the desired information. 

tasted, not the least suspicion of the acid taste 
often found in other varieties. They claim that 
this is the same as the California Mission grape 
but the writer, having eaten them in both 
places, pronounces the El Paso Mission better 
on account of warmer soil and to the irrigation 
water of the Rio Grande, of which he says : 
" Laden with ammonia it goes on its way, stir 
ring up the sediment and rich decomposed mat- 
ter; and on its way, passing through belts of 
gypsum and minerals, it becomes almost a thick 
paste when at its highest point— during June 
and July — and it becomes a liquid manure, giv- 
ing great strength and vigor to the young grape 
then needing most its fertilizing power." 

It is true, we do not have any such sticky 
streams as that in California; even in slickens 
times our rivers were hardly as bad as that. 
The writer says, farther, that this " imparts to 
the El Paso grape a crispness and juiciness that 
our California friends can never hope to obtain." 
That settles it. If there is no use hoping we 
always give a thing up. 

Healdsburg will ship about 2,000,000 pounds 
of wool this season. 

Movement Against False Products. 

This measure hangs fire in the U. S. Senate 
and stands a good chance of being smothered. 
It was telegraphed from Washington on Tues- 
day that Senator Miller, of New York, who has 
the bill in charge, would make an effort to 
bring it up this week but had no idea he would 
succeed in securing its consideration. Senator 
Edmunds and others have notified him that 
there are important constitutional questions in- 
volved in the bill and that they will not permit 
a vote to be reached without at least a week's 
discussion. As this will be impossible in view 
of the near approach of adjournment, Senator 
Miller thinks the friends of the bill will be com- 
pelled to wait until the next session of Congress 
before positive action can be had upon it. 

Senator Edmunds' Vermont constituents, who 
are largely dairymen, have feared his parleying, 
and wrote him some days ago about what they 
expected of him. He replied that he did not 
need to be reminded of his duty to the farming 
interest, and yet he was getting ready to talk a 
whole week on the constitutionality of stamp- 
ing and taxing of bogus butter. Such friends 
of the farmer are of a sort that has figured too 
largely in our State and National Legislatures. 

It seems that another important measure to 
California producers is in the same boat with the 
oleomargarine bill, and that is the enactment to 
label and tax spurious wines, for which Mr. Wet- 
more has been laboring at Washington. There is 
quite a close analogy between the making of 
bogus butter and bogus wine, and both are full 
of debasement and abominations. The friends of 
the genuine product in each case have adopted 
the same method of attacking the evil, and if 
Senator Edmunds and his associates have to 
talk a week on one, they must surely have a 
week on the other. These questions seem 
simple enough to common people, and the 
courts, high and low, have, in the case of oleo- 
margarine at least, pronounced legislation 
against it to be constitutional. It remains, 
however, for the microscopic-eyed legislative 
lawyers to find more in them than outside peo- 
ple can see. It is such things as these that 
make the people tired. 

Bogus Shorthorn Pedigree. — We have not 
heard much of late of frauds in shorthorn pedi- 
grees, and we supposed the associations had 
arranged their safeguards so well that there 
was little chance for imposition. This is no 
doubt true, but an occasional intrusion of evil 
is to be expected in almost any institution. 
There has been quite a sensation in Detroit, 
Michigan, over the announcement in the herd- 
book of the American Shorthorn Breeders' 
Association that the pedigrees of cattle owned 
and sold by William B. and Henry Mitchell, 
prominent private bankers of Detroit, are 
fraudulent. It is alleged that the Mitchells 
have furnished false pedigrees of certain short- 
horns, the progeny of the cow Airdrie Duchess 
XI being mentioned. A page of the 30th vol- 
ume of the American Shorthorn Herdbook just 
published is devoted to the exposure of the 
Mitchells, and the pedigrees of many animals 
owned or sold by them are pronounced fraudu- 
lent. A resolution passed by the American 
Shorthorn Breeders' Association provides that 
neither of the Mitchells shall ever be allowed 
to enter another animal on the herdbook of the 
association. We are not aware that any of 
the Mitchell stock is on this coast. 


f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

[Joly 10, 1886 


Correspondents are alone responsible for their opinions. 

The Great Central Plateau of the 

Its Natural Wealth and Resources. 
[Written for the Press by J. G. Lkmmok.] 

If the reader will examine a late map of the 
southwestern Territories he will, at a glance, 
notice a long line of railway running nearly 
straight across the northern part of Arizcna, 
and extending eastward nearly to the center of 
New Mexico. 

On close inspection this line will be seen to 
follow along the 35th parallel of north latitude, 
varying only a few miles north and south of 
this parallel at any point. 

Also it will he seen to span the whole dis- 
tance between the two great rivers that flow 
southwardly out of the Rocky Mountains — the 
Colorado and Rio Grande— separated on this 
parallel by just eight degrees of longitude, 
equaling at this latitude about 50 miles each, 
making an air line distance of about 400 miles. 

The Railway Guide-book will inform you that 
the 35th parallel road, despite the sinuosities a 
railway must make to find the easiest grades, 
spans this distance by a course of only 5G0 

The guide-book will also show the newly es- 
tablished town of Needles, on the Colorado 
river, as the western terminus of this road; also 
that this town is connected with the farther 
West by a continuance of the line to Mohave, 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad from San 
Francisco to Los Angeles and the southwest. 

Also the guide-book will inform you that the 
larger, more important town of Albuquerque, 
on the Rio Grande, enjoys the double advan- 
tage of being both the eastern terminus of the 
road described and also of being a central depot 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road, com- 
ing from the northeast on its way down to El 
Paso and the southwest. 

The Great Central Plateau. 

This much the map and guide-book will show, 
but the most prominent feature of the country- 
is not readily conveyed to the eye by a flat sur- 
face like a map. This feature is a high, long 
and broad plateau occupying this interspace, 
and over which the railway climbs and de- 

The great plateau is somewhat quadrangular 
and oblong in shape, the longer diameter being 
east and west. Its high center remains convex, 
like a broad sugar loaf, but its sides all around 
have been abraded and carried away by ages of 
weathering, the debris conveyed to Southern 
Arizona and New Mexico and spread over their 
valleys by the affluents of three great rivers, 
which almost entirely inclose the plateau. 

The Colorado and Rio Grande form the nearly 
straight west and east boundaries of the plateau 
respectively, while the grand canyon of the 
Colorado river, turning abruptly eastward near 
the northwest corner of Arizona, together with 
its principal and also deeply canyoned branch, 
the San Juan river, bound the irregular northern 
Bide. Similarly, but not so deeply, the Gila 
river, with its atlluents, drain the still more ir- 
regular southern side. 

This plateau is so large and diversified that 
characteristic names have been applied to the 
several mesas or benches composing it. 

Mesas and Mountains. 

Hualapais and Chino valleys, with the Aubrey 
and Prescott mesas and a large diversified plain 
south of them, comprise the western end of the 
plateau; the San Francisco mesa comprises the 
great forest on the Arizona divide; east of it, 
stretching to the continental divide, is the large 
Colorado mesa with the Moqui and Navajo res- 
ervations north and the White mountain reser- 
vation south of it; lastly, in Northwestern New 
Mexico, is the broad continental divide with the 
Zuni and Mogollon mesa south of that. 

The most conspicuous mountain groups rising 
out of the mesas along the north side of the 
plateau are, first on the west, the sever- 
al Hualapais ranges, the Prescott ranges, 
the Bdl Williams group, the San Fran- 
cisco group with its mountains Agassiz and 
Humphry over 13,000 feet high — the highest 
peaks in Arizona — the Sierra Madre on Zuni 
range on the continental divide, and the San 
Meteo group, with ita Mount Taylor, over 13,- 
000 feet altitude, the loftiest peak in New 

Another line of groups are the Granite, Su- 
perstition, Manzineta, Pinal, White — with its 
Mounts Thomas and Ord, over 11,000 feet alti- 
tude, and the rugged Mogollon mountains re- 
main prominent on the southern slope of the 

Principal Rivers. 
Chief of the rivers originating on this plateau 
is the Little Colorado, a considerable stream 
Borne 250 miles long, which, with its many 
branches, alternately drains and irrigates the 
broad central portion between the two divides, 
cut i g for itself at last a deep gorge on the 
north side through which it debouches into the 
main Colorado just at the head of the Grand 

Similarly, but on a smaller scale, the Salt 
river disports itself on the south-central part of 
the plateau and then empties into the Gila above 
the Big Bend. Bill Williams and Rio Puerco 

are minor streams on the western and eastern 
endB respectively, each contributing largely to 
the wealth of the plateau. 

Towns and Settlements. 

Several important townB, including the capi- 
tal, Prescott, are situated on this plateau. The 
capital and Mineral Park are on the western 
slope, the former about 50 miles south of the 
A. & P. R. R., the latter 20 miles north of it. 

Similarly situated, on the eastern slope, are 
St. JohnB and the other Mormon settlements, 
all on the Little Colorado and its branches. 

A dozen new and promising towns have 
sprung up along the line of the railway. Be- 
ginning at the west, Kingman is the depot for 
Mineral Park, Peach Spring for tourists, to 
the Grand canyon of the Colorado, Ash Fork 
for Prescott. Williams is an important mount- 
ain town. Flagstaff is at a higher elevation 
than any other town on the plateau, 7000 feet 
in the great pine forest near the base of the 
lofty Mt. Agassiz. Winslow is the depot for 
some of the Mormon settlements, Holbrook for 
St. Johns and other Mormon settlements, to- 
gether with several other important and grow- 
ing towns; Wingate, for the port of that name, 
and the ancient Indian town of Zuni, while Mc- 
Carty's station is the radiating point to several 
Indian pueblos and Mexican towns near the 
Rio Grande. 

A half-dozen military posts have long been 
established on the plateau, including Fort 
Whipple near Prescott, the headquarters of the 
department commander. 

Atlantic & Pacific Railway. 

The long, nearly straight thoroughfare de- 
scribed as traversing this plateau from end to 
end, is the lately-constructed and superbly- 
equipped middle division of the Atlantic & 
Pacific or Thirty fifth Parallel railway, in 
praise of which, and the scenery it reveals, 
together with the natural wealth and resources 
it unfolds, much has been written of late, and 
deservedly, too, for it is one of the most inter- 
esting and important routes thus far projected 
on this continent. 

This results from its traversing a region 
studded with more extreme, diverse, beau- 
tiful, grand, curious, wonderful, important 
and valuable objects than can be combined by 
a road of like extent through any other part of 
the globe. And this region is not alone to be 
penetrated by this road, for already two im- 
portant feeders have been surveyed, one across 
the western end of the plateau reaching down 
southward to Prescott, and thence to Phoenix, 
in the rich valley of the Salt river, continuing on 
across the Gila river to connect with the grand 
trunk of the Southern Pacific at Maricopa; the 
other traversing the middle portion from Flag- 
staff through the length of the great forest to 
Globe City, and making another connection 
with the Southern Pacific at Wilcox. 

Each of the foregoing adjectives applied to the 
region traversed by the A. & P. R. R. could be 
substantiated by pages of detailed description, 
but the requirements of journalism demand of 
the note-taker brevity and point. 

Extremes and Diversities. 

Exceeding diversity results from the great 
difference of altitude of the several parts of this 
plateau. Taken as a whole the plateau is in- 
clined on its bed so that its western end is 
depressed to nearly sea level at the Colorado 
river, while its center rises to over 7000 feet at 
two points — the Arizona summit and the Con- 
tinental divide — descending to about 5000 feet 
at the eastern end resting on the Rio Grande; 
and all this extreme of elevation is under the 
semi-tropic parallel of 35 degrees, thus insuring 
the widest diversity of flora and fauna. 

The low Colorado valley, the hottest region 
within the limits of the United States, with its 
burning desert sands yielding their peculiar 
thorny flora of cacti, yucca and agave, under 
which lurk noxious reptiles and above which 
swarm stinging insects, contrasts very strongly 
with the elevated and delightfully cool great 
central crown with its gently undulating val- 
leys and hills, all clothed with a wealth of pine, 
oak and juniper forests and carpeted with 
beautiful flowers and nutritious grasses, upon 
which feed graceful quadrupeds and above 
which float lovely song- birds; while rising here 
and there from out the evergreen forests like 
icebergs on the billowy sea, several isolated 
groups of bald peaks ascend from 12,000 to 
13,000 feet in hight, so lofty, indeed, as to 
retain perpetual snow in their northern can- 
yons, once the track of grinding glaciers. 

Beautiful and Grand Scenery. 

Most beautiful are the flowers, shrubs and 
treeB; the canyons, water courses and valleys; 
the groves, meadows and vistas revealed by 
this road; while the extensive forests, noble 
mountains and bristling peaks attain the magni- 
tude of grandeur. Awe inspiring sublimity 
reaches its climax on this continent in the 
Grand canyon of the Colorado, near the great 
southern bend of which, at Peach Spring, this 
railroad fortunately passes. This canyon ia 
over 200 miles long. Its walls are from 4000 
to 6000 feet high, and irregularly cleft from top 
to bottom by side canyons that leave segments 
of rock between them, fashioned into magnifi- 
cent pyramidal, castellated mountains, zoned 
about with horizontal, parti-colored strata, 
from river-washed base to cloud-wreathed 

Curious and Wonderful Objects. 
Very wonderful are the roomy, white-furni- 
tured limestone caves recently discovered near 

Peach Spring and Ash* Fork, while still larger 
and more wonderful ones have been found in 
the White mountains; the latter abounding in 
ancient pottery, burial urns, weapons and uten- 
sils of curious design and unknown origin. 

On the plateau near Chiquita, Colorado, the 
former traveler over the plains suddenly found 
himself, without warning, on the very verge of 
the famous Canyon Diablo, a deep rift in the 
earth's surface 30 miles long, 222 deep and only 
540 feet across, channeled by a deep stream 
ages ago. This frightful gorge is now spanned 
by a mucb-admired iron bridge, over which all 
trains pass slowly to allow passengers time to 
gaze into its awful depths. 

Most wonderful and puzzling is the petrified 
forest near Holbrook, treeB of which have been 
measured that were three to four feet in diam- 
eter. The cracks and cavities of these trees are 
filled with masses of lovely polygonal crystals 
of many hues, being the residue of the silica 
which was taken up in solution by these trees 
during a series of dry seasons, ages ago, and 
thus deposited, after which the celluloid tissue 
of the heart-wood was filled to repletion, and 
the trees became solid etone. A company has 
been incorporated in San Francisco to obtain 
and manufacture tons of these petrifactions into 
jewelry and all sorts of fancy as well as useful 

Interesting Aborigines. 

Most interesting to tourists and important to 
naturalists are the persons, habits, occupations, 
surroundings and traditions of the aborigines, 
many tribes of which are located on this pla- 

These Indian tribes present all degrees of 
physical condition and mental culture, from the 
squalid, beggarly Hualapais, huddled under the 
junipers of the western slope, who hesitate at 
nothing degrading and criminal, to the high- 
spirited, stock-raising Navaho, roaming over 
the upper mesas; cr the still more advanced 
and Christianized, agricultural Pueblo Indians, 
dwelling in excellent stone houseB of extremely 
ancient origin on the eastern slope. 

The Indian topic is so very interesting that 
the temptation is strong to enlarge upon it at 
this time, but such amplification may be in- 
dulged, perhaps, in a subsequent paper. 

Salubrity of the Climate. 

The high elevation of the plateau, the mild- 
ness of the summer's heat and the winter's 
cold, the absence of hot winds and piercing 
blasts, the presence of balsam-producing trees 
in the forests, the purity of the mountain 
springs and streams, all combine to make the 
sanitary conditions exceedingly good. 

Already the region has become a resort for 
invalids seeking health, and persons afflicted 
with chills and fever elsewhere lose all symp- 
toms of the malady soon after arriving on the 
plateau. No malarial districts, even of small 
extent, have been detected on it, and their pres- 
ence is believed to be impossible. 

Rheumatic and nervous disorders are infre- 
quent, while pulmonary and bilious complaints 
never originate on the plateau. 

The few physicians that strive to make a liv- 
ing here have very large circuits and each has 
some other business — the sale of drugs, the 
raising of stock, etc. — connected with his pro- 
fession. They declare that their practice con- 
sists almost entirely of surgery and obstetrics. 

Great Wealth of the Plateau. 

Finally, the economic values of the objects de- 
veloped and brought into commercial relations 
with other parts of the Union by this new rail- 
way are simply past computation. 

First may be mentioned the saving of time — 
and time is often of more worth than money to 
the tradesman or traveler — insured by a direct 
thoroughfare between the East and West which 
is absolutely unmenaced by snow blockades in 
winter or sandstorms and washouts in summer. 
The real wealth of this Mesopotamia region is 
but fairly discoverable now, not yet fully de- 
veloped. It consists mainly of several rich 
mines comprising nearly all the precious metals, 
already putting out carloads of bullion and 
hundreds of prospects more or less developed in 
all the mountain ranges of the plateau; of vast 
coal fields supposed to be the largest in the 
world, underlying the north-central part of the 
plateau, extending also into Utah, while south- 
ward they are crossed by the railway at Gallup, 
where five thick strata crop out and are ex- 
tensively worked; of wide forests of pine, 
cedar, fir, juniper, oak, ash and other timber 
trees, among which already many saw mills and 
factories are established, using improved ma- 
chinery and employing hundreds of workmen; 
lastly, and perhaps chiefly, of stock-raising, 
beef-producing and wool-growing facilities, 
prosecuted for hundreds of years by the pastoral 
Indians and now being seized upon and im- 
proved by the dominant white races. 

Unexcelled Grazing Lands. 

It is believed that no other country in the 
world is possessed of such wealth of grazing 
lands as are found on this plateau. Nutritious 
grasses, thick, and often two and three feet 
high, abound in the valleys and amid the 
trees of the great forest, while shorter and more 
tufted, but just as rich and abundant, clothe all 
the other portions of the plateau at lower levels, 
especially in the broad juniper belt, which en- 
tirely surrounds the great forest, and which, in 
fact, composes the greater part of the plateau. 
Seeming Drawbacks. 

To the traveler on the railway or the thought- 
less observer anywhere, there seem to be two 

serious drawbacks to the superior excellence of 
this plateau as a grazing country. One is the 
presence of Mai pais rock over large portions; 
the other is the scarcity of water over most of 
it. Both these facts, however, are fonnd to be 
really great advantages to stock-raising and 

Mai paw— "bad land " or " bad country " in 
Spanish — is a black or various colored lava, hard 
and porons, which is found shattered at the 
surface, and strewn over large areas of the 
plateau, especially at the center, where, per- 
haps, it originated in the San Francisco and 
neighboring mountains. Its presence prevents 
animals from stampeding or running great dis- 
tances, but does not hinder slower progress any- 
where, especially in the numerous valleys, where 
it is partially or wholly covered with alluvium. 

Large stock-raisers of many years' experience 
declare that they would not have the mal pais 
removed from their ranges for any considera- 
tion, for it keeps their animals quietly at home, 
thus greatly favoring fattening and increase. 

The wild, long-bodied and long-legged animals 
from Texas and similar smooth plains have been 
made so by the habit of running and stamped- 
ing to which they have been subjected all their 
lives. Brought upon this plateau, their off- 
spring in a few generations become tame and 
gentle, with short legs, thick bodies and deep 
chests, while every circumstance favors milk- 
yielding and fattening processes. 

The Water Supply. 

While it is well known that springs and so- 
called "tanks" or sink-holes in stream-beds are 
everywhere dispersed at convenient intervals — 
and of these more can be readily developed by 
intelligent effort in many places — yet there is 
at present a comparative scarcity of water. 

This scarcity serves a similar purpose as the 
mal />ais, in keeping animals quietly at borne, 
and hence it greatly diminishes, or entirely ob- 
viates, the expenses of herding. An instance 
was cited to the writer where a stock-raiser in 
the region easily cares for over 1000 head with- 
out assistance. 

Stock men find that one herder cm care for 
five times as many animals in such regions as 
where water is so abundantly and equally dis- 
tributed, for the herder has only to visit the 
watering places for his stock instead of search- 
ing over the whole country. 

Still, there are certain districts lying idle 
because they are entirely destitute of water 
except in winter and midsummer. In these 
localities enterprising natives are boring arte- 
sian wells, and the day is not far distant when 
the construction of reservoirs in favorable 
gulches, or the converting of certain canyons 
and valleys into lakes, will be found a profitable 
investment of capital. 

The Mild Winters. 

As a climax to this matchless array of stock- 
raising and fattening facilities it only remains 
to mention the highly favoring, mild, open 

All the domestic animals, including sheep, 
require no special care or provision in winter 
as regards either food or shelter. At the ap- 
proach of the first storms the animals not al- 
ready favorably located roam off into the juni- 
per belt, to feed upon the hitherto untouched 
grasses, coming back or being driven back in 
the spring, fat and ready -for market, with 
seldom the loss of over one per cent. 

Let Eastern farmers who have to build barns 
and then toil three or four months of each year 
to fill them with hay, then toil another three or 
four months to feed the hay out to stock, in a 
freezing atmosphere, let them learn of this 
glorious outlook on the great central plateau of 
the Southwest, where millions upon millions of 
acres of these grazing lands lie all unoccupied 
and inviting Anglo-saxon enterprise. 

Flagstaff, Arizona, June 2, 18S6. 

A Nook in Tulare. 

Editors Press: — As you solicit information 
from all parts of California, I will give you a 
few notes from this isolated nook in her vast 
domains. U e feel somewhat at a loss how to 
name this community. It is often designated 
as Cottonwood, Stone Corral or Cricketville. 
Now, to settle the matter, or add confusion, I 
propose to call it Butte Cove, as there are three 
noted Buttes in the southern part of the valley, 
standing like sentinels in the level plain. They 
were spoken of by General Fremont as the 
Pilot Knobs. I think where we have such 
noted landmarks we should not be at a loss for 
a name. 

The valley is a cove in the mountains, about 
12 miles northeast of Visalia. The soil is quite 
varied. Near the mountains is what we call 
dry bog— an intensified adobe, not separating 
in large chunks like adobe, but crumbling up 
into fine particles. It is much softer when 
thoroughly dry than at any other time, and 
very productive. Quite a large portion of the 
valley is a sedimentary deposit, caused by the 
overflow of Dry creek. Between this and the 
bog land is a red soil, a clayey loam, well 
adapted to fruit or vines. I think it 
is the best fig land in the State. This was one 
of the fir-t places in the southern country where 
the growing of the cereals was attempted out- 
side of a few moist spots along the rivers, and 
most of the land has been constantly utilized 
for that purpose ever since. The valley nestles 
close up against the high mountains, and con- 
sequently gets more rain than the lands out in 

Joly 10, 1888] 


the open plain; hence crops are reasonably sure, 
failures occurring only in excessively dry years. 
Besides, the heavy northers that are sometimes 
so trying to crops in the open are shut off by 
the spurs of the mountain on the north. The 
land has, as a general thing, been very slovenly 
cultivated. Most of it is held in large tracts. 
Fielden Bacon owns about 4000 acres, and 
there are many other large holders. Much of 
the dry-bog land has never been plowed, and 
yet has been yielding from fair to enormous 
crops most of the time for the last 12 years. 
Sometimes a cultivator or a harrow is run over 
it to cover the seed. 

The district is but sparsely settled, and little 
has been done in the way of improvement. We 
have one store and postoffice, and one flourish- 
ing school. The country is deserving of a bet- 
ter fate, as the soil is good, the climate health- 
ful and the scenery unsurpassed. The mountains 
begin to rise on the eastern side of the valley. 
For several miles the elevation is a wavy, undu- 
lating slope, then more abrupt, presenting huge 
cliffs and gorges, still rising, rising, till the 
glacial hights reach the summit of our great 
Mount Whitney, whose icy brow, reflecting the 
genial rays of Southern California's sun, crowns 
her with a sheen of golden glory. 

Though so little has been done to develop the 
latent resources of our valley, still it is not 
without a demonstration of its great possibili- 
ties. Mr. S. Z. Curtis has laid the foundation 
for as fine a farm as can be found anywhere. 
His alfalfa fields equal the best. The yield of 
his fruit trees and vines is abundant and of an 
excellent quality. He grows plenty of fine 
strawberries and blackberries to meet the de- 
mands of a large ranch where sometimes as 
many as 20 or 30 men are employed, besides 
supplying the wants of his neighbors. But 
most to be admired is his young orange grove, 
just coming into bearing and producing very 
fine oranges. 

Mr. Baird, also, is planting a large orchard, 
among which are many orange trees, and several 
others are beginning such improvements as will 
make their places more home-like. Good water 
can be had in any part of the valley at from 6 
to 15 feet, and in great abundance. An item 
worthy of mention is a fig tree standing alone 
on as dry a spot as can be found in the valley, 
growing luxuriantly and producing two crops 
of fine figs each year. 

Thus, with such demonstrations of the possi- 
bilities at hand, we look forward to the near 
future when a great change will be produced — 
when our vast grain-field will be divided up 
into small holdings and a more diversified sys- 
tem of husbandry will take its place. With 
such a change we have room for a large and 
prosperous settlement. The east branch of the 
76 canal covers most of the valley, and the 
Victor colony's canal may be extended to cover 
it all. Lands are yet cheap and offer good op- 
portunities for home-seekers. 

The surveying corps of the Giant Forest R. R. 
Co. were through the valley last month laying 
out their road. C. Talbot. 

Churchill, Tulare Co., Cal. 


Poultry and Eggs. 

The im mense proportions, says the Mercan- 
tile and Exchange Advocate, to which the poul- 
try and egg product of this country has grown, 
are at this period worthy of the attention of all 
who are interested in the food products of the 

In giving attention to the production of poul- 
try and eggs, it is well to remark the fact, that 
the entire production is intended for consump- 
tion as human food. 

And as human food it is of interest to ob- 
serve that both poultry and eggs are considered 
food of the highest order. 

Having observed that the entire production 
of poultry and eggs is intended for human food 
and that of the highest order, the next thing for 
consideration is whether or not the value and 
quantity of these poultry products are worthy 
of any special attention. Possibly some of those 
elpgant speculators in cotton or wheat who 
imagine that the bare thought given to the 
value of the eggs or fowls they eat on their 
tables would disgrace their profession as deal 
era in the great cotton or wheat products, 
would open their eyes wide if told that 
the poultry and egg crop of the United 
States exceeds in actual value the cotton crop 
per year by about $130,000,000, and the wheat 
crop by over §50,000,000. 

The poultry and egg products of the past year 
from June 1, 1885, to June 1, 18S6, can be 
placed at the enormous sum of $563,000,000 
with a confident feeling that this estimate, 
based upon comparative calculations, is not far 
from being an approximate valuation as near as 
can be arrived at. Realizing the immense value 
attached to these products, is it foreign to 
American ideas that so important an interest on 
the list of human food products should receive 
that attention which it is entitled to ? 

"Cornpone" for Chicks. 

Editors Press : — Allow me to say to Mrs. 
E. J. Squires, of Redwood City, that had she 
fed her incubator-hatched chicks with "corn- 
pone," instead of dry bread, bran, middlings 
and oatmeal, she would not have lost any 

chicks from bowel troubles. I have not been 
in California very long, but have so far been 
quite successful in raising chicks. Mix the 
cornmeal with milk, either sour or sweet, 
and bake till done; and, instead of sweet milk, 
give them all the water they will drink and 
keep the vessels clean and replenish them every 
two or three hours. On this diet, occasionally 
adding a little meat in the corn-pone (any odd 
scraps that would perhaps go to the slop- 
pail), your chicks will thrive, as do the Vir- 
ginia picaninnies on hog and hominy. 

Kate Millikan. 
Sutler Cretlc, Amador Co. 


On the Santa Clara Foothills. 

Editors Press: — Bordering the eastern side 
of the Santa Clara valley, in the first foothills, 
we find a belt of country adapted to the growth 
and maturity of a great many different kinds of 
products; fruits, grapes, grain, grass, etc. The 
climate, as in most portions of our State, is very 
enjoyable, and health remarkably good. We 
believe there may be few places in California 
which more freely admit of the exercise of taste 
and caprice in the choice of kinds and varieties 
of plants to be cultivated. 

In driving from place to place it would be 
hard to select special ones to be mentioned in 
preference to others, as each has its distinguish- 
ing merits with reference to beauty of sunny, 
happy locations for buildings, the water supply 
and many minor facilities that might be men- 
tioned. Perhaps within this range, however, 
we find no greater number of good things at one 
place than we do on the grounds of Dr. A. E. 
Mintie, of San Francisco, situated about five 
miles east of San Jose. Enjoying the refresh- 
ment afforded by fine shade and good water, we 
would here pause and look over the place with 
Mr. N. H. Brundridge, who, with his amiable 
family, has lived here for the past three years. 
That which follows is taken from personal ob- 
servation, together with remarks of Mr. B. 
founded on hia experience. 

In this place we have 84 acres orchard and 
vineyard. The orchard consists principally of 
Moorpark apricots and French prunes, between 
700 and 800 Silver prunes, a few German and 
other varieties of the prune, and all do remark- 
ably well. Mr. B. informs us that in opposi- 
tion to the rule in California, the Moorpark 
apricot is here a success, and generally bears 
good crops. The trees are well loaded this 
season. Paper-shell almonds here generally 
produce good crops season after season. We 
have some very fine specimens of the English 
walnut, three of which, now some 10 or 12 
years old, were, we anderstand, planted by the 
editor of the Rural Press. These are re- 
markably vigorous and now in full bearing. 
Others, younger, are doing as well. 

Citrus Fruits. 

Of orange trees, about a dozen of various 
kinds, mostly in bearing, are generally in good 
condition. One of the Navel variety is grow- 
ing here but not yet in bearing. Of three 
lemon trees we will particularly mention one 
of the Lisbon variety, age unknown, supposed 
to be 10 or 12 years, about 16 feet high, trunk 
about six inches in diameter at ground, the top 
beautifully proportioned and spreading. This 
tree is now "a sight to behold," covered with 
lemons from the smallest size with bloom just 
dropped, and up through all stages to the 
large, ripe and ready for use, and still with an 
ample supply of young buds and blooms coming 
on. Mr. B. informs us that this tree is ever 
thus throughout every day of the year, covered 
with flowers and fruit in all the various stages 
of development. In 1S84 he kept an account 
and gathered from this single tree over 100 
dozens of lemons in the 12 months. Last year 
he thinks it was just as full, but no account 
was kept. This year its productiveness seems 
as great as ever. This is a remarkably fine- 
looking tree, and although so burdened with 
fruit, seems vigorous and still growing. Think 
of being able to walk out and pluck ripe fruit 
off of the same tree every day of the year! Mr. 
M. considers the fruit better for pies and lemon- 
ade than the famous Sicily. This is undoubt- 
edly a very profitable variety for at least this 
locality. The particular conditions of this 
place may have much to do with the growth 
and bearing of the Lisbon, yet the facts here 
mentioned should lead us to experiment with 
this variety in various parts of California, where 
the lemon may be profitably grown. Dr. Babb 
of this neighborhood grows the Sicily lemon, 
and the prospect seems hopeful of the future. 

Orchard and Vineyard. 

Of pears, the Bartlett and the Winter Nelis 
are the principal varieties, both bearing full 
and regular crops every year. We understand 
that pears generally are successfully cultivated 
in this neighborhood. 

Of peaches, the Lemon cling, the Seller cling 
and the Early Crawford are among the best, 
and bear well every year since Mr. B. 'a resi- 
dence. Of cherriea, the Black Tartarian and 
Oxheart are the principal varieties grown on 
this place, and bear well. Wild birds gener- 
ally get a full share of them. 

Orchard trees are 20 feet apart, and Mr. B. 
utilizes the center of the spaces between rows 

running east and west by planting with two rows 
of Egyptian corn three feet apart. The grow- 
ing corn is, in summer time, considered of great 
benefit to the trees, as the shade in heat of dav 
falling on the trunks, protects them from the 
direct rays of the sun. Last year, in part of 
the orchard, he used Yellow Dutton corn in the 
same way. He makes fodder of the corn. 

Figs do remarkably well, growing thriftily 
and bearing large crops. 

Of grapes, there are 25 acres, consisting of 
Zinfandel, Charbono, Cabernet Souvignon, 
Black Hamburg, White Chasselas, Muscat and 
Muscatelle. Crops have never yet failed with 
Mr. B., and the flavor is excellent. 

Up on the hillside, above the houses and 
barns, a living, natural fountain, during the 
year, furnishes all the water necessary for the 
dwelling-house, stables and whatever of irri- 
gation may be needed for flower and kitchen 
gardens. The orchards and vineyards need no 
irrigation, as they grow and mature their fruit 
to a better advantage without it. 


A small artificial pond constructed a few feet 
below the spring is continually supplied with 
pure, fresh water from the spring by means of 
iron pipes. This pond is well stocked with 
carp. A few hundred yards below the house, 
another and a larger pond has been constructed 
— large enough for slight boat rowing, and de- 
signed to be shaded by a grove of eucalyptus, 
already planted for that purpose. This will 
furnish a most delightful retreat for friends, 
visitors and young people who may wish to take 
a little time from the cares and toils of life and 
enjoy society under most charming influences. 

Mr. B. expects soon to remove the carp to 
this lower pond and stock the upper with mount- 
ain trout. This arrangement of ponds to be 
stocked with fiah affords a auggestion that 
might be utilized by a great many persons liv- 
ing on this coast similarly situated, and sup- 
plied with an abundance of water for the pur- 
pose. In the use of such ponds there need be 
no loss of water worthy of mention, as the water 
merely passes through without injury for irri- 
gation purposes. Under favorable conditions, 
ponds may be constructed during leisure times 
at no very considerable outlay, and much en- 
joyment may be afforded families in giving what- 
ever attention to the fish that might be neces- 
sary as well as in the consumption of the very 
fine, wholesome and nutritious food thus to be 
supplied the table. McD. 

Santa Clara Co. 


Sundry Matters. 

Editors Press: — Why is honey not used more 
in the place of sugar? Even in bee keepers' 
families I have seen sugar on the table daily, 
when honey might have taken its place just as 
well. During the 16 years in which I have been 
in the bee business I do not remember of having 
bought a single pound of sugar for my own 
use. I use honey aa sweetening for my tea and 
coffee, for stewed fruit, and anywhere else 
where sweetening is required. If a good article 
of honey is used, having no strong or pro- 
nounced flavor, one can soon become accus- 
tomed to it and never miss the sugar. At the 
present low price for extracted honey it ought 
to be used in every bee-keeper's house, if only 
as a matter of economy and to save the expense 
of sugar. 

Comb Honev vs. Extracted Honey. 

Eastern honey dealers complain of not suffi- 
cient comb honey in one-pound sections beiDg 
produced in California. The two-pound Cali- 
fornia section ia not liked. Comb honey in one- 
pound sections finds a ready sale at fair prices, 
and will bear the expense of shipment, while ex- 
tracted honey hangs on the hands of the pro- 
ducer or, if sent to market, hardly pays for the 
work of extracting. By recent correspondence 
with a commission dealer in San Francisco I 
have found that extracted honey, put up in 
small cans for the retail trade, would not net 
me the cost of the cans, though I guaranteed 
the honey to be produced and put up by myself, 
and to be strictly pure. In view of these facta 
I am turning my attention to the production of 
comb honey, and am now melting up hundreda 
of extracting combs for which I have no further 
use. The extracted honey, of which I have 
several tons on hand, with no prospect of sale, 
is an expense to me in the way of taxes, and 
only serves as (rather expensive) ballast for my 
house in this windy locality. 

Heddon's New Hive. 

James Heddon, of Dowagiac, Mich., has 
lately introduced to the bee-keeping public a 
new hive, which is claimed to have superior ad- 
vantages over any other hive in existence. The 
main feature is that the brood chamber is di- 
vided horizontally into two equal parts, each 
having a set of shallow, fixed frames. The 
frames are held in place by thumb-screws, and 
the outside cases are interchangeable and re- 
versible. The principal object of this arrange- 
ment is to facilitate manipulation by handling 
hives instead of frames, and thereby save time, 
which is quite a consideration in a large apiary. 
To succeed with the hive, a particular system 
of management must be followed. This is 
clearly laid down in Mr. Heddon's new book, 

which can be obtained from the principal sup- 
ply dealers. 

Artificial Fertilization. 
Among other researches, Professor McLain of 
the U. S. Apicultural Station, Aurora, 111., has 
recently made some valuable experiments upon 
the artificial fertilization of queen bees. While 
he claima to have succeeded so far, yet, as a 
careful experimenter and writer, he wants fur- 
ther time for more extended tests, before plac- 
ing positive rules and proofs before the public. 
In the hands of an experienced queen-breeder 
the operation may prove a success and be of un- 
doubted value, but it is not likely that the or- 
dinary bee-keeper, who works for honey alone, 
will devote the time and care to this subject 
which seem to be essential to its accomplish- 

Foul Brood. 

Robert Sproule, of Dublin, Ireland, gives, in 
the June 1st number of Gleanings, a new proc- 
ess of disinfecting foul-broody hives by steam. 
The steam is generated from a mixture of car- 
bolic acid and water, and under a low pressure 
forced into the hive, permeating every part, and, 
as he claims, thoroughly disinfecting it. The 
apparatus required is simple and cheap. As the 
article is too lengthy to be reproduced here, 
any one interested in the subject is referred to 
the above number of Gleanings, which also gives 
a very good cut of the disinfecting apparatus 
and a hive under treatment. 

Wm. Moth-Rasmussen. 

Independence, Cal. 

Honey— Past and Prospective. 

Editors Press:— Last season's crop of honey 
in this market was well cleaned up by shipments 
during the freight war to the East. As the 
season has closed and we are entered on a new 
one, the following statistics will be of interest. 
The number of cases received in this market 
last year compare by months for six years past 
as follows: 

1885. 18S4. 1883. 1882. 1881. 1880. 
January... 6,095 88 605 176 1,758 295 
February... 1,664 167 393 68 989 22 

March 2,375 144 34 420 334 128 

April 1,195 250 200 684 771 44 

May 889 254 2S7 213 121 737 

June 862 690 631 669 202 2,952 

July 925 2,047 948 1,053 662 2,848 

August 1,185 4,009 2,151 2,613 833 4,883 

September. 1,409 6,887 3,177 3,692 1,428 7,027 
October.... 2,518 10,208 2,446 2,750 1,661 3,322 
November.. 2,298 6,140 1,253 1,068 993 2,100 
December.. 2,957 4,381 1,679 1,183 901 2,404 

Total.... 23,372 34,265 13,804 14,409 10,658 26,782 
The above is the more interesting in going to 
show the montha in which receipts are the 
largest, and also their fluctuating character. 
The following statistics of the exports, taken in 
connection with the receipts, are of peculiar 
interest, for they show the character of the 

By sea from By rail from 

San Fran- S. F. and 

cisco. Interior. 
Tear. Cases. Lbs. Lbs. 

1885 12,151 32,550 1,313,260 

1884 13,094 167,320 2,352,000 

1883 .• 6,663 266,400 

1882 3,612 627,680 

1881 8,849 62,700 378,370 

1880 7,890 150,S06 861,050 

Receipts in barrels and kegs have been as 
follows for five years past: 

Bbls. Kegsl Bbls. Kegs 

... 62 ....1882 291 23 

... 485 11881 466 84 

3 2ll880 1,156 126 


From January 1, 1886, to June 1st, receipts 
at this port have been 3867 cases. 

There is considerable discussion among deal- 
ers regarding the quantity of last year's crop. 
This is due chiefly to the large quantity of honey 
received that was carried over from the 1884 
crop. As near as can be ascertained, last year's 
crop was not much, if any, over 1,250,000 
pounds, against, in round numbers, 0,000,000 
pounds in 1884. Although the crop last year 
was light, yet prices ruled low owing to the 
large carry-over from 1884. The prices ruled 
last season (1885-86) about as follows: Ex- 
tracted, 3^@5£ cents ; very few parcels reached 
the higher figure. For comb, prices showed a 
wide range owing to large differences in qual- 
ity ; the range was from 6@,14 cents. 

Thia season's crop is estimated at about 5,000,- 
000 pounds and comes in on a bare market with 
U8, but this is offset by liberal stocks at the East 
and also abroad. Notwithstanding stocks in 
the demand markets are reported large, yet 
from all that can be ascertained this season's 
crop can be worked off to good advantage, as 
the quality is superior to the crop of 1885-86. 
The only difficulty in the way of obtaining 
good prices is a strong selling pressure, and it 
is the fear of this that restricts large oper- 
ators and -shipper8 to actual requirements. 
If a selling pressure sets in, prices must recede, 
as buyers will take all on the market at figures 
that will allow a good speculative margin 
against all possible declines and long holdings 
before marketed for consumption. J. R. F. 

San Francisco. 

Beeswax. — Beeswax is nothing more than 
the voluntary excretion of the honey bee, like 
perspiration from the human body. To save 
time and to enable them to devote all their 
energies to honest gathering, apiarians now pro- 
vide these bees with artificial comb, which the 
latter as readily undertake to fill as though con- 
structed by themselves. 



[July 10, 1886 

Matrons of Husbandry. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Grange* are respect- 
fully solicited (or this detriment. 

Sonoma Grange Exhibit. 

In the report of the last meeting of the Fruit 
and Grape Growers' Association of Sonoma 
county, we find the following items: 

Mr. McDonald reported, as one of the com- 
mittee appointed to solicit a donation from the 
Board of Supervisors toward assisting the 
Orange to make a display of the products of 
Sonoma county at the coming fair, that the 
Supervisors had refused the appeal on the 
ground that there was no law by which such 
a donation could be made. 

Mr. McDonald commented strongly on the 
action of the board in the premises, saying that 
he supposed ihe supervisors all over the State 
were .controlled by one law, and could not 
understand how the supervisors of Fresno and 
Los Angeles counties were able to find such a 
law when our board could not. He also urged 
the necessity of making a good display this 

Mr. Whittaker stated the Grange had al- 
ready taken steps toward its fall display, and 
had appointed committees and perfected other 
arrangements. But the Grange would need all 
the help that could be got to make a complete 
exhibit, and if no help was received from indi- 
viduals, financially, this year would probably 
be the last year the Grange would under- 
take to make a creditable exhibit of the county's 
products. Mr. Whittaker also spoke of the 
great benefit such a display will be to the 
county, stating that when Sonoma county made 
her first exhibit at the State Fair he could have 
wheeled the balance of her agricultural display 
from other parts of the State all over the 
county on a wheelbarrow. 

Col. McDonald then stated that Messrs. W. 
D. Pridham, John Adams, M. L. McDonald 
and J. H. Drummond had been appointed Com- 
missioners of Sonoma county for the Mechanics' 

Mr. Trowbridge thought that the supervisors 
were governed by the result of Tulare and 
Fresno counties, donation, viz: being enjoined 
by the district-attorneys of those counties from 
making such appropriations. 

Grange Life and Work. 

Bro. J. W, Lang writes for the Grange Bul- 
letin the following appeal to Grange effort: 

That which costs but little is really worth 
but little, and does us but little good. In the 
Grange we shall receive but little benefit, if 
we are of little use in it. The most active are 
the most rewarded. Neglect of duty breeds in- 
difference and does not bring satisfaction. The 
Patron at heart will renew his strength often by 
living contact with the Grange and association 
with the brethren. They who bear the burdens 
grow still more able to bear; they who take 
active parts are benefited by the offer. 

The true object of life is to be a whole, a no- 
ble, a true man or woman; to be useful and fill 
an honorable place in the procession of life. An 
honest man is the noblest work of God. A true 
Patron is not only an honest but an earnest 
man; a man of use and a man of action. Within 
our gates there are great opportunities; around 
our altars there are sacred things; in our ranks 
are the best of men and women. More are com- 
ing and there is ample room for more to come. 
In Maine there are 64,000 farms. On each 
there is a farmer and farmer's wife, a possible 
128,000 Patrons. If there are on each a son and 
daughter above 14 years of age, there is yet an- 
other possible 128,000 Patrons, or the grand 
aggregate of 256,000 eligible to membership in 
our Order. Of these only a small portion — only 
the pioneers, so to speak — are yet within our 
gates. Thirteen thousand Patrons to-day form 
but the advance guard of what might be the 
great host in the near future. Is not thiB 
thought enough to nerve to action every Patron 
in Maine, to stir the blood and fire the brain 
with true and well-directed zeal ? 

Every man and woman has the birthright to 
use their Ood-given powers to the best of their 
ability. It is their duty to raise their condi- 
tion in life by every laudable means. There is 
no lack of brains in our ranks, it is only lack of 
culture and development. The Grange opens 
the door to a better way and a more enjoyable 
life. It presents us opportunities we cannot af- 
ford to neglect. Happy ought they to be who 
have sought and gained admission within the 
gates. To make any farm pay it must be 
worked. So in the Orange, to make the most 
of it and of ourselves, we must work. It is 
work, well directed effort, that tells. The idler 
will bring home no sheaves at night. The indo- 
lent will not prosper. The energetic and the 
iudustrious secure the reward, and the hand of 
the diligent shall bear rule. Opportunities neg- 
lected are opportunities lost. We should im- 
prove the hour and work while the day lasts. 

The true object of the true Patron's life then 
is to elevate and to educate by the earnest ac- 
tion of each and every member of our Order. 
Line upon line, precept upon precept, here a 
little and there a little. There is not one half 
of us Patrons that really know the beauties and 
sublimities of our ritual. Few are familiar with 

or appreciative of the grand "Declaration of 
Principles" of our Order. How very feware really 
well posted Patrons in our unwritten work and 
organic law. To be a good member means to 
be thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the 
Orange. It is one thing to be a member of the 
Order, and another to be a Patron at heart. 
What grand old nursing fathers and mothers 
we have had in the Order. How it doeth the 
heart good, like a medicine, to meet them any- 
where, to feel their strong, earnest hearty 
grasp of the hand; to hear their familiar voices 
and cheerful tones; to feel the power and in- 
spiration of their presence ! With Burns we 
can truly say: 

" That man shall flourish like the trees 
Which by the streamlets grow; 
The fruitful top is spread on high 

And firm the roots below." 
« • * * • 

" To make a happy fireside chime 
To weans and wife; 
That's the true pathos, and sublime 
Of human life." 

Burns sang those sweetest songs of his while 
following his plow. He drew inspiration from 
the sod and developed his poetical genius amid 
the actualities of the farm. Statesmen, phil- 
osophers, scientists, jurists, authors, all have 
recognized the claims of agriculture, and that 
genius is freshest and will be embalmed longest 
in the hearts of the people that has the most 
of nature and the essentials of natural beauty 
in it. Time will carry longest on its tablets the 
memory of the truest benefactors of the human 

At St. Helena Grange, last Saturday, the 
lecturer, Sister Storey, proposed for discussion 
the question: "What shall be done with 
members who forget it is Grange Day ? " Quite 
a lively interest was taken in the debate, some 
advocating fiuiug absentees, others imposing up- 
on them the penalty of writing an essay ; but all 
agreed that the best plan to induce members to 
be thoughtful would be to make the meetings 
so interesting that all members would be sure 
to remember Grange Day. For the next meet- 
ing the Lecturer calls for quotations about men 
from each member; also ideas from all present on 
the subject of " Trees and Tree Planting." We 
think it would be a wise provision for all 
Oranges to have some subject for discussion 
announced in advance for each meeting. 

Temescal Grange will hold a harvest feast 
on Saturday, July 17th, in the hall in I. O. O. F. 
building, corner of Franklin and Eleventh 
streets, at 10 o'clock a.m. All Patrons are cor- 
dially invited. — Nellie G. Babcock, Secretary. 

At the next literary exercises of Sacramento 
Grange, Mr. D. Lubin will deliver an address 
ou " How to Perpetuate this Republic." 

The First Watermelon. 

Judge George A. Nourse remembered the 
Expositor office this morning with the first 
watermelon of the season, raised on his ranch 
just east of the city limits. — Fnmo Expositor, 
June 30. 

A number of crates of watermelons, grown 
on the ranch of John Spicer, in Yolo county, 
four miles above the city, were shipped East 
yesterday. These are the first heard of in this 
State this season. Spicer has ten acres of mel- 
ons. As Georgia and other Southern States 
market great quantities of melons in Northern 
States before this date, the California melons 
are not sent so far East. — Sacramento Bee, 
June SO. 

F. M. Slater, manager of Rowell, Reed k 
Pelton's fruit farm, brought to the Express of- 
fice and presented us with the first watermelon 
of the season, on Wednesday, June 30th. This 
is the first melon Mr. Slater picked, and the 
first one ripe, and we thank him for his kind- 
ness in presenting us the first. He made a 
shipment to the San Francisco market to-day. 
This beats all previous records for early water- 
melons that we know of. — Winters Express. 

Which was the earliest? 

Gamblers Fined. — The movement against 
pool-seliers in the Eastern States is becoming 
expensive to the racing associations, which 
seem to assume the burden of their fines. A 
dispatch states that the 10 bookmakers arrested 
for selling pools at Monmouth Park, New Jersey, 
were fined $100 each by Judge Walling on July 
1st. Counsel for 37 other poolsellers indicted 
entered a plea of non mitt conlendre, and ar- 
ranged that the same sentence be inflicted. The 
fines and costs of the 47 men amounted to over 
§6000, the Monmouth Park Association paying 
the same. 

Found. — A souvenir pocket barometer re- 
cently lost by one of the publishers of this 
paper while on a visit to the celebrated petrified 
forest, near Calistoga, Cal., was found by Miss 
S. B. Staples, of St. Helena, and duly restored 
to the owner in a manner worthy of the grate- 
ful acknowledgment herewith rendered. 

Napa Valley has rarely, if ever, been clothed 
with so much beauty, at this time of the year, 
as at present. The vineyards and orchards are 
looking fine and promising very fair crops. The 
town of St. Helena is more brisk in a 
business way than during last season. The 
whole valley seems prosperous. 



Beets and Beet Sugar. — Country Merchant, 
July 2: From Mr. E. H. Dyer, general man- 
ager of the Standard Sugar Refinery at Alva- 
rado, we learn that the prospects of beet sugar 
are encouraging this season. The acreage in 
beets this year is about 800 acres, which, from 
present prospects, will, it is thought, average 
20 tons to the acre, or an aggregate of 16,000 
tons. This is sufficient for a run of about 200 
days, with the present working capacity of the 
factory. The yield of sugar from beets in good 
condition is about 10 per cent, and assuming 
the crop to be what indications promise, this 
will give 3,600,000 pounds of refined white 
sugar. On this basis, it would require only 
50,000 acres of sugar beets to produce a quan- 
tity of sugar equal to the imports from the 
Hawaiian Islands this year, viz., 100,000 tons, 
which it iB thought is about the quantity that 
will be received from that source. Mr. Dyer 
thinks the Standard Refinery will start up 
about the middle of August, and after the cam- 
paign is finished it is in contemplation to begin 
active work in the construction of a new fac- 
tory, the plans for which are now being per- 
fected. The main building of the new factory 
is to be 195xS4 feet, 2i stories in hight, with a 
tower in the center 52x32 feet, with a hight 
of 25 feet above the main building. The 
capacity of the new works will be 300 tons of 
beets daily, or in refined sugar 60,000 pounds. 
It is proDosed to introduce all the latest im- 
provements in the way of machinery, the plans 
for which are taken principally from France and 
Germany, in addition to Mr. Edward F. Dyer's 
patent for refining, which has proved so valu- 
able in the old factory. 

A Gleaner. — Irving Reporter, June 26: In- 
ventions will never cease. The latest we have 
noticed is a gleaner and binder at the shop of 
Mr. Crowell. It is intended to rake a field after 
the reaper and gather up and bind the scattered 
grain. A description of it cannot be well given, 
and one must see it to know what it is like. 

Contra Costa. 

Horse Thieves. — Plarteney Gazette, July 3: 
Thirteen head of horses and mules belonging to 
different parties were stolen from Round Valley 
Tuesday night. No trace of the stolen animals 
could be found. It has been only two weeks 
since several head of cattle were driven away 
from the same valley and they have not yet 
been found. Round Valley haB always been a 
bonanza for outside horse and cattle thieves. 


An Exploded Cylindbr. — Republican, July 
2: On Monday afternoon J. D. Reyburn was 
operating a combined machine in a wheat field 
about 12 miles east of town, when the horses 
drawing it were frightened by a hog running 
out of the grain. The horses started to run, 
thus increasing the speed of the separator to 
such an extent that the cylinder exploded, 
bursting into small pieces. Luckily, no one 
was injured by the flying bits of metal. Mr. 
Reyburn was compelled to go to Stockton for a 
new cylinder, and went down the same night. 

The Best Yield. — The apricot crop is un- 
usually light throughout the State this year, 
but some enormous yields have been reported 
for individual trees in different sections. Vaca- 
ville had the boss tree until last Saturday, when 
a Fresno colonist came to the front. The Vaca 
ville tree yielded, this season, 1127 pounds of 
fruit, which cannot be equaled in any other 
portion of the State outside of the Fresno colo- 
nies. Mr. R. S. Voegler, of Cherry avenue. 
Central Colony, has a tree that yielded 1149 
pounds of apricots this year, and they were 
picked and weighed by responsible parties. At 
the ruling price of two and a half cents per 
pound, the fruit from this one tree was worth 
§28.72. One hundred and six trees like that 
one upon an acre of land would be worth more 
than any 160 acres of grain land in the State. 

Proper Pruning of Muscats. — Republican, 
July 2: There now seems to be no more doubt 
about the Chaintre system of pruning being the 
proper one for the muscats. For this system 
one long branch is carried from each vine and 
the end of it tied to a short stake by 
the next vine. This long branch is then 
trimmed with spurs, just as the head of a grape- 
vine generally. We will give one instance 
illustrating the great advantage of this system 
of pruning. In the muscat vineyard of Prof. 
Braly, near Fresno, some three or four-year-old 
vines have this season been put in Chaintre, 
while the majority immediately around are 
trimmed to heads in the usual way. The 
Chaintre pruned vines are now literally loaded 
with grapes, while those trimmed to heads have 
very few. In the Chaintre Bystem the canes 
are not staked high, but run on or near the 
ground. Accordingly the old way of planting, 
8x8, will not do, as it would hardly allow suf- 
ficient space for plowing and hauling. We think 
6x10 or 12x5 would be proper— at least that is 
the distance we should select in our own vine- 
yard. But if our vines were already set 8x8, we 
would not hesitate to put them in Chaintre. 
The advantages of the system are: 1st, larger 
crops; 2d, immunity from black knot; 3d, pro- 
tection from sun-scalding; 4th, better circula- 
tion of air. 


Shearing.— Garberville Cor. Ferndale Enter- 
prise: Most all the sheep in this locality have 
been sheared; in fact, I believe that all the 
sheep in this township have been sheared with 
the exception of two ranches — G. F. Connick's 
and the sheep on the estate of Alex Robertson, 
Jr. Sheep sheared very well this spring, averag- 
ing about four pounds to the sheep on almost 
every ranch, and at a few ranches averaged 
over four pounds. 

Shorthorns Pay.— W T e have frequently 
alluded in the columns of this paper to the fact 
that it pays to raise thoroughbred stock, even 
on a small scale. The climate, soil and general 
conditions prevailing iu Humboldt county ad- 
mirably fit it for the production of the best re- 
sults in livestock. Our low lands keep green 
the year round without irrigation, producing 
the very best natural grasses, and when clover 
is well seeded, two crops can be cut every year 
and green feed produced for pasturage six 
months beside on the same land, by a judicious 
system of fencing. In this way a few acres will 
keep quite a herd of thoroughbreds. As an 
evidence of how well thoroughbred shorthorns 
sell, we will only have to refer to the sale of 
the yearling bull "Daniel W T ebster Second," 
made last week for $200 by S. S. Lovern, who 
owns a grass farm on Mad river. The purchaser 
was William Forbes of Eel River Island. The 
price received for this yearling was greater than 
the profit of nine out of ten of the farmers, most 
of whom work hard almost every day raising ce- 
reals or potatoes, only to find at the end of the 
year that they have scarcely been able to make 
both endB meet. Quality, not quantity, is the 
true secret of profit. A few acres will keep a 
sufficient number of thoroughbreds to admit of 
the sale of several head each year, while the 
product of the mothers in the way of butter 
and cheese will pay living expenses. As we 
said before, few farmers net as much as the 
price of this one yearling, and still they will 
continue to plod and plow instead of turning 
their attention to the propagation of thorough- 
bred livestock. What is said of shorthorns 
holds good with reference to every class of live- 
stock. We hope to live to see the time when 
our rich, moist land will only be used to grow 
graaB for feeding the best breeds of livestock. 


Unwelcome Flocks. — Inyo Independent: 
The sheep plague is again upon us in full force. 
During the past week or two tens of thousands 
have swarmed into the valley, running every- 
where and eating up every green thing not in- 
closed. Aronnd Big Pine the nuisance is par- 
ticularly annoying; every mouthful of outside 
pasturage is being eaten. It is very hard on the 
settlers that these sheep meu should be allowed 
to bring their flocks into the valley, not only 
eating up but destroying the pasture, yet not 
paying one cent of taxes in the county. 


Artesian Wells. — G. A. Raymond, in San 
Francisco Bulb-tin, July 7: As the well was 
sunk by men in my employ and by my method, 
1 can give you the actual facts. The well is 
415 feet deep and the water all comes from a 
single flow at the bottom. The casing has an 
inside diameter of 5g inches, and the steady 
flow of water measures 54 inches from the top 
of casing to the top of the water as it begins to 
fall back to the ground. Roughly estimated, 
but well within bounds, the daily flow is over 
2,000.000 gallons, sufficient to irrigate from 700 
to 1000 acreB of land. The water is of the finest 
quality and unexcelled for all purposes, a pecul- 
iarity of the artesian water in the greater part 
of this belt. The well was not bored by the 
usual method — in fact, was not bored at all, 
but was drilled by steam power in a manner 
much similar to the method employed in drill- 
ing oil wells in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. 
While this is certainly an extraordinary well, 
there are in Kern county, within a distance of 
from two to seven miles in various directions 
from this well, nine other flowing wells of ca- 
pacities ranging from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 
gallons daily. Besides those, within the same 
district, within a limit of say 12 miles square, 
are just 18 other wells that flow from 500,000 
to 800,000 gallons daily. It is a well-settled 
fact, beyond dispute, that this section of Kern 
county has not only the largest artesian flowing 
well in the State, but further, has nine other 
wells that are unequaled in capacity by any 
others on the coast. 


Growth of Holstein Calf. — Lakeport 
Democrat, July 2: A. G. Piatt's Kolstein calf 
was six months old Wednesday, and he brought 
him to town to weigh him and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing him tip the scales at 441 pounds. 
At three months old he weighed 2474 pounds. 
Thus it will be seen that the gain has been 
about 2| pounds a day for the last three 
months, while from its birth the average gain 
per day has been two pounds. The calf has 
been running in the pasture and has had no- 
thing but grazing to live on for the last two 
months. This is a remarkable weight for a 
calf six months old. Of the ordinary stock of 
cattle there are not many animals at 18 months 
old that will beat this weight. 

Los Angeles. 

Canteloupes. — Times, June 29 : The Times 
was preEented yesterday with some ripe canta- 
loupes, which are rather scarce yet in Southern 
California at this time of the year. Only one 

July 10, 1886.] 

fACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

or two, so far, have been seen in the market. 
The specimens now at this office were received 
from J. G. McCallum, of 131 Main street, 
whose son raised them on his ranch at Palm 
Valley, four miles south of Seven Palms station, 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad. The climate 
of Palm Valley is an exceptional one, some 
fruits ripening there as much as two months 
earlier than in any other part of the State. 
Palm Valley has been reveling in ripe canta- 
loupes for the last three weeks. 

The Cottony Cushion Scale.— Some weeks 
ago the city council appointed a special com- 
mittee—Messrs. Breed, Willard and Stearns— 
to see if the fruit pest inspectors had earned 
their salaries. The committee has been investi- 
gating the matter very carefully, and commends 
the inspectors for their faithful work, but finds 
that they have been unable to compete with 
the scale-bug, which the committee finds is 
much more numerous than it was last year. 
The concluding portion of the committee's re- 
port follows : If there is any way of destroying 
these pests we would urge the necessity of tak- 
ing up arms at once and moving in a body 
against them. With this end in view, we 
would recommend, first, that the city at- 
torney draft an ordinance to amend an 
ordinance governing this matter, in such 
a way as will enable the inspectors to not 
only compel the owners of infected trees to 
commence to clean them, but to prosecute their 
work to an actual finish. Second, that the 
police commissioners be requested to appoint 
sufficient inspectors to do the work thoroughly, 
and afterward to see that they do it. Third, 
that the supervisors be requested to appoint 
more inspectors, and in order to prevent con- 
fusion and promote harmony among the in- 
spectors we would suggest that the board of 
police commissioners and the county board of 
horticultural commissioners consult together in 
regard to the districts assigned to the different 

County Pomological Meeting. — Pomona 
Times, July 3: The Los Angeles Pomological 
Society met at Anaheim on the 1st inst., and it 
was quite royally received by the good people 
of that place; in fact, Anaheim "beat the rec- 
ord" in the way of hospitality and local enthu- 
siasm. Creiger's hall was beautifully decorated 
with rare flowers and plants, prominent among 
which was the magnolia bloom, which filled the 
hall with its sweet-smelling odors. As this is 
the season of the year in which but little fruit 
is ripe, the display of fruits was limited, but of 
oranges, lemons and apricots the display was 
good. The society was called to order at 2 
o'clock p. M., by the president, H. Hamilton; 
the other officers all being present. The ad- 
dress of welcome, by R. Melrose, of the Ana- 
heim Gazette, was given in that whole-souled 
style characteristic of genuine good feeling. 
The address of the president was good, and 
well received. The music of the Anaheim 
Cornet Band was excellent, and all enjoyed it. 
The essays of Mr. Robert McPherson and Mr. 
Langenberger were excellent, and the discus- 
sions interesting. Mrs. Parker also read an 
essay on market gardening, which was well re- 
ceived. Upon the whole the program was one 
of the most interesting the society has enjoyed. 
But the principal feature was a big supper, 
which was served in the Town hall at 6 o'clock. 
The accommodation was ample and the provi- 
sion abundant for both visitors and home folks. 
All visitors went away well satisfied, and were 
better pleased with Anaheim than they were 
before. And another leading feature was a 
visit to the palatial residence of Mr. Langen- 
berger, after the close of the evening session, 
by all the prominent members of the society, 
where an hour or two was spent very pleas- 
antly in sampling the various kinds of wines 
and enjoying the splendid music furnished by 
his estimable wife and daughter. 

Rabbits. — Lancaster News: Jack and cotton- 
tail rabbits were, perhaps, never before so numer- 
ous as they appear now in this valley. In the 
neighborhood of grain fields and young orchards 
and vineyards they are doiug a great deal of 
damage, demonstrating the folly of plant ing trees 
or vines without protection by proper fences. 
There is opportunity for those who enjoy shoot- 
ing theserodents to make wonderful records of 
their destructive ability, and in the cool, fresh 
air of the mornings and evenings, when this 
game is numerously abroad, enjoy not only the 
sport but rare health-giving exercise. The city 
sportsmen who are pining for this sort of pleas- 
ure would do well to spend a week or two in 
this valley, taking care, however, not to mis- 
take antelope and deer or wild horses for rab- 
bits. They are also very fat, especially in the 
neighborhood of the grain fields, and excellent 
eating for those who are fond of this kind of 
flesh. It has been suggested that a rabbit can- 
ning factory might be started here with a prom- 
ise of profit. These quadrupeds have eaten up 
40,000 young forest trees for a citizen of Los 
Angeles, who will take stock in such a cannery. 

Pavilion to be Built.— Times, July 2: The 
Board of Directors of the Sixth District Agri- 
cultural Association held a meeting yesterday 
for the transaction of general business. It was 
voted that the members of the board procure 
an eligible situation and proceed to erect a 
pavilion in the city of Los Angeles. A building 
about 100 by 150 feet in general dimensions is 
in contemplation. 


Silk Culture.— St. Helena Star: Miss Jane 
Dodd had the cocoonery at the ranch of Put 
Robson, near Oakville, thi3 year. She produced 

65 pounds of cocoons by the permission to use 
leaves from the mulberry trees on the Bourn 
ranch and that of Mr. Weeks. One more con- 
tribution to the silk product of Napa valley, 
which is only in its infancy. We hope to have 
the pleasure next year of recording many other 
names of ladies engaged in so important an en- 


Bananas. — Record-Union, July 3: On the 
grounds of S. H. Gerrish, 1517 G street, in this 
city, are bananas ripening and being plucked 
for table use. This is a new class of fruit to 
be grown in the Sacramento valley, but there 
is no doubt that the hardy variety of banana 
grown by Mr. Gerrish can be successfully culti- 
vated here. A specimen of the fruit taken 
from Mr. Gerrish's plants was sent to this office 
yesterday. It is of good size, and affords incon- 
testable evidence of the semi-tropical nature of 
our climate and its certainty of adaptation to 
the citrus fruits, which are much more hardy, 
The banana plants grown by Mr. Gerrish have 
had no protection whatever during the winter 
season, so-called, and needed none. 

San Bernardino. 

French Prunes, Etc. — At Etiwanda, on 
the Cucamonga slope, says the Press and Hor- 
ticulturist, A. R. Martin has a 30-acre orchard 
and vineyard, planted three years ago last 
spring. His vineyard is carrying all the fruit 
it ought to, and he recently declined a bona fide 
offer of $1000 for his crop of raisin grapes on 
10 acres, and we think he did well to not sell. 
His apricots are young and of course doing but 
little as yet. It is an off year for deciduous 
fruits generally, but his peach orchard, mostly 
of the Golden Cling variety, look very fine, as 
does also his pear orchard, mostly Bartlett. 
His French prune orchard although young is 
making a good showing of fruit, and we believe 
that this fruit, now being tried in Southern 
California for the first time, will be, in many 
localities, one of our leading crops. His young 
orange and lemon orchards are thrifty but not 
large enough. 

San Diego. 

Great Irrigation Enterprise. — Work has 
commenced on the new reservoir at San Jacinto, 
San Diego county. The dam will be an im- 
mense affair, 250 feet long and 121 feet high. 
The reservoir will hold 7,000,000,000 gallons 
and will furnish a flow of 0000 miner's inches 
for 100 days, which, at the rate of one inch per 
ten acres, will irrigate 6000 acres of land. The 
work will cost a quarter of a million. 

San Joaquin. 

Castor Beans. — Sentinel: Mr. James Tal- 
madge, near Lodi, is developing a new industry 
and showing that his live oak land is capable of 
producing something besides wheat and barley. 
He has planted out this season between 30 and 
40 acres of castor beans. They are growing 
finely and promise a fine yield. Mr. Talmadge 
estimates the yield at from 1500 to 2000 pounds 
per acre, and at the usual price, four cents, 
will net him at least $50 per acre. 

Santa Barbara. 

Stock Snow. — Santa Maria Times, June 26: 
For several weeks past there has been a grow- 
ing feeling among the owners of stock that 
some organization should be effected for the 
purpose of holding a stock fair in this valley 
this fall. This object was effected last Satur- 
day afternoon, when a number of our citizens 
met at the Metropolitan hotel and accomplished 
an organization by electing G. W. Lewis presi- 
dent and M. Thornburg secretary. J. J. Hol- 
loway, H. Stowell and W. S. Lierly were ap- 
pointed a committee on by laws and order of 
business, and H. Stowell, T. C. Nance, Dr. 
Lucas, J. J. Brookshire and Thos. Saulsbury 
were chosen a committee on program, to which 
he chairman was added. 


A Natural Icehouse.— Fall River Mail: 
Sixteen miles from Fall river mills is a remark- 
able natural ice cave, where unlimited quanti- 
ties of ice can be packed at all seasons of the 
year. The opening to this icy cavern is said to 
be large enough for a two-horse wagon to drive 
in and load up. Great banks of ice lie heaped 
up on all sides, and rainbow-hued stalactites 
hang glittering from the dripping roof. Stupen- 
dous stalagmitic ice formations stretch back far 
out of sight, and frequently, as rays of light are 
caught by the prismatic icicles dependent from 
the roof, a wonderfully beautiful effect is pro- 
duced. The cavern has never been explored, 
and there is no knowing how extensive this sub- 
terranean refrigerator may be. Whenever the 
people of this valley want ice for any purpose, 
they visit the cave and get all they want, and 
there is always plenty left. 


Artesian Wells. — Reno Gazette : Although 
there are over a hundred wells in Sierra Valley, 
they all continue to flow steadily. In one or 
two instances neighboring wells seem to have 
struck the same body of water and cut each 
other off partially, but the general answer is 
that numbers do not seem to affect the flow, 
although there is a difference in different sea- 
sons of the year. The farmers are considering 
the idea of screwing on a cap so as to shut in 
the flow and save waste, but they are all afraid 
it will spoil their wells and dare not try it. 
There are five machines in the valley now, and 
each one puts down a well a week. Walter 
Ede has bought a machine of his own and says 

he is going to put down 50 wells in a row in 
his pasture. They will be 200 feet apart, with 
an irrigating ditch as far as the water will run. 
John McNair has a fine well, the deepest in 
the valley. It is over a thousand feet, and it 
was put down 600 feet in one day, or an inch a 
minute. Mr. Wiltse says the wells will irri- 
gate a great deal more ground than was ex- 
pected. By careful usage his well wets 25 
acres of ground, and he says he would not take 
$2000 for it. Most people imagine the flowing 
well is a new thing in the valley, but it is not 
so. A little well bored with a hand-auger in 
1863 or 1864, by Ebright, on the farm now 
owned by W. A. Robbins, still flows a small 
stream, and another was bored about the same 
time .on the H. P. Robbins ranch. W. A. 
Robbins now has a machine of his own that 
goes through rocky ground and is putting 
down his own wells. 


Fruit Notes. — Judicion, July 3: The town 
is full of fruit buyers. We understand that 
three cents per pound has been offered some of 
our orchardists for entire crops of peaches. The 
balance of the apricot crop has been sold ior 
prices far above the expectation of the most 
sanguine. The fruit shipments on Monday last 
reached the enormous aggregate of 220,030 
pounds. On Tuesday the amount exceeded 
231,000 pounds. What will it be a couple of 
years hence? 


Hessian Fly. — Petaluma Courier: The Hes- 
sian fly has done considerable damage to wheat 
and barley between Petaluma and the coast. 
Urton Hubbel, H. P. McCleave, Henry Hall 
and other prominent farmers in that section, 
estimate the loss by this pest at from one-half 
to a quarter of the crops. The late-sown grain 
is damaged the most. 

Wool. — Democrat: The price paid for wool 
at Healdsburg is 2H to 22 cents, which prices 
have been paid for the last few lots that been 
sold. There is but little remaining unsold. 


Harvester Burned. — Modesto News, July 
2: The combined Houser harvester of J. J. 
Crosseley was burned in Turlock at an early 
hour Tuesday morning. The machine was 
valued at $2200. The fire was caused, un- 
doubtedly, by an incendiary, as the machine 
was stopped the night before in a bunch of 
green weeds. The above precaution is all that 
prevented the field taking fire. The harvester 
was insured in one of the companies repre- 
sented by I. L. Grainger for $1500. 


and the fireman, by means of a simple appliance, 
uses the straw when he needs it, and when the 
tender is full, lets it discharge itself on the 
ground. The smoke-stack is unusually high, 
and the exhaust is so free that there is scarcely 
any danger of fire. Mr. Berry has arranged a 
contrivance by which the grain is thrown from 
the header into the separator without loss, and 
he claims that his harvester threshes wheat 
with less waste than does the stationary 
thresher. The crew of the machine consists of 
six men. There is an engineer, a fireman, a 
steerer, a header-tender, a separator-tender and 
a sack-sewer. A seventh man is employed to 
haul water for the boiler. Mr. Berry says that 
he can harvest 50 acres of grain per day with 
his new invention. He is now working on his 
own land, and as soon as he finishes that he will 
proceed to cut and thresh 2600 acres of grain on 
the ranch of E. Jacob at the 18-mile house. Mr. 
Jacob, who is a good judge of the merits of 
farming maohinery, is enthusiastic about Mr. 
Berry's invention, and proclaims it to be a per- 
fect success. 

Two Days' Harvesting. — Tulare Times: 
On Thursday and Friday of last week, Thomas 
Hayes, who has a large ranch near Goshen, 
headed, threshed and sacked 374 acres of grain. 
Five headers, ten header wagons and a separator 
of his own invention were employed in the 
work, which began at 7 o'clock each morning 
and lasted until sundown. 

Harvest Wages. — Delta, July 1: The enor- 
mous grain crop in this county the present sea- 
son has necessarily developed au unprecedented 
demand for harvesters, both skilled and 
unskilled, and laborers in almost any number 
can readily find employment in the grain fields 
at good wages during the next three months. 
The wages paid are as follows: Engineers and 
tenders of separators get $4 per day; forkers, 
from $3 to $3.50 per day; common laborers, $2 
to $2.50 per day. The days are long, but the 
work is not severe, with the improved machin- 
ery now so universally employed, and the men 
seem to rather enjoy themselves. 


Fruit Drying. — Winters Express: On Tues- 
day last we visited the apricot-drying works of 
E. Russell Morris, and saw a scene of bustle 
and activity that is rarely seen in our town. 
About 45 men, women, boys and girls are en- 
gaged in the work of cutting, spreading, sul- 
phuring and laying out to dry. The women 
and girls employed average, in wages, about a 
dollar a day, and some of the boys and younger 
ones from 75 cents to a dollar a day. This in- 
dustry has been a great feature for Winters, 
and has proven that our boys and girls, when 
given a show, will work, and that well. 

Horticultural Society. — Peo/>le's Cause: 
George Stoll has obtained a number of signa- 
tures to a call for a meeting on the 10th of July 
for the purpose of organizing a horticultural 
society. A meeting will be held Saturday, 
the 10th day of July, 1S86, at 8 p. m., at the 
courthouse in Red Bluff, as the time and place 
to meet for organization. 


Berry's Locomotive Harvester. — Visalia 
Times, July 1: Mr. G. S. Berry, of Lewis 
Creek, is now working a locomotive harvester 
of his own devising, which is undoubtedly des- 
tined to cause a complete revolution in existing 
methods of grain husbandry. For five years 
past Mr. Berry has interested himself in the 
invention of some machine which would do 
harvest work better than the various imple- 
ments with which, thus far, farmers have been 
compelled to gather their crops. But it was 
not until a few months ago that he discovered 
the principle by means of which he is now 
swiftly and inexpensively harvesting his wheat. 
He occupied himself last winter in perfecting 
his invention, and it was not until the early 
part of last week that he was ready to test its 
efficiency in the field. A week ago last Tuesday 
he set the machinery in motion, and it worked 
better than even he had anticipated. It has 
been running steadily from that day to this. On 
Tuesday morning Mr. E. Jacob, accompanied 
by the Times reporter and two gentlemen 
from Contra Costa county, rode out to Mr. 
Berry's ranch. The locomotive harvester was 
running over the field at the rate of a mile and 
a half an hour. The cumbrous machinery pre- 
sented a novel appearance as it glided over the 
ground and turned sharp corners in perfect 
obedience to its inventor, who sat on a platform 
and directed its movements by turning a 
wheel and screw. Shortly after the re- 
porter's arrival on the scene the engine stopped 
to take on water, and the inquisitive scribe 
had a good opportunity to examine the 
details of its construction. It consisted of 
three distinct parts. In the center was the mo- 
tive power, comprising a boiler with a Rice 
straw-burner, a traction locomotive, and a small 
engine to operate the different parts of the ma- 
chine. On the right-hand side, facing forward, 
was a Young separator, connected with the lo- 
comotive by knuckle joints, and held in position 
by one large wheel. On the left-hand side was 
a Benicia header with a 22- foot knife. The 
whole thing is so adjusted that friction is re- ! 
duced to the minimum, and the harvester moves 
over the ground with very little jolting. It 
will be readily understood that the machine, 
consisting as it does of three distinct parts, each 
of which has some independence of motion, is 
remarkably well adapted to rough ground, and j 
can move over hog-wallow land with but little 
jarring. The machine furnishes itself with fuel, ] 


Lemon. — The largest lemon ever grown in 
the Sacramento valley was picked the other 
day from a tree of the Marysville Notre Dame. 
It measures 12J> by 15 inches, and weighs one 
pound and eight ounces. 


A Sheep Man's Bad Luck.— Reno Gazette: 
Monday a sheep man on the road from Mason 
valley to California camped near Hank Martin's 
ranch in Carson valley. The Genoa Courier 
says he had a band of 3000 sheep and during 
the night 112 of them died. Tuesday 238 died, 
making a total of 350. The dead animals were 
scattered along the road for a distance of three 
or four miles. The sheep acted like they were 
poisoned and it is supposed that they fed upon 
something poisonous that they found in the 
sagebrush. The owner went out yesterday 
with a team and a half dozen Indians to haul 
the dead animals out of the road. The re- 
mainder of the band is now in the vicinity of 
the Walley Springs and is believed to be all 
right. Perhaps some cattle man had been salt- 
ing the range as an antidote for blackleg. 


New Gooseberry. — The Puyallup Fruit 
Growers' Association held its alternate meeting 
at Sumner, on Saturday, the 12th inst., a short 
session only being held; President W.J. Bowman 
in the chair. J. M. Ogle, of the Puyallup nur- 
series, presented for inspection a branch of his 
famous new gooseberry. The limb was literally 
crowded with very large berries, of a beautiful, 
smooth, transparent and healthy skin, and their 
freedom from mold, mildew, blight or any disease 
whatever, elicited the admiration of all present. 
This new candidate for public favor has been 
noticed and its merits discussed at several 
former meetings, and Mr. Ogle was asked its 
name. He said he had not named it as yet, 
and requested that, as the subject was under 
discussiou, and having a sample before it, the 
association relieve him of that delicate task. 
The request was agreed to and the chair an- 
nounced that nominations were now in order. 
Mr. Warren Wood was appointed teller, and 
after a spirited contest it was decided to chris- 
ten the new gooseberry Puyallup Mammoth. 
J. M. Ogle states that he has this new goose- 
berry growing beside the English varieties 
Crown Bob, White Smith and Champion, and 
while the Puyallup Mammoth was wholly free 
from the diseases of the three English varieties, 
the Crown Biband White Smith had prematurely 
dropped most of their fruit and the Champion 
had not escaped. Without doubt those who 
are seeking a first-class gooseberry will find it 
in the Puyallup Mammoth. 


pACIFie ^URAl* press. 

[Jdly 10, 1886 


[Written by Ella Kirk Jellifp.) 
A little maiden lowly seated 

Beside her mother's feet 
Looks up with face all flushed and heated — 

A face demure and sweet. 

A tiny basket placed beside her 

Is full of patches bright; 
With nicest care she sorts them over, 

Dividing dark from light. 

Then neatly joins them one by one, 

With stitches finely made, 
And strives to keep the pattern true 

As piece to piece is laid. 

And after many, many days 

She views her work complete, 
And smiles as on the bed she lays 

The patchwork quilt so neat. 

O little maiden, lowly seated 

Beside your mother's feet, 
Look up, your fair face flushed and heated, 

Your smile confiding, sweet; 

And learn from older lips to know 
How full of thoughts your heart, 

And how, like patches which you've sewn, 
They need the finest art 

To cull the brightest and the best, 

And weave them into deeds 
To make you strong and brave and good, 
And fit to meet life's needs. 
New York.June zr, 1S86. 

Traveling by Team. 

IWritten for Rt ral Prrss by Daomar Mariaqbr.] 

Twenty miles from Purgatory to King's 
Ferry, along the banks of the Arkansas river, 
with a tolerable road. Not a very long drive, 
but the greaseboard had to be brought into serv- 
ice before starting, and the mules' joints, too, 
had to be oiled by means of the curry-comb; 
and so, with these and other detentions, we 
were late in getting under way. Then, again, 
taking an hour's halt at noon we were late get- 
ting into our evening camp, driving up beside 
King's barn just at dusk. 

Another hour, too, had flown as hours can 
fly only when thoroughly enjoyed. To our 
happy surprise we had met a little train from 
the South, in which we found two of our old 
acquaintances of the Northwest. Strange how 
friends, rovers of the sparsely settled plains 
and mountains, will sometimes bolt into each 
other's presence in the most isolated crannies 
of the earth. We had driven a mile or two 
along a gully which in its serpentine course con- 
tinually cut our road short to the vision. In 
one of my noisy moods, I was fairly making 
the rocks ring. I was about to enter upon the 
four'wh and last of "Tycho Brahe's Farewell," 
a Danish song, while the wagon wheels rattled 
along over the imbedded rocks, and the pots 
and pans clattered in the mess-box behind, 
when a noise ahead and apart from that made 
by our own two teams, attracted my attention. 

"Train coming !" shouted Ida, looking back 
at me from under the cover of the wagon ahead. 

I was silent at once, and seemingly innocent 
of having anything in commun with the 
coyotes that gathered on the promontories at 
night to give their minstrelsy to the world at 

A moment later a mule's head formed a 
silhouette against a bank a hundred yards 
ahead of us, and the rest of its body gradually 
came forth in the picture, which kept up its 
progressive change until three teams were in 
sight, with their human attendants. The latter 
stared at us a moment, then two of the men, as 
if moved by one impulse, shouted : 

" Great heavens ! How did you three petti- 
coats ever get in here?" 

" By way of Purgatory, of course," said Mrs. 
B., laughing heartily;" where you two rolling 
stones are heading for, and will probably camp 

One of them, a little partial to me, said he 
had heard and recognized my voice before we 
were visible, and my song, seemingly coming 
from the rocky point that intervened between 
us, though he was an infidel, had so strangely 
moved him as to almost convert him to spirit- 
ualism agaiust all the armor of his will; and 
there he found me in all the reality of flesh and 
blood, with their accompaniments. 

The usual gossip of the state of the trade, 
etc., from the north and south was exchanged. 
They were from Cimmaron, a New Mexican 
mining camp, which was trying hard to attract 
an exodus of scattered ramblers on nothing 
Where were we bound for? " Central Texas, 
to return with a herd of cattle." "Whew-w-w!" 
Then their hats went up, and the rocks that 
hemmed us in gave back considerable of a shout, 
and a storm of questions followed. 

" Do you two ladies really expect to get 

through to Texas alive?" "Why didn't you 
leave Ida behind, and save her poor little 
scalp?" "How are you going to make it over 
the bluffs from King's Ferry to Trinidad — no 
water, no wood, no nothing but an ugly twisted- 
uproad?" "How do you propose to pull up 
and let yourselves down the Baton mountains ?" 
"The greasers will gobble your mules while you 
are eating supper some evening, and that'll be 
the last of them, and that, too, before you reach 
Maxwell's ranch." "If the Indians do spare 
you until you reach the Jornada del Muerta 
desert, you'll die for water crossing that," etc. 
Then followed a chat, in whioh each joined to 
the confusion of the other. We couldn't talk 
fast enough, and at last we drove on again, re- 
gretting a hundred things we had left unsaid. 

The day had been clear and pleasant for the 
month of January, until near night, when the 
horizon became hazy and the sky gray, obscur- 
ing our day-clock — the sun. The evening was 
sharp enough for our enjoyment of our camp- 
fire, and our hot supper comforting as usual. 
The lateness of the hour made us delay pur- 
chases, probable sales, and the exchange of 
queries that usually took place as we passed 
travelers' stations, until morning, excepting 
the hay Ida bought of the stableman for the 
two span of mules to grind at during the night, 
as tbey stood tied to the outside wheels of our 
wagons, stationed parallel with each other, and 
with just enough room between them for our 
couch. We had no room under our wagon 
covers for ourselves and blankets in a hor- 
izontal position, being pretty well loaded 
up with the remains of what had lately been 
a flourishing business, three-fourths of which 
was a restaurant and the other fourth a 
general mercantile department. These things 
were promises of high freight in the direct- 
t on we were going. They were to leave us 
by piecemeal on the roadside — one station 
needed this uncommandable article in its out 
of-the world location, and the next needed that, 
and we found farther along that we had calcu- 
lated well. But had our wagon-boxes been 
empty we should have made our bed just the 
same on the naked ground, with the sky, in 
whatever mood, our expansive coverlet. Our 
wagons wonld at night have made us the help- 
less prey of enemies, in case of attack, while 
the open, low location gave us many securities. 
Objects are seen and movements noted much 
more readily, while one's own location is less a 
certainty to the prowling foe. Indeed, it is a 
ticklish business, as the average frontier Jehu 
expresses it, for a two or four-footed enemy to 
steal into the camp of even one traveler, whose 
bed is on the bare earth, and whose ears, eyes 
and wits keep guard, while he sleeps as pleas- 
antly as only one can sleep who the while 
breathes the refreshing rural breezes as they 
wend their way over hills, dales and streams 
from the mountains in the background of the 
picture he never ceases to enjoy. 

The evening meal over, the mules blanketed 
and given their good-night pat on the neck, and 
we retired, our usual alertness slumbering with 
us, for were we not as safe there alone aa we 
should have been with a regiment of soldiers at 
our command? 

" Hello, fellows ! Time to get up ! Better 
dig out if you can — got a rousing fire inside." 

The words were distinct enough, and near us 
too, yet they seemed to penetrate an unusual 
number of blankets, or something else. We 
awoke to find ourselves warm and comfortable 
enough, but something, though not heavy 
enough to distress us, held us in place. We 
made an effort, however, to "dig out," as the 
voice advised, and found the task somewhat dif- 
ficult. We were buried under two feet of snow. 
The stranger located us by a slight undulation 
on the snow's surface, and began work for our 
relief with gloved hands, his only tools. Up to 
the moment his greeting had been treated with 
silence, but when our blonde and brunette 
queues met his eye as he delved into the fluffy 
white mass, and we arose to shake the snow 
from our necks and sleeves, be looked as if he 
had "unearthed " something he hadn't bar- 
gained for. Our dismay was mutual. 

The snow sufficiently out of our bangs and 
eyes to take a look around, we discovered that 
our friend was as young and handsome as he was 
gallant, and one of the two proprietors of the 
Btation. He stood abashed a moment and then 

" Good gracious ! This is a surprise ! I didn't 
suppose there was a lady this minute nearer 
than Fort Lyon. But where are the gents, may 

I ask ?" 

" We are paddling our own wheeled canoes, 
sir," said Mrs. B. " Ida, where are you? Ida!" 
turning to the grave which had all tumbled in 
again. " Mister, will you help us, please ?" 
and with our triple efforts, Ida, who slept at 
the foot, was dragged out, feet foremost, from the 
end of the bed we had occupied. 

The geutleman would hear to nothing else, 
so he took Ida in his arms and started for the 
Btation, while we waded on behind and left our 
mu its for the stableman's care and the shelter of 
the buildings. We were soon convinced that wo- 
men were not always necessary to clean and or- 
derly and home-like housekeeping, nor to the 
culinary department. The biscuits, coffee and 
other good but simple things we enjoyed from 
the dining table, made our mouths water for 
more when, a hundred miles farther along, we 
lost our way at midnight in a blinding storm 
and had neither habitation nor man to offer us 
rescue. Dinnerless and supperless we were 
goaded on to continue the drive into the night, 
having been refused water by the very uncouth- 
looking bearded animal keeping the station by 

which we intended to pass the night ; and we 
never ate other than hot bread, so had nothing 
on hand on which to lunch. 

We " laid over " at King's Ferry three days, 
waiting for the mail express to break the road, 
in the meantime enjoying the hospitality and 
entertainment of the two landlords, who, unlike 
the average station-keeper along our route, re- 
fused payment on our departure, saying we 
had involuntarily given them a most agree- 
able pleasure. We frequently thought of 
them with sincere gratitude, as we journeyed 
on, and something our hero said to me the 
evening before leaving somehow entered into 
my day-dreams for awhile after with a pleas- 
urable kind of regret. My friend and I had 
not yet entered far upon our grand mission — 
things couldn't now be changed, and what 
it was he said I don't propose to tell. 

"Personal Liberty." 

The discussion of the merits and demerits of 
the liquor traffic is a very one sided one. Ex- 
cepting the few sheets published specially in 
the interest of the trade to circulate among 
the dealers and drinkers, I have never known 
a newspaper to advocate the liquor traffic as a 
public benefit. In such papers of general cir- 
culation as have invited discussion and pub- 
lished severe criticisms of the business, I have 
never yet seen any attempt at defense on the 
grounds of general usefulness. 

We have to depend on the official organs of 
the trade to learn what argument or advice 
they offer to their friends. What is there 
offered as argument often partakes largely of 
the nature of exhortation urging to united pro- 
tection of interest. The revenue plan is some- 
times used in the only safe way they can use 
it, which is by a passing furtive allusion cal- 
culated to impress the superficial observer with 
the idea that the revenue is so much clear gain 
to the country. They make no reference to 
certain facts which underlie and surround this 
revenue offering. While the average annual 
revenue is less than $54,000,000 the value of 
material destroyed in manufacture is nearly 
twice that; the direct cost to consumers fifteen 
times that, and the indirect cost to the country 
as much more. 

The time of the 180,000 liquor-dealers, worse 
than wasted, would, if usefully employed, be 
worth more than the revenue; and allowing the 
business of each of these dealers to result in 
waste of time of two other men as loafers, there 
would be another waste double the value of the 
revenue. Medical authorities place the annual 
loss of effective labor through insanity and 
idiocy, caused by drink, at over $200,000,000. 
A moderate estimate of the accounts of the traf- 
fic show instead of a gain of $54,000,000 a loss 
of over $130,000,000; and if human life is any 
consideration, except financially, we might call 
attention to the fact that, as the work of these 
180,000 dealers, we have annually 100,000 
drunkards' deaths, from which it would appear 
that on an average each dealer "kilhi his man" 
every 22 months. 

But what are all these considerations when 
brought in contact with a dealer's greed, a 
drinker's appetite, the liquor revenue, and 
" personal liberty" ? The personal liberty plea 
is urged with more emphasis than the revenue 
plea. It is the great shield of protection 
against all argument. Now there must be real- 
ity in that. Personal liberty is a sacred right. 
We cannot restrain a man from serving his God 
in his own way without an abridgment of per- 
sonal liberty. We cannot prevent men from 
selling or drinking liquor without interfering 
with personal liberty ; cannot hinder a man 
from killing himself or his neighbor with whis- 
ky or a shot-gun without curtailing personal 
liberty ; cannot prevent his taking his neigh- 
bor's property by midnight theft or daylight 
robbery without restraint of personal liberty. 

All men love liberty. Our forefathers fought 
for it. The criminal overtaken by the officer 
of the law fights for it when he dares, and runs 
for it when he gets a chance. It is precious. 
Reformers advocate it warmly ; liquor dealers 
rely on it; highwaymen, pirates.thieves and pick- 
pockets live by it. It is a great blessing : Satan 
practices it and loves it, and verily couldn't do 
without it, especially in business of a question- 
able kind. Give us personal liberty !— Thought- 
ograph in People's Cause. 

Interior Temperature of the Earth.— 
The London Times, referring to the deep shaft 
being sunk near Schladebach by the German 
Government, with the special object of obtain- 
ing reliable data concerning the rate of the 
earth's increased temperature toward the in- 
terior, concludes, from all that has thus far 
been developed, that the earth's crust cannot 
be more than about one-ninetieth of its radius. 
It seems that the plan pursued has been to as- 
certain the temperature at successive stages by 
means of a special thermometer, the principle 
of construction being that as the heat increases 
the mercury will expand so as to flow over the 
lip of an open tube, the difference of the over- 
flowing giving the rate of increase of the tem- 
perature. At the depth of 1392 metres the 
temperature indicated 49 degrees Centigrade, or 
120 degrees Fahr. If the temperature increases 
regularly at this rate, the boiling point of water 
ought to be reached at a depth of 3000 metres, 
or nearly two miles, and at 45 miles the heat 
would be that at which platinum melts. 

A Motherly Lecture for the "Girl of 

[Written (or Kiral Press by Woman or 4-.| 
Having been a constant and attentive reader 
of your valuable paper for years, I therefore 
read and was much interested in " Rural 
Home Notes " Nos. 1 and 2 by " A Girl of 
Twenty." With the first I was wholly pleased, 
but a little sorrowful to feel that the 
writer could see so clearly into the way of 
life, and yet be only 20 years of age. For, to 
me, it seems when the mental vision is so clear 
the capacity for mental suffering must be corre- 
spondingly large, and that, without years of 
care and sorrow to teach us patience and endur- 
ance, is always to be deplored. 

Next came article No. 2, which I read also, 
and which made me wish I knew the writer or, 
at least, her address, so that I might write di- 
rect to her, for I have a few little weak criti- 
cisms to pass upon No. 2, which, if given pub- 
licly through the columns of the Rural, and 
shorn of the little " my dears," and " if I were 
you's," which I should naturally put in if I 
were speaking or writing directly to her, must 
necessarily make them sound harsh and un- 

After reading No. 2 I seemed to feel a little 
out of humor with myself; at least I thought it 
was myself, yet in a short time I began to at- 
tribute it to the piece I had been reading. So 
I sat down and carefully re-read it, and I 
thought it must be like a little jarring sound 
that once troubled our piano. I thought there 
was some foreign substance lodged upon one of 
the strings, yet on looking I could find nothing. 
Then I called a tuner, and he, after a thorough 
examination, could find nothing; yet the jar re- 
mained. Then we moved the piano, and lo ! 
the annoyance was gone; and we found the 
noise was made by the vibration of some note 
upon the gas fixture below the floor, which 
was again transmitted to the piano by some 
telephonic process, and seemed to emanate from 
it. So then I concluded the jar was not in the 
piece, but in my feelings or elsewhere. But 
after a little more time I began to form my 
little weak criticisms, and here they begin: 
No. 2 was amusing and instructive, but lacked 
the spirit of sweetness which pervaded No. 1, 
and in its stead a combative, self-assertive 
spirit prevails, which detracts considerably 
from the harmony and interest of her writing. 

Why older people do not like to hear young 
people preach, or moralize, is because it is not 
natural. It is like " fruit ont of season," and 
the young mind capable of it is apt, like the 
"fruit," to mature imperfectly. The sugges- 
tion of a sermon which grew out of the wet 
wood, and poor fire she had to wrestle with was 
good, and if she meets any in her " life's great 
furnace tending," I hope it will be after age 
and experience have given her " patience " and 
" endurance as a reserve store of kindlings, 
of a quality that will burn until the moisture 
of the " wet wood " haB all been eliminated, and 
the whole be united in one tine flame, the glow 
and warmth of which shall spread brightness 
and cheerfulness on all around. 

Then she speaks of how easily she is amused 
in the country, in a way which seems to con- 
sider it meritorious when it is only a matter of 
congratulation, that, as her lot is cast in the 
country, she should have the talent for observ- 
ing and a capacity to enjoy those things. But 
the talent of her " friend's " acquaintance for 
observing the color of the hair and eyes of her 
gentleman friends (she should not say nor quote 
the color of every " pair of pants," for she sac- 
rifices elegance of diction to force of expression, 
a very doubtful gain at best, and something no 
lady writer should do,) is not to be decried nor 
depreciated. Suppose she was an artist, a 
painter of portraits, then the faculty would be 
invalnable to her. Or, if a man and was a de- 
tective, then it would be considered a positive 

We are not all made alike, and it is a good 
thing we are not, or what a monotonous world 
this would be. I have a friend who cannot 
bear to hear the wild dove coo, yet paints beau- 
tiful pictures, while I, who dearly love to hear 
the wild dove's song, care very little for pic- 
tures, except those painted on the changeless 
hills and vales and mountains. 

And now I must touch upon the much-derided 
novel-reading which she, in common with many 
others, seems to hold in snch fine scorn. All 
novels, even the poorest, are nothing more nor 
less than heart histories written mostly by 
close students of human nature. And as young 
girls— to be natural — live more in the affections 
and emotions than the intellect, they therefore 
are attracted to the reading which portrays 
most vividly those sentiments. 

If the " Girl of Twenty " was a woman of 40 
or 4-, as I am, she would nee no merit in a 
child of 11 asking, " Who is the author?" but 
would rather she would ask, " Where's my 
jump-rope ?" or." Where's my skates ?" or see 
her riding barebank — and it may be bareheaded 
— around the field on good old Kate or Nell. 

Now, in conclmrion, I would say to her, culti- 
vate earnestly charity of thought and expression, 
for with her capacity for comparing and observ- 
ing she is in danger of growing sarcastic and 
acrid in disposition, and thus lay up much un- 
happiness for herself and do little good beside. 
To quote from her beloved Tennyson, " He 
never had a kindly heart, nor cared to better 
his own kind, who first wrote sarcasm, with 
no pity in it." 

San Francisco. 

July 10, 1886.] 

pACIFie I^URAls f RESS. 

How Different People Regard Nature. 

[Translated for Rdral Press from the German of Hans 
Christian Andersen by Prof. Granville F. Foster.] 

Note that the moon is supposed by Andersen 
to be relating to him the story. 

"Along the seaside stretched a magnificent 
forest of pine and beech trees, so cool and so 
fragrant. Hundreds of nightingales visited it 
every spring. Close thereto lay the ocean — the 
ever-restless and changeable ocean — and be- 
tween them ran the high road. One carriage 
after another rolled by. I followed them not. 
My eye rested alone with pleasure upon a sin- 
gle point. Here lay a huge mass of stones, 
known in Northern Europe as a giant's grave. 
Brambles and white thorns grew up between 
the stones. Here was indeed poetry in nature, 
but how think you it affected those who trav- 
eled by ? I will tell you what I saw and heard 
last evening and you may judge for yourself. 
First came two wealthy landed proprietors. 
'These trees are large and fine,' said one of 
them. ' Each would furnish ten loads of fire- 
wood,' answered the other. ' The coming 
winter promises to be a severe one; last year 
we received $14 a cord for just such wood — ' 
and they rode on. 'The road here is a wretched, 
miserable one,' remarked another traveler. 
' Yes, therefore are these cursed trees in fault,' 
replied his fellow-traveler. ' Here is no circu- 
lation of air, no breath of wind; breezes can 
reach this spot alone from the sea,' and forth 
their carriage rolled. And now comes the 
stagecoach. All the passengers therein are 
asleep. The postilion blows his horn, but his 
only thought was : ' How capitally I blow 
this horn; how grandly it echoes through the 
forest ! Its sound must please those who ride 
within.' Just then came 
along two 'jolly fellows' 
galloping on horseback. 
Youth and champagne 
quicken their blood, 
thought I. They observ- 
ed with a smile the moss- 
covered hill and the 
dense forest. ' Here 
would be a grand place 
to take Christine, the 
miller's daughter, for a 
stroll, 'said one of them, 
and forth they went. 

" 'Twas a beautiful 
evening. The very air 
was loaded with the per- 
fume of flowers and oder- 
iferous shrubs ; every 
breath of air slumbered. 
The ocean, like a sea of 
glass, seemed to be a part 
of the heaven overhead, 
which spanned the deep 
valley. A chaise ap- 
pears; six persons there- 
irj; four asleep; the fifth 
busy in his thoughts, ad- 
miring his fashionable 
summer coat, which 
fitted him so neatly; the 
sixth turns toward the 
coachman and inquires 
whether there is any- 
thing of the curious and 
remarkable to be ob 
served in yonder heap 
of stones. 'No,' answer- 
ed the coachman, 'it is 
nothing but a heap of 

stones. There is, however, something remark- 
able about this forest.' 'And what is that?' 
'This I will proceed at once to tell you. 
Observe how in winter, when the snow is 
very deep and has obliterated everything, 
and no pathway can be seen, how these 
treeB might serve me as signs; for by them I 
can 80 guide my horses that I am in no danger 
of driving into the sea; hence you see these 
trees are remarkable.' Next came a landscape 
painter. His eye sparkled. He spoke not a 
word, only whistled. The nightingales burst 
forth in song, pouring out on the evening air 
their sweetest and mellowest of notes, drowning 
entirely his voice. 'Confound this noise!' cried 
he, and then set to work to examine with his 
critical eye all the colors and tints in the land- 
scape. Blue, lilac, dark brown. Capital! What 
a fine picture it will make ! Whistling a 
march from Rossini, he sets about seiz- 
ing upon the scene, until the picture is so 
well executed that it reflects the landscape as 
a mirror does the image of an object. At 
leDgth comes a poor girl for a few moments' 
rest; she seats herself upon the giant's grave, 
her load by her side. She bends her fair, pale 
countenance attentively toward the forest; her 
very eyes sparkle with pleasure, she turns 
toward the sea, looks at the bendiDg heavens 
above; she clasps her hands in delight, uncon- 
sciously repeating the ' Lord's prayer.' She 
may not have been able fully to analyze the 
feelings that thrilled her soul, but I venture 
to assert that years afterward that picture 
of beauty and loveliness which Nature pre- 
sented to her gaze that evening floats before her 
memory, far fairer, far truer, than that which 
the painter was able to place upon canvas, 
with all his knowledge and skill, with all his 
nice discrimination as to colors and tints. She 
had caught the true secret of beauty. She 
recognized the spirit of God through the veil of 
nature. My brains followed her until the 
morning glow kissed her forehead." 
Sunol Glen, Cal. 



Jack and the Birds. 

[Written for the Rural Press.] 

Jack is a black cat that lives in the city. The 
other morning, while sprinkling the lawn in 
front of the house, I noticed Jack going across 
the street. As I had previously sprinkled there, 
it was quite muddy in some places, and Jack 
being a very dainty cat, did not wish to wet his 
feet, so he took particular pains to go away 
round the mud on the dry ground. After cross- 
ing the street Jack went under a vacant house 
on that side. 

Pretty soon I heard a great commotion among 
about a dozen English sparrows which were fly- 
ing around in front of the house under which 
Jack had run. They seemed to be diving down 
at something back of the front fence. 

Presently Jack came out from behind the 
fence with a sparrow in his mouth. The bird 
was squawking as loud as its little lungs would 
allow. The other birds were after Jack, but he 
was determined to hold on to his prize. 

He came running across the street as fast as 
his legs could carry him right through the mud 
which a few minutes before he had been so care- 
ful to avoid. As he came through the front 
gate he ran under the sprinkler and got soaking 

He then ran under a rosebush to get away 
from the birds, but they kept at him until he 
let the bird which he had in his mouth go. 

When the birds had flown away he came out 

by. They sprang at the wolf and killed him. 
You may be sure the little boys thanked the 
men over and over again. The men went with 
them till they came out of the forest, then, after 
thanking the men, Willie and James took their 
leave and went on their journey homeward. 
When they reached home their mother was very 
glad to see them. She told them that she bad 
been worrying about them all the while they 
were gone. Then they told their mother of 
their narrow escape, and she kissed them and 
thanked God for saving hertwo little boys from 
the cruel jaws of a wild beast. 

What He Loses. 

Editors Press: — "If a man worked for $1.25 
per day and paying 50 cents per day for board, 
should lose a day and pay for his board, how 
much would he be the loser ?" I answer, $1.25. 
If a man works for $1.25 a day and loses a day, 
he loses $1 .25, for he has got to pay 50 cents 
whether he works or not. Willie Kite. 

Redding, Shasta Co. 

GJood J^ealth. 

Interesting to Beer-drinkers. 

A Petaluma correspondent of a cotemporary 
writes on the subject of beer-drinking and beer 
manufacture as follows : To begin with, there 
is not one quart of the manufacture of our 
breweries in this State that ever reaches the 
dignified state of beer. The patrons and the 

the case may be. Then it becomes capable of 
imparting whatever benefits a stimulant may 
be capable of accomplishing, if any. But expe- 
rience teaches that no stimulant is of any ben- 
efit except in actual indisposition, and under 
the same intelligent guidance that other ther- 
apeutic agents are prescribed. C. 
Petaluma, June 15th. 


English Rhubarb Jam.— For each pound of 
rhubarb allow the rind and juice of one small 
lemon, four bitter almonds, blanched and chop- 
ped very fine, and three-quarters of a pound of 
sugar. If preferred, a few drops of bitter 
almond essence may be used instead of the 
chopped almonds. Peel the rhubarb and cut it 
in pieces an inch long; put the rhubarb and 
sugar in a deep dish and let both remain 24 
hours. Boil the rhubarb and sugar, the 
finely-minced lemon rind and the almonds until 
it thickens and then add the lemon juice. Let 
the jam boil up gain and put in glasses or jars. 

Welsh Custards. — One cup of dry, grated 
cheese, four eggs, one cup of milk, one tea- 
spoonful of butter, two teaspoonfuls of pre- 
pared flour mixed with the milk, bit of soda 
the size of a pea, half teaspoonful of salt, and 
a pinch of cayenne. Heat the milk, stirring 
in the soda, butter, salt and pepper, with the 
flour wet with a little milk, and pour it scald- 
ing hot on the eggs, beaten light in a bowl; 
add the cheese, beat up for a minute, pour 
into buttered custard cups and bake in a brisk 
oven for about twenty minutes. They should 
be puffy and lightly 
browned. Serve in- 
stantly in the cups, as 
they soon fall ; pass 
the wafers with them. 

Fried Whole Pota- 
toes.— Peel them and 
boil in salted water; do 
not let them boil until 
they are soft. Beat one 
egg, and have ready 
some fine cracker 
crumbs; roll the potato 
in the egg, and then in 
the cracker, and fry in 
butter until a light 
brown, turning iie- 
quently, that the color 
may be uniform; or the 
potatoes may be dropp- 
ed into hot lard. In this 
case, a cloth should be 
laid over a plate and 
the potatoes should be 
drained for a moment in 
this before sending them 
to the tablf > 


from under the bush and sat down on the walk 
with a very thoughtful expression on his face, 
as much as to say, " Here I am all wet, my feet 
muddy, and my bird gone. I wonder how it all 
San Francisco. 

[Jack was undoubtedly filled with wonder 
and disgust over his experience. Cats as well 
as people have surprises and things which they 
cannot understand. We would like to have had a 
picture of Jack when he came out from under the 
rosebush, but there was no photographer there to 
get it. We have, however, a pretty cat picture 
for our young folks, and we give it on this page. 
— Eds. Press.] 

A Narrow Escape. 

[Written for Rural Press by Dolly Brooks, aged 13 
years. I 

Willie and James Thorn were two little boys 
nine and ten years of age. James was the older. 
They were very good boys, and always obeyed 
their mother, for their father was now dead, 
and Mrs. Thorn had to work very hard to earn 
money enough to buy something to eat. She 
went out most every day to sew for people. One 
day James and Willie were sent in the forest by 
their mother to get some wood, for there was 
none in the house. Our two little boys had to 
walk quite a distance before they reached the 
beginning of the forest. They walked through 
the forest very bravely, not fearing any wild 
beasts at all. When they had picked up all 
the wood they could carry they turned for 
home. But, lo! out sprang a hungry wolf. 
What were the poor little boys to do? James 
took hold of Willie's hand and started to run, 
but the wolf would soon have caught up with 
them and killed them had it not been for two 
men who had probably been cutting wood near 

manufacturers alike are in too big a hurry for 
that. It is all drank as sour mash. Let as ex- 

Fermentation is the work of an infusorial 
cryptogram or bacteria. These little creatures 
make our alcohol in a struggle for existence. 
They are so small that billions of them occupy 
a space of half an inch, and in point of multi- 
plication one will develop a million in 24 hours, 
while one hour is their average life. You must 
understand that they are a sexless animal. 
Should the beer-drinker, as a preliminary meas- 
ure, place his delicate, foamy luxury under a 
magnifying power of eight or ten thousand 
diameters he would perhaps postpone the en- 
joyment of his delicacy to some future time. A 
vat of barley, undisturbed, might remain until 
it rotted and it would produce no beer. But 
stir it up and force the bacteria down in the 
fluid where they cannot obtain a sufficiency of 
oxygen upon which to live, they take the sugar 
and manufacture alcohol from it, and from the 
alcohol they can abstract enough oxygen to sup- 
port life. 

This is fermentation; but the fermentative 
process is only in its incipiency before all the 
stuff is drank. The foam on your glass of 
mash is cryptogamic. Drink it, and you con- 
vert your stomach into a vat for the fermenta- 
tive process. The temperature of the stomach 
being favorable to their healthiest existence, 
fermentation continues, developing and disen 
gaging a gas, bloating, weakening and relaxing 
the intestinal tract; impairing the digestive 
process, developing an alarming quantity of 
abnormal fat, weakening all the vital organs, 
and, finally, with an aldermanic corporosity, 
the victim steps down and out. And this is a 
subject that some medical men treat with lev- 
ity. Thus far, we have not discussed beer, ale, 
or porter — simply the primary or elementary 
principle, sour mash. 

When this mash has been bottled or bar- 
reled from two years and nine months to 
three years it becomes beer, ale or porter, as 

Tenderloin of Pork. 
— The pjrk should be 
rubbed with butter and 
broiled on a hot grid- 
iron. Girnishwith slices 
of lemon and serve with 
sauce Robert. The sauce 
is made in this way: 
Mince an onion fine and 
fry it brown in butter; 
add half a cup of vinegar 
and half a cup of hot water or stock; boil a few 
minutes and strain; now add a teaspoonful of 
brown flour and one of mustard, seasoning with 
half a teaspoonful of salt and a little white pep- 
per. Boil until it thickens. 

Date Sauce. — Date sauce, which is very nice 
with bread puddings, is made by stewing dates 
in just enough water to cover them; let them 
simmer for three-quarters of an hour, then if 
the dates are soft rub them through a colander, 
beat it until it is light; add water if it is needed 
to thin it, let it come to a boil. If you have 
saved the juice of fruit when canning it, use 
this instead of water to thin the sauce. The juice 
of currants is especially appetizing. 

Delicate Puffs. — Stir into half a pint of 
sifted flour, to which a saltspoonful of salt has 
been added, one gill of milk. Beat the white 
of an egg to a stiff froth. Mix the well-beaten 
yolk with a gill of milk and stir into the batter; 
add the white of egg and bake in muffin pans in 
a quick ove n. 

Clam Broth. — Mince 24 hard-shell clams and 
simmer them for half an hour in a saucepan 
with a pint of hot water or clam juice, a piece 
of butter half the size of an egg and a few 
grains of cayenne pepper. At the end of this 
time add half a pint of scalded milk and strain 
before serving. 

Caraway Biscuit.— One pound of crashed 
white sugar, four eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, 
the rind of one lemon, caraway seed, one pound 
of flour. Stir all these ingredients well together 
for one hour, adding the flour last and then 
forming into cakes. 

Veal Toast. — One cup of chopped veal, one 
cup of hot water, one taulespoonf nl of butter, 
one teaspoonful of salt and a slight sprink- 
ling of pepper; place on the stove and when 
quite hot pour over buttered toast. 


pACIFie f^URAb pRESS. 

[Jdly 10, 1886 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 252 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
OT Take the Elevator, >o. 12 Front St.~&, 

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Saturday, July 10, 1886. 

EDITORIALS.— A New Plum; A Delicious Table 
Fig; Mission Grapes in Texas; Movement Against False 
Product*, 33. The Week; The Hop Outlook; Harvest 
Notes; The Coming Fairs, 40. Murderous Millet; De- 
cision on Purity of Milk; In ban Gorgouio Pass; State 
Horticultural Society, 41. 

ILLUSTRATION 8. —A New Plum— The Shippers' 
Prid*, 33. Highland Home, in San Oorgonio Pass; 
Early Rose Potato Pierced by Root of Evergreen Millet, 

CORRESPONDENCE.— The Great Central Plateau 
of the Southwest; A Nook in Tulare, 34. 

POULTRY YARD.— Poultry and Eggs; "Cornpone" 
for Chicks, 35. 

HORTICULTURE.— On the Santa Clara Foothills, 

THE APIARY.— Sundry Matters; Honey— Past and 

Prospective; Beeswax, 35. 

Exhibit; Grange Life and Work; A St. Helena Grange, 


AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 

counties of California. 36-37- 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— Patchwork; Traveling by 
Team; "Personal Liberty;" A Motherly Lecture for the 
"Girl of Twenty," 38. How Different People Regard 
Nature 39 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Jack and the Birds; 

A Narrow Escape; What He Loses, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH —Interesting to Beer-drinkers. 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— English Rhubarb Jam; 
Welsh Custard; Fried Whole Potatoes; Tenderloin of 
Pork; Date Sauce; Delicate Puffs; Clam Broth; Cara- 
way Biscuit; Veal Toast, 39. 

THE DAIRY.— A Grand Jersey; Statistics of Bogus 
Butter, 42. 

Business Announcements. 

New Music— Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 
Hibernia Saving and Loan Society. 
Seeds — CI. W. Reed & Co., Sacramento, 
Windmills— Pacific Manufacturing Co. 
Monarch M'f'g Co.-Carpentersville, 111. 

«f 6'ee Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The week has been badly broken up by the 
three national holidays for the celebration, and 
the cessation from business, which was the most 
marked feature of this year's observance, ex- 
tended from Friday night until Tuesday morn- 
ing. It was quite a welcome relief to the 
older people, but a severe tax upon the bad 
small boy to spread one day's firecrackers over 
three days' time, and just as hard for the good 
small boy to have the explosives on hand and 
not let them off on Sunday. However, every 
one survived the strain and returned with re- 
freshened vigor to ordinary work on Tuesday 
morning. The Fourth throughout the State 
was rather quiet this year, the greatest celebra- 
tion being at Monterey, where National and 
State patriotism and traditions were pleasantly 
commingled. In the city and country there 
are many thoughts turned toward the grand 
event of next month, the G. A. R. Encamp- 
ment. In the city and suburban towns great 
efforts are being made to perfectly arrange 
accommodations for the thousands who are 
coming. After that event will come the fairs, 
the political conventions, the election, the 
Legislature — surely the coming months will not 
be dull. 

The Hop Outlook. 

We cautioned our readers in our Market Re- 
view last week against reports that "new hops 
were being contracted for at 10c per pound." 
Buyers seemed to think that they might catch 
some growers at low-water mark by circulating 
such reports in the daily papers, but we im- 
agine they found few growers eager to contract 
hops ahead for less than the cost of production. 
The folly of such reports is seen from the fact 
that before the close of the week the buyers 
advanced their contract figures to 15@16c per 
pound, and probably found few ready to sell at 
those figures. 

We do not believe, as a rule, in holding on to 
produce too long, but when rates are below the 
cost of production, and especially after a pro- 
longed depression, there are nine chances to one 
that values will advance. There is in all prod- 
uce a tendency toward the normal price, and 
sooner or later it is reached, and perhaps by 
reaction, the market value is carried much 
above it. This is notably the case with hops, 
which, of all agricultural produce, show the 
widest fluctuation from year to year. 

Even if there were no reports of disaster to 
growing hops, we should expect a notable im- 
provement in values this year. The acreage 
has been greatly reduced by negleot and by 
plowing up, because of the ruinous experience 
of the last few years. The threatening condi- 
tion of the labor supply last spring, which hap- 
pily has not been realized to the extent pre- 
dicted by the agitators, together with the low 
prices prevailing, led many California hop- 
growers to abandon their fields. In tne other 
parts of the United States the low prices ac- 
complished the same result as they invariably 
do. Besides this fact, there comes now the 
report of a most sad condition in the great hop 
districts of New York, as described in the fol- 
lowing dispatch from New York city, dated 
July 6th: 

Reports from Otsego, Montgomery and Sctio- 
harie counties hop vineyards say that the vines 
are covered with vermin from the top of the 
strings to the bottom of the poles. The honey 
dew is also found wherever the vermin are, and 
this is fully as detrimental. The appearance of 
vermin on the hop vines in the early part of 
July leaves no hope for a crop, and unless some 
sudden and unforeseen change occurs there will 
be few hops to harvest. The leaves attacked 
curl and dry up, and where the hops attempt to 
burr the vine is entirely consumed. Mold fol- 
lows in the hops before they mature, and those 
that do weather this difficulties are lacking in 
lupuline substance. While four to seven cents 
Was paid for 18S5 hops two weeks ago, 12 and 
15 cents are now offered, and as high as IS 
cents has been paid for old hops during the 
past week. 

Another important hop district of New York 
is covered by the following dispatch, describing 
much the same state of affairs as regards the 
growing crop: 

Dispatches from speoial correspondents of the 
Sentinel in Otsego county report that the hop 
vines generally throughout that section are cov- 
ered with lice from the bottom of the strings to 
the top of the poles. Honey dew is also found 
wherever the lice are, and this is fully as bad as 
the vermin. The extensive appearance of lice 
in Jnne leaves no hope for the crop, and unless 
some sudden and unforeseen change shall occur, 
there will be no hops to harvest. The leaves 
attacked by the lice curl up and dry, and mold 
follows in the hops before they mature. Reports 
from southern Oneida and Madison counties 
are also to the effect that lice are so numerous 
as to threaten the total destruction of the hop 

It seems to us that growers can expect 
to realize something this year to com- 
pensate them for the disappointments of the 
last two yearB; and though we never advise any- 
one to refuse a very good thing, we think there 
are good chances to do much better than figures 
which buyers are now talking. 

Cheap Ocean Freights. — We hardly won- 
der that the English wheat-grower complains 
when foreign wheat is brought across the ocean 
for less than he can move his across his little 
island to market. The Mark Lane Express 
says: "When wheat is taken for ballast, who 
can foresee the course of the trade? This has 
been done, even at a premium, from U. S. At- 
lantic ports; and now it is stated that 700 tons 
of Australian wheat have been brought here as 
ballast from an Australian port, for the nomi- 
nal sum of £1, while 6d. per qr. is thought a 
very high freight rate of steamers direct." 
Seven hundred tons of wheat from Australia to 
England for $5, or less than two-thirds of a cent 
per tonl 

The Coming Fairs. 

We have prepared our usual list of coming 
agricultural fairs for the convenience of exhib- 
itors and fair-goers. The prospects for this 
year's exhibitions are, on the whole, excellent, 
and much interest is manifested in preparing 
the leading exhibits. At least two new pavil- 
ions have been finished already — one at Marys- 
ville and one at San Jose — and there may be 
others which we do not now remember. Los 
Angeles is preparing for the erection of a grand 
pavilion, and it is certainly greatly needed. 

A number of counties are preparing for the 
connty displays at the State and Mechanics' 
Institute Fairs. There are also special efforts 
being made to show produce in San Francisco 
during the Grand Army Encampment. Sonoma 
will be well represented, and Fresno has accom- 
plished an organization for this purpose and ap- 
pointed committees on nearly everything under 
the sun, including a committee to bring down 
a section of a big tree large enough to make a 
pavilion to hold the whole county display. 
Such an undertaking would never be forgotten, 
and would be talked about the world over. 

This year's State Fair promises to be unu- 
sually good. The directors have shown rather 
a better appreciation of the true producing in- 
terests of the State, and perhaps if there should 
be given a rousing good show of all kinds of 
farm products, the wisdom of making the fairs 
more thoroughly agricultural would become ap- 
parent. Let all who have something good 
send to E. F. Smith, Secretary, at Sacra- 
mento, for the premium list and rules for 
exhibitions, and then do what they can to 
help fill the beautiful building with a dis- 
play which will be true to the greatness 
and resources of the State. As we have fre- 
quently noticed, the county exhibits from sev- 
eral counties will be large and varied, and will 
be worth a journey across a State to examine. 

The other fairs in the several counties and 
districts are worthy of local attention, and if 
the district does itself justice interesting mate- 
rial enough will come forward to equip a State 
fair in almost any other State in the Union. 
We have prepared a schedule of the fairs to be 
held in this State this year. The list is not 
complete and if the officers of any fair which 
is omitted will send us the data we will com- 
plete and republish the table from time to time 
until the fairs occur. 

Bench Show of S. F, Kennel Club, San Francisco, 
July 27th to 31st. 

Bay District Association, San Francisco, Aug. 
7th to 14th. 

Third District— Butte, Tehama and Colusa coun- 
ties— Chico, Aug. 17th to 33d. 

Fourth District — Sonoma, Marin, Solano and 
Napa counties — Petaluma, Aug. 23d to 28th. 

Seventeenth District — Nevada and Placer coun- 
ties — Glenbrook Park, Aug. 24th to 28th. 

Mechanics' Institute Fair, San Francisco, opens 
Aug. 24th. 

Golden Gate Fair, Oakland, Aug. 30th to 
Sept. 4th. 

Thirteenth District — Sacramento, Yolo, Yuba and 
Sutter counties — Marysville, August 31st to Septem- 
ber 4th. 

Eighth District— El Dorado, Amador, Alpine and 
Mono counties— Placerville, August 31st to Sep- 
tember 4tb. 

State Agricultural Society, Sacramento, Septem- 
ber 6th to 18th. 

Oregon State Agricultural Society, Salem, Sep- 
tember 13th to 18th. 

Eleventh District — Plumas, Lassen, Sierra and 
Modoc counties — Greenville. September 20th to 24th. 

Second District— San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuol- 
umne, Stanislaus. Merced, Mariposa, Fresno, Tu- 
lare and Kern counties— Stockton, Sept. 21st to 25th. 

Ninth District — Del Norte and Humboldt coun- 
ties — Rohnerville, Sept. 21st to 24th. 

F ifth District — San Mateo and Santa Clara coun- 
ties—San Jose, Sept. 27th tc Oct. 2d. 

Seventh District— Monterey, Santa Cruz, San Be- 
nito and S<n Luis Obispo counties — Salinas City, 
Sept. 28th to Oct. 2d. 

Tenth District — Siskiyou, Trinity and Shasta 
counties — Yreka, Sept. 29th to Oct. 2d. 

Nevada State Fair, Reno, Oct. 4th to 9th. 

Sixth District — Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Ven- 
tura, San Diego, San Bernardino and Inyo counties 
— Los Angeles, Oct. mh to 16th. 

Santa Barbara Agricultural, October. 

Freight on Fresno Raisins. — We notice in 
an exchange that Fresno vaisin-growers are 
angry because to get their raisins East they 
have to pay $60 per car local freight to Stock- 
ton in order to get the benefit of overland rates, 
because Stockton is a terminal point and Fresno 
is not. This terminal point business is often a 
great wrong to producers. If there must be 
terminal points, let them be fixed according to 
the produce prevailing in each locality. Fresno 
should certainly be a terminal point on raisins, 
if it is necessary to have any terminals at 
all. This charging local rates to gain a chance 
to pay through rates is wrong. 

Harvest Notes. 

The grain-growers of the Sacramento valley 
have been disappointed this summer, for the 
wheat crop is almost everywhere coming short 
of what was looked for early in the season. 
Considerable threshing has been done in Sutter, 
and the Farmer reckons that not more than 
half an average will be harvested in that 
county. Reports from various sections of Butte 
agree that the yield at best is only medium, 
and accounts from Solano are equally disap- 
pointing. In Colusa soon after the recent 
norther, an estimate placing the damage to the 
crops at $2,000,000 was deemed extravagant, 
but last week's Sun declares that the loss in 
that county, those two days, was 4,000,000 
bushels of wheat. " We would," he says, "have 
had 11,000,000 bushels. Now 7,000,000 is a 
large estimate of what we will have to sell. 
The loss to the white wheats has averaged from 
60 to 70 per cent, and to the club not less than 
an average of 15 per cent, and some say 20 per 
cent. From every one who was cutting before 
the wind we hear of a vast difference in grain 
cut before and after the wind. There are sacks 
to sell on all sides by people who have pur- 
chased too many. As a rule, men have never 
purchased enough sacks, but now every one 
who bought before the wind, and some who 
bought after, but who did not appreciate the 
full extent of the damage, have sacks to sell. 
The damage was fully as great in Butte, Teha- 
ma, Yolo, part of Sutter and part of Solano. 
We think its influence must have extended 
further south, but people are loth to admit such 
serious damage. It must bring down the price 
of bags." 

In the coast counties south of the bay, too, 
we observe that the quantity and quality 
of the wheat fails to meet the hopes of the 

The San Joaquin valley seems to have suffer- 
ed less by the winds, as only slight injuries are 

The barley harvest is turning out fairly, and 
very heavy and plump grain is being secured. 
The late hay regions are turning out well. 
Fruit is being found rather short, and buyers 
for canning and shipping are scouring the State 
for their favorite kinds. Grapes are still look- 
ing very well, and promise a most bountiful 

Reports of the honey crop so far are rather 
conflicting, but it is apparent that early esti- 
mates were too high. Though some most ex- 
cellent yields are reported, there are many 
others which are disappointing. 

Lively Los Angeles. — Los Angeles is ap- 
parently surprising even her most enthusiastic 
advocates by the buoyancy of her res.1 estate 
market. Milton Thomas, of that city, in a 
business letter to this office, throws in the fol- 
lowing interesting statements: " There is a boom 
in Los Angeles real estate values which is won- 
derfully unexpected. At this season of the 
year we usually have a dull time, but the reverse 
is the case, and real estate has advanced 25 to 
50 per cent during the last 60 days. On Fort 
street property has advanced 100 to 200 per 
cent within the last 30 days. The advance 
seems to be healthy, and most purchasers are 
paying down for their purchases." Of agri- 
cultural produce, Mr. Thomas reports field 
crops good, pears a failure, apples almost a fail- 
ure, apricots light, peaches one-quarter of a 
crop, English walnuts light, grapes good and 
the prospect that the next orange crop will be 

Indian Wheat. — The exports of Indian 
wheat for the last 10 years, as given in Dom- 
busch's List, will give the reader an idea of the 
quick increase of production. The figures rep- 
resent centals of wheat : 

1876- 7 5.587,000 1881-2 19,901,000 

1877- 8 6,373,000 1882-3 14,194,000 

1878- 9 1 057.000 1883-4 20,956,000 

1879- 2,202,000 1884-5 15,831,000 

1880- 1 7,444,000,1885-6 21,061,000 

It is stated that this enormous growth in the 
export of wheat, which is comparatively a new 
trade in India, is the reeult almost entirely of 
the extension of railways into regions from 
which it was formerly impossible profitably to 
move this cereal for shipment to foreign coun- 
tries. It has been accomplished, too, in the 
face of seriously growing competition in Europe, 
on the part of American, Australian, and River 
Plate wheat producers. 

July 10, 1886 ] 



In Sail GorgODlO PaSS. an( i various other farts of the place where it 

is needed. 

Highland Home, one of the most beautiful The company own in all about 1800 acres of 
and favorably situated health and pleasure re- land, 1400 of which is a rich, sandy loam and 
sorts of Southern California, is located about SO | is under cultivation. The land yields an abun- 
miles east of Los Angeles, in the San Gorgonio j dant harvest under proper cultivation, and the 
pass, San Bernardino county, and about three 1 trees and vines which have already been set 
miles northeast of San Gorgonio station, on the [ out look thrifty and well. 

S. P. R. R. Extensive ornamental grounds are being laid 

San Gorgonio Highta, where the hotel is situ- out around the hotel in accordance with plans 
ated, is about 500 feet above the railroad depot, j drawn by Mr. A. H. Judson. Outside of the 
but the ascent is so gradual that persons do not i above grounds there have been set out 20 acres 
notice the elevation until they reach their des- of olive trees, 41 asres of vineyard and several 
tination and look back over the broad fields i acres of apples, pears and peaches. The eleva- 
stretching away for miles at their feet. The ; tion of the hotel is 3000 feet above the sea 
home is owned by the San Gorgonio Land and t level. 

Water Co., composed of Messrs. A. H. Judson, i The climate is probably almost, if not quite, 
D. R. Risley, and E. B. Millar, of Los Angeles. | unsurpassed in the United States for persons 
It is built on the site of an old stage station, on I suffering with consumption and kindred dis- 


Murderous Millet. 

There is great diversity of opinion in this 
State concerning the worth or worthlessness of 
"Evergreen Millet" or "Johnson Grass," or al- 
most any number of aliases which Sorghum 
Halapense sails under. It has been grown in 
nearly every part of the State from roots dis- 
tributed by the College of Agriculture or ob- 
tained from other sources, and the opinions con- 
cerning it are almost as varied as the growers 
are numerous. A report on forage plants in 
California which will be issued from the Uni- 
versity thi3 fall will show quite fully the record 
of the plant in this State, and it will be much 
as has been already indicated by the letters from 
growers which have appeared in the columns 
of the Rural. 

The plant has proved of value in some cases, 
and a fearful nuisance in others. Although it 
has refused to grow in many locations, it has 
shown itself so persistent in others that it has 
became a great pest and has encroached upon 
cultivated land much to the sorrow of the owners. 
One grower of the plant who would like to see 
it3 shadow grow less is Dr. E. N. Foote, of 
Lockeford, San Joaquin county. He early dis- 
cerned its quality, but not, unfortunately, until 
he got it into his ground. His heart warmed 
to it a little when its roots proved capable of 
sustaining his hogs when the grasshoppers re- 
moved the other vegetation, but now we im- 
agine he has come again to hate it for its shame- 
ful aggressiveness. He made the attempt to work 
it out by cultivating the ground with hoed crops, 
but the more it is hacked and torn asunder the 
more it grows, the hoeing merely serving to dis- 
tribute its roots, each joint of which has in it 
the full outfit for an independent plant. We 
imagine the doctor's indignation found forcible 
words when he saw the remarkable case of veg- 
etable vivisection which we illustrate on this 
page. He sent us the case and there are so 
many interested more or less in the deeds of the 
grass that we had the engraving made. It rep- 
resents with great accuracy an Early Rose potatOi 
which a root of the millet found in its way and 
transfixed in the manner shown. On digging 
the potatoes the spud was thrown up with its 
murderous stiletto still in the wound. We 
imagine the doctor will consider potato growing 
as a poor cure for millet unless he can find a 
hard-shell variety warranted millet proof. He 
probably has no desire to grow his potatoes 
strung along on millet roots like beads on a 

No doubt Dr. Foote is in the field now for a 
sure cure for millet, and we should not be sur- 
prised to find others of our readers in a similar 
state of mind. Perhaps others can report suc- 
cessful experience in eradicating the plant. If 
so we would be glad to hear from them. We 
hope that the plant will not have to be placed 
alongside of morning-glory as a standing prob- 
lem in weed murdering. 

By the way, we notice that the last issue re- 
ceived of the Mark Lane Express has a first 
class puff for the plant copied from an Austral" 
ian paper, and asks: What is this "Johnson 
grass ?" Perhaps our contemporary can get a 
little light from this paragraph. It may be a 
good thing in some places, but be very sure not 
to get it where you do not wish to have it 

Decision on Purity of Milk. 

A legal reader of the Rural calls our atten- 
tion to the following Rhode Island decision, re- 
cently handed down, as follows: 

Constitutional Law— Statute Defining 

A statute forbidding and punishing the sale of 
adulterated milk provided: "In all prosecutions 
under this act, if the milk shall be shown upon anal- 
ysis to contain more than 88 per cent of watery 
fluids or to contain less than 12 per cent of milk 
solids, or less than two and one-half per cent of 
milk fats, it ahall be deemed for the purpose of this 
act to be adulterated." Held, that the provisions 
were constitutional: State vs. Groves, 15 R. I. 

The standard set by statute is exceedingly 
low; ordinary milk, half skimmed, would thus 
pass, so no one cculd complain that it could be 
unreasonable, except, perhaps, to the con- 
sumer. The point of interest in the decision 
is, of course, in the affirmation of the constitu- 
tionality of acts regulating adulteration, and 
this is what producers of genuine dairy goods 
are insisting upon. The legal aspects of 
the claim are getting very satisfactory. 

the route to Arizona, contains all the mrdern 
conveniences, and a representative of the Press 
who was recently there assures us that under 
the management of its genial host and hostess, 
Mr. and Mrs. P. D. Grimes, is a home in fact 
as well as name. The site chosen was a partic- 
ularly happy one, lying as it does at the mouth 
of the lovely canyon of Glen Eyrie and at the 
base of the foothills of the San Bernardino 

mountains. Spurs from the hills project on 
either side, giving protection from the wind. 
In front, the eye looks out over a gently de- 
scending slope of some 18,000 acres of fine grain 
land under cultivation across to the mountains, 
on the other side of the pass. To the southeast, 
that grand old mountain, San Jacinto, lifts its 
snowy head, the top of which tradition says, as 
mentioned by Helen Hunt in her "Ramona," 
no one can reach and live. From the hills back 
of the hotel can be seen the three principal 
peaks of the San Bernardino mountains — Baldy, 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto. The canyon 
of Glen Eyrie, through which runs an ever- 
living stream of mountain water, as pure as 
crystal, is about a mile long and through it are 
thickly scattered large trees of various kinds, 
making a charming retreat for invalids and those 
who enjoy wild, picturesque scenery. 

The stream of water in the canyon furnishes 
an abundant and never-failing supply of pure 
water for the hotel and for irrigation. Water 
from thiB stream is conveyed by pipe to a large 
reservoir, and thence the water is taken by 
other pipes to a smaller reservoir to the hotel 

eases. On account of its altitude and the close 
proximity of this locality to the great Mojave 
desert the air is very dry and highly charged 
with ozone. Another favorable point is free- 
dom from fogs. A fog is rarely ever seen here, 
and then only for a short time. 

It is a part of the company's plan to furnish 
places for permanent residence to those who 
wish to make San Gorgonio Hights their home. 

They have accordingly subdivided a large por- 
tion of the tract into lots ranging from one to 
ten acres. 

Vacation. — As the year has closed at the 
State University, Professor Hilgard has retired 
for a change of work, which is said to be as 
good as a rest, to his farm in the lower part of 
Alameda county. We trust that a few weeks' 
tussle with weeds and adobe will prove a valu- 
able tonic to him. Work in the University lab- 
oratories will be for the most part stopped 
during the vacation, and matters which can be 
postponed should be presented when they re- 
open in September. Matters of pressing im- 
portance, such as visitations of plant diseases or 
insect pests or practical points on which in- 
formation is needed immediately, may be sent 
as usual and will be handled as well as possible 
under the circumstances. 

Fruit Trees and Vines. — The estimated 
number of fruit trees in this State is as follows: 
Total number of trees, 8,000,000, divided as 
follows: apple, 2.700,000 ; peach, 1,200,000; 
pear, 500,000; plum and prune, 600,000; cherry, 
400,000; apricot, 500.000; orange, 1,600,000; 
lime and Union, 500,000; grape vines in bear- 
ing condition, 70,000 acres. 

State Horticultural Society. 

The State Horticultural Society met in thio 
city on June 26th, Judge W. C. Blackwood, of 
Hay wards, in the chair. Mr. Gustav Eisen, of 
Fresno, was proposed for membership. 

Peeled Figs. 
The following letter was read: 

Rome, Italy, April 15, 1886. 

Mr. E. J. Wicksoti, Secretary of California State 
Horticultural Society: I send you by mail a small 
sample of Italian tigs of the better sort, as found on 
the hotel table. Perhaps the members of the society 
may be interested in examining them, as the fig 
seems to be the coming fruit in California. If not 
dried up in transit, they should be found very deli- 
cate, just the thing for a dessert dish. Sig. Siemoni, 
Inspector of Forests, tells me that these are of the 
variety called 'Fico Dottato," which is largely cul- 
tivated, particularly in Tuscany, and that they were 
paeled before drying. The peasants are very skill- 
ful in preling them, with their fingers only. The 
figs are then dried in the sun, upon a roof or other 
convenient place, sometimes being protected from 
dust and insects by spreading a thin cloth over them. 
The film of white sugar on the specimens is the 
grape-sugar, which is natural to the fruit, and is 
brought to the surface in drying. Great quantities 
of figs are cured without peeling, and are eaten with- 
in the reiilm to take the place of, or supplement, 
breadstuff's. Large shipments are also made to 
foreign countries, and particularly to Germany. 

In Germany the poorer qualities are largely used 
as a substitute for coffee, being cut in small pieces, 
dried, and treated as coffee usually is, but needing 
no sweetening. These peeled figs sell in large lots 
at 30 to 40 centimes per kilogram, or Hv.een 3 and 
4 cents per pound, with rather a short supply. The 
unpeeled grades are cheaper. Our landlord, who 
formerly ownt d an e'tate in Tuscany, says that the 
"Fico Dottato" is a large green fruit, and that the 
greater part of the crop is eaten fresh. The "Ver- 
dini" are smaller, and are dried with skins on. The 
"San Pieri" are the first to ripen — about the last of 
June — and are eaten fresh. The names for va- 
rieties of fruits vary so much in different parts of 
Italy that our importers of trees will probably get 
hold of the same thing with several synonyms. 

C. H. Dwinelle. 

The figs sent by Mr. Dwinelle had been long 
delayed by the mails, and had become so tough 
and dry that their good points could not be 
perceived. His description was, however, 
heard with interest. 

Memorial Resolutions. 

Mr. W. G. Klee, from the committee, sub- 
mitted the following: 

It is with feelings of deep regret and sorrow that 
we learn of the sudden death of our late member, 
Mr. G. N. Milco, stricken down in the prime of his 
life. His death is a sad loss to the State and to the 
horticulturist especially. A native of Dalmatia, a 
country with a climate in many respects similar to 
California, he saw the vast opportunities the Golden 
State fcr the introduction of the plants and 
fruits of Sou'ihern Europe, and not a few are the 
valuable acquisitions for which we must thank him. 
Rut it is especially through the introduction of the 
Dalmatian insect-powder plant that this State will 
remember him. To his untiring energy it is due 
that its culture and the manufacture of the buhacri 
was made a success, and the establishment of a new 
and permanent industry added to the State. It is 
such undertakings which add wealth to a State, and 
such examples as his are worthy of the highest 
praise. In the death of Mr. Milco the State Horti- 
cultural Society has lost a most valuable member 
not to be replaced. As horticulturists we extend 
our deepest sympathy and condolence to the be- 
reaved family.— W. G. Klee, James Shinn, Com- 

The resolutions were adopted and the secre- 
tary instructed to send copies to the family of 
the deceased and Bpread the same upon the min- 
utes of the society. 

New Horticultural Commissioner. 

Senator DeLong, from the committee ap- 
pointed to interview the Governor regarding the 
appointment of Horticultural Commissioners, re- 
ported that a special committee had interviewed 
the Governor, and the result was the appoint- 
ment of W. M. Williams on the State Board of 
Horticulture in place of G. N. Milco of Stock- 
ton, deceased, as requested by the society at its 
last meeting. 

Discussion on Apple Growing. 

The discussion on apple growing was opened 
by Senator D^Long, of Marin county. He 
thought the discussion naturally divided itself 
into the ground in which trees should be 
planted, selection of varieties best to plant, 
then planting, cultivation and pruning, the best 
ways to tight fungus, insect pests which attack 
the body of the tree and the leaves, and those 
which attack the fruit. 

Land for an apple orchard should be rich as 
possible and free from adobe. It should lie so 
as to secure good drainage, or be well drained 
artificially. There should be no standing water 
to injure the roots or to interfere with thorough 
cultivation, for the land should be so that it can 
be worked early, and not be lumpy, but thor- 
oughly pulverized. 

In selecting varieties for an apple orchard for 
market fruit he would take but five or six va- 
rieties, and for commercial purposes he would 



[July 10, 1886 

plant no apple ripening before the end of 
August. The very early apples have to com- 
pete with summer fruits, and generally get the 
worst of it. Perhaps in certain localities a few 
early apples will pay. 

For an early apple, then, in his experience, 
he would consider the Gravenstein early enough 
and would plant no Astracan or Early Harvest. 
He considered the four best varieties for keep- 
ing and shipping to be as follows: Yellow New- 
town pippin, Esopus Spitzenberg, White Win- 
ter Pearmain and Winesap. The last-named 
apple, he said, according to his observation, 
produced and kept well if grown on unirrigateii 
ground, and would stand shipping around the 
world. He mentioned the Tewkesbury Winter 
Blush as keeping to June 1st. 

In planting out an apple orchard, Mr. DeLong 
would plant out apple trees 36 feet apart, on 
the equilateral or quincunx 'plan and between 
them place shorter lived trees, apricot, cherry 
and peach. This will yield some pay for thecul 
tivation until the apple trees need all the 
ground. The apples, as a rule, will not bear a 
paying crop until they are seven years of age, 
while the other fruits will bear in four years, 
and the trees will not interfere until the apples 
are 15 years of age. He thought that growing 
stone fruits oc the ground between the trees 
would not seriously exhaust the ground for the 
seed fruit like the apple. 

Speaking of the insectB which infest the ap 
pie, he mentioned first the ecale insect, which 
he said could be destroyed by alkaline washes. 
Sunburn, sap-scald and borers he considered as 
serious evils as could happen to an apple tree. 
In getting out a borer he always cut below him 
The red spider could be easily killed with weak 
whale-oil soap, but the red spider's egg will 
stand almost any kind of application. The 
canker worm or measuring worm can be obvi- 
ated by a printer's ink band which traps the 
wingless moth on her trip up the tree. The 
caterpillars he fought by placing around the 
trees bands covered with rancid grease mixed 
with lard to keep it soft, and then swashed the 
caterpillars which congregated below the bands. 
He fought them this way several years until 
the ichneumon fly came and destroyed them. 
As for the codlin moth, he was still on the 
lookout for a perfect cure. He had saved part 
of his crop with the bands. The 1'2-spotted 
diabrotica which eats into the fruit is a hard 
pest, to handle. Mr. DeLong mentioned also 
certain fungoid diseases of the leaf which had 
never done him much harm as yet, and which 
he had not attempted to fight. Others had re- 
ported considerable injury by them. 

Speaking in general terms Mr. DeLong said 
the apple business was a good one if one raises 
good apples, but the production of inferior 
is unprofitable. He believed the cooler valley 
and certain elevated lands best suited to the 
apple. He thought it quite important that to 
produce good-keeping apples they should 
not be irrigated. He considered the Yellow 
Newtown Pippin the best keeper. He finds the 
Wintsap a good shipper, but affected by a dry 
rot which is objectionable but does not seem to 
injure the flavor of the unaffected part of the 
apple. Picking apples for shipment should be 
done just when the seeds begin to blacken and 
when the fruit yields to pressure. If left on 
until fully ripe, and the seeds all black, it will 
not keep. 

Being asked concerning the shipment of ap- 
ples to Australia, he said he chose apples fit to 
pick in September. As to varieties which are 
rather uncertain to ship such a distance, he 
mentioned the Gravenstein, the Pennock, and 
Roxbury Russets as sometimes good and some- 
times bad. Of the russets he had 500 boxes go 
through well one year and 400 spoil the next 

Mr. Williamson's Remarks. 

berg, Bsn Davis and Winesap keep best of all, 
but not well. A profitable apple in the Sacra- 
mento valley is the White Astracan, which can 
be shipped early as far east as Omaha. Alex 
ander, Skinner's seedling and Gravenstein also 
do well for this trade, the first two being best. 
He said that in the third week in June his firm 
paid as high as §1.40 in Marysville for White 
Astracan to ship East. They have paid from 
-SI to §1.50 for all they could get early for the 
last six years. This demand may be limited, 
but still he thought the present shipments could 
be largely increased. 

Higher up on the mountains — say at "Yan- 
kee Jim" and "You Bat" and similar situa- 
tions — the apples mentioned by Mr. D.Long 
do well. The Rhode Island (ireening, Yellow 
Bellefleur and Tompkins County King have 
also paid well. He believed apple-growing 
would be found profitable everywhere if the 
right varieties were chosen and properly taken 
care of. 

Speaking of pruning, Mr. Williamson spoke 
of heading low and shading the trunk. It the 
limbs do not shade it, it mint be done other- 
wise. He found the borer's parent could 
be discouraged from laying her eggs by 
wetting the southwest side of the tree 
with stinking soapsuds, putting it on several 
times in the season. If the trunk is shaded 
this is not needed. He also spoke of pruning 
to prevent over-bearing. He confined pruning 
mainly to thinning out, and not heading back 
branches; but this depends much upon the 
habit of growth of the variety. He would not 
treat a tree so as to make a bramble bush head. 

Woolly Aphis, Etc 
Mr. Klee, being asked about the woolly aphis, 
gave his experience with the use of gas-lime at 
the University, which has been fully described 
in the Rural of May 15, 1886. 

Referring to the tent caterpillars, Mr. Will- 
iamson said that a little buhach will destroy 
them at once. Sulphur will kill the red spider 
and yellow mite. Of all the pests, he consid- 
ered the woolly aphis the hardest ti fight. A 
recipe, consisting of 20 pounds of quicklime, 
one'gallon of coal oil and 50 gallons of water, 
to be applied to the roots, has been sent to him 
as a positive cure for this evil. 

James Shinn, of Alameda, was strong in praise 
of the ladybug as a destroyer of the woolly aphis. 
He also recommended ashes placed around the 
base of the tree for the same effect. 

Professor Hilgard spoke of the proposition to 
hold a grand fruit display at Sacramento during 
the encampment, and remarked the desirability 
of an immense central fruit exhibition for the 
benefit of Eastern tourists. He said he con- 
sidered such an exhibition preferable to a num- 
ber of small ones throughout the State. 

Mr. DeLong urged the use of whitewash on 
trees as a preventive of injury from the sun's 

Judge Blackwood spoke of the codlin moth 
and its ravages, and recommended the use of a 
decoction consisting of a gill of Paris green to 
40 gallons of water for the destruction of these 
pests. He denied that the fruit thus produced 
would be poisoned or injured in the least. 

A praeparturiens walnut tree was exhibited by 
John Rock of San Jose, three feet high, which 
bore fruit. 

Two varieties of cherries were exhibited by 
G. Tosetti, San Leandro. Mr. Coates had a 
sample of Centennial in glass, and Mr. DeLong 
made a fine display of cherries in the new patent 
top glass jar, invented by DeLong A Ashby, 
and used at the Petaluma Cannery. 

After deciding that at the next meeting W. 
W. Smith, of Vacaville, should read a paper on 
pear growing, with A. T. Hatch, of Suisun, as 
alternate, the society adjourned until the last 
Friday of July. 

Robert Williamson, of Penryn, being called 
upon, ptated that he agreed with Mr. DeLong 
in regard to selecting soil and situation for an 
apple orchard and also in his advice to plant 
apples far apart and other trees between. Va- 
rieties of apple must be selected according to 
locality and diversity of climate, etc. No one 
can prescribe the same for all situations, but he 
thought that in each locality five or six kinds 
which do best there are enough varieties to 
plant. He considered early and fall apples 
profitable in the Sacramento valley and on the 
foothills up as high as Colfax. In this district 
it is not possible to raise the best keeping 
apples; Mock's Late Keeper, Esopus Spitzen 

New Zealand Fungus.— A curious trade 
has sprung up of late years in a peculiar kind of 
fungus that grows on the trees in the Noitli 
Island of New Zealand, and which is exported 
exclusively to China. The uses to which it is 
applied do not seem to be well known. In 1873 
the British authorities at Hongkong said it was 
"much prized by the Chinese community as a 
medicine administered in the shape of a decoc- 
tion to purify the blood, and was also used on 
fast days with a mixture of vermicelli and bean- 
curd instead of animal food." Subsequent in- 
formation shows that it is used in soups as or- 
dinary food, and it is also used as a dye. The 
exports during the past ten years have grown 
from £1927 to £18,939, but the increase has not 
been uniform. 

Nurserymen's Association. 

As stated in last week's Rural, there was an 
organization of a Pacific Coast Nurserymen's 
Association effected immediately after the last 
meeting of the State Horticultural Society in 
this city, June 26th. 

W. M. Williams, of Fresno, on calling the 
meeting to order, explained the object of the 
convention to be the formation of an organization 
for mutual protection. F. W. Willis was elect- 
ed temporary secretary. The chair appointed 
Messrs. Rock, Williamson and Pepper a corn- 
mi tee on credentials. Messrs. Fox, Shinn and 
Eisen were appointed a committee on organiza- 
tion, and Messrs. Rock, Hammond and Cleve- 
land a committee on order of business. 

The convention then adjourned until 8 p. m., 
when it reassembled. It was then resolved 
that the existing officers be declared perma- 
nently elected. The Committee on Order of 
Business then reported and the report was 
adopted. The Committee on Credentials re- 
ported that only those nurserymen issuing cata- 
logues be admitted to membership, and recom- 
mended the following dealers, who were de- 
clared elected members: John Rock, of San 
Jose; Coates & Tool, Napa; W. M. Williams, 
Frenoo; W. H. Pepper, Petaluma; C. W. R;ed 
& Co., Sacramento; D. W. Lewis, Fresno; G. 
Toaetti, San Leandro; William Cjghlan, 
Mtrysville; A. T. Hatch, Suisun; James Shinn, 
Niles; R. D. Fox, San Jose; E. Gill, Oakland; 
Calitornia Nursery Company, Niles; Gubtav 
Eisen, Fresno; Isaac Collins, Haywards; A. 
Cleveland, Alameda; N. P. Harmon, Phienix; 
W. R. Strong & Co., Sacramento, and Thomas 
M herin, San Francisco. 

T rmanent organization on the report of the 
Organization Committee was urged by James 
Shinn, of Niles. He argued that as the nur- 
sery business is yearly becoming more impor- 
tant, such course was necessary. Other mem- 
bers urged corporation as the only means of se- 
curing satisfactory results, and it was finally 
resolved that the organization be permanent 
and should be styled "The Nurserymen's Asso- 
ciation of the Pacific Coast." 

The chair then appointed as a committee to 
draft a constitution and by-laws Messrs. Wil- 
liamson, Shinn, Rock, Coates and Lewis, and 
instructed the committee to report Saturday at 
the morning session. 


At the opening of the second day's session 
the Committee on Constitution and By-laws re- 

The constitution provides that the association 
shall embrace only nurserymen, florists and 
seedmen actively engaged in the propagation of 
stock. The object of the association shall be to 
promote the general interests of the members : 
First — In the cultivation of acquaintance. 
Second — In an interchange of ideas with others 
engaged in this avocation. Third — To aid in 
the protection of our patrons from fraudulent 
dealings and the injurious results arising there- 
from to the members of the association. Fourth 
— The exchange and sale of stock. 

The by-laws provide for the election of offi- 
cers, the appointment of an Executive Committee 
and general government of the association. An- 
nual meetings shall be held the last Friday in 
May; semi-annual meetings shall be called by 
the Executive Committee. Membership fee 
was fixed at $2.50. One section of the consti- 
tution occasioned considerable discussion when 
the question for adoption came up. It was the 
provision that an inventory of all the stock on 
hand should be supplied by each member to the 
secretary for general use of all members. The 
smaller nurserymen naturally objected to this 
rule, claiming that it might be injurious to their 
business. The section was finally adopted, as 
well as the entire constitution and by-laws as 

Election of Permanent Officers 

The election of permanent officers was pro 
cetded with and resulted as follows: President, 
James Shinn, of Niles; Vice-President, W. M. 
Williams, of Fresno; Secretary, R. D Fox, of 
San Jose; Treasurer, John Rock, of San Jose: 
Executive Committee — James Shinn (• x offijio), 
R. Williams, of Sacramento; Gustav Eisen, ol 

The following names were subscribed to the 
constitution and by-laws: James Shinn, Niles; 
W. R. Strong, Sacramento; W. M. William", 
Fresno; William Coghlan, Maryt-ville; W. H. 
tVpper, Petaluma; G. Tosetti, Sin Leandro; 
E QUI, Oakland; Coates & Tool, Napa; Adolph 
Cleveland, Alameda; W. P. Hammon, Pnoeuix, 
Or.; D. W. Davis, Fresno; Gustav Eisen, Fres- 
no; C. W. Reed & Co., Sacramento; Isaac Col- 
lins, Haywards; John Rock, San Jose; R. D. 
Fox, San Jose; California Nursery Co., Nile*. 

The association adjourned to meet the last 
Friday in August, after the session of the Hor- 
ticultural Society. 

A Grand Jersey. 

We are informed that the famous young 
Jersey bull ABhantee's Sultan 15573 has been 
purchased by Mr. William Niles, of Los An- 
geles, Cal. This specimen of the Jersey breed 
of cattle is greatly admired on account of his 
fine individuality, and especially because of his 
royal breeding on every line through his long 
line of rich ancestors noted for their records as 
butter producers. He was Bired by the famous 
bull King of Ashantee 6677, for which $5609 
was paid at auction, and $10,000 has been 
offered and refused for him since; a son of the 
world-renouned Coomassie 11874, the winner 
of the prize at the royal Bhows on the Island of 
Jersey for five years in succession, distancing 
all competitors, and her progeny have been 
great prize-winners in the show rings on the 
Island of Jersey; at the English royal shows; also 
the principal State Fairs in the United States. 
Coomassie and her grand-daughters and great- 
grand-danghters have so far made the greatest 
butter tests on record. Some 37 of Coomassie's 
descendants have produced from 14 pounds two 
and a half ounces of butter in seven days, as 
two-year-old heifers, to 39 pounds 12 ounces as 
matured cows; and in one instance her grand- 
daughter, Princess II, tested before a commit- 
tee, produced 46 pounds 12 ounces of butter in 
seven days. No family of Jerseys has done bet- 
ter as butter-producers and in the show ring 
than the Coomassies. Evidence of their actual 
commercial value has been legitimately shown 
in the auction ring, when within two years 100 
animals of the Coomassie family sold for $175,- 
425; an average (including some calves and old 
cowf) of $1754.25 each. 

Through his dam, Young Nightingale, Ashan- 
tee's Sultan 15573, is an inbred Sultan, 58, a 
noted sire and famous prize-winner, and com- 
bines the blood of the Sultan and Nightingale 
families. This blood united with the C >omas- 
sie blood makes a combination of good qualities 
hard to excel. In fact, on every line Ashantee's 
Sultan's pedigree shows his royal breeding. 

The Petals of the Buttercup have, as well 
known, peculiar varnish-like luster. The cause 
of this has been investigated by Dr. Mobius, 
who attributes it to a highly refractive yellow 
oil existing in the epidermic cells, increased by 
the fact that the layer of cells of the znesophv 1 
is densely filled with minute starch graius. 

Statistics of Bogus Butter. 

Mr. Henderson, of Iowa, made a speech od 
the artificial butter question the other day, 
which he withheld for revision and enlargement. 
It appears in the Record, and contains some 
statistics of the business which he did not stop 
to read when on the floor. According to him 
Kansas City turns out 6000 pounds of oleomar- 
garine daily; Chicago, 100,000 to 200,000 
pounds daily, according to different estimates. 
Of olen oil, or pure beef fat, 250 tierces a week 
are made in St. Louis for shipment to Rotter- 
dam; Kansas City makes 200, and Chicago from 
1200 to 1500 tierces weekly. Of butterine, St. 
Louis made 100,000 pounds in the winter, and 
Kansas City makes 6500 pounds a day. The 
Standard Butter Company of Boston made last 
year 148,814 pounds of oleo oil and 180,000 
pounds of artificial butter. The Providence 
Dairy Company of Rhode Island made 1,750,- 

000 pounds of butterine last year. Cincinnati 
made 766,000 pounds of butterine; Nathan & 
Co., of New York, made 2,000,000 pounds of 
butterine the same year. R ardon & Co., of 
Boston, made 2.740.000 pounds of oleomargarine 
and 1,158,000 pounds of oleo butter. The 
Woodlawn Dairy Company, of Pawtucket, R. 

1 , made 931,000 pounds of oleomargarine, and a 
Pittsburg concern makes 50,000 pounds weekly 
of oleo oil, mostly exported to Holland. Louis- 
ville last year made 100,000 pounds of butterine. 
The value of butter and cheese exported of late 
years has ranged from $10,000,000 in 1872 up 
to $16 000,000 in 1881. and then down to $10,- 
000,000 in 1885 and $6,000,000 for three-quarters 
of the current fiscal year. The value of imita- 
tion butter and oleo oil reported was $70,000 in 
1876, and it rose to $4,842,000 in 18S4. In 1885 
it was $4,451,000, and for nine month* of the 
current fiscal year it has bten $2,221,399. The 
imitation butter exports were a little more than 
2,000,000 pounds in 1883, and since that time 
they have rapidly fallen to 362 545 pounds for 
the three quarters of the current year. The ex- 
ports of oleo oil jumped from 19,000,000 pounds 
in 1882 to 37,000,000 pounds each in 1884 and 
18S5, and tell back to 19,000,000 for the three 
quarters of the current >ear. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
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scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
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please show the paper to other*. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be reoeired by any subscriber who 
ilocs not waut It, or beyond the time he intmcU to pay 
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quested to stop it, we shall positively demaud payment for 
the time it is sent. Look . tun i m at tux lajucl on 


JCLY 10, 1830.] 



Standard Sizes for Iron Axles. 

Our readers who use wagon gear — and they 
will comprise nearly all of our subscribers — 
will be interested in the following letter by R. 
G. Sneath, of Jersey Farm, which we copy 
from the Carriage Journal: 

The subject of iron or steel axles for wagons 
and carriages would appear anything but a 
live subject to write about, and yet they are 
the innocent cause of sad losses, tedious and ex 
pensive delays, untold b'.isphemy and infinite 
disgust, to the human family. The manufac- 
ture of these highly useful articles, under pres 
ent methods, is, no doubt, criminal, as their 
use sadly interferes with the progress of man 
kind. Webster defines crime as "a public 
wrong," "that which is condemned," etc., and 
I will try to show wherein the wrong lies, that 
it may be condemned. 

As near as I can learn, there are, perhaps, 40 
different sines of axles in their greatest diame- 
ter — say from \ inch up to 5 inches; then there 
is a variation in length of spindle in each size, 
of from \ to 3 inches, giving, say, 11 siz.-s in 
length to each size in diameter, or multiply 11 
by 40 and you have 440 siz:s simply by one 
maker. Now, estimating the number of mak- 
ers in the United States and elsewhere, who 
make our axles, at 100, we should multiply that 
number by 440, which makes 44,000 different 
sizes. I do this because I do not know of any 
two makers that make alike, in fact hardly two 
axles by the same maker are alike. 

Axle boxes not only vary in fitting axles but 
differ in thickness and taper; some 1\ inch 
boxes are § inch thick, while others are % inch. 
Some nuts are \ to § larger on the square end 
than others of the same sized axle, making from 
three to four different sized wrenches necessary, 
at times, for a patched-up wagon. In 1\ inch 
axles I have noticed a difference of \ inch in the 
taper, between the different makers, and also 
that it waB very difficult replacing lost nuts on 
account of the various sizes. 

In new axles, before the boxes are removed, 
it i8 quite essential to mark each arm and box 
in order to return them to their respective 
places; otherwise you may have trouble, as they 
are pretty sure not to be alike, and you may 
get your hind wheel in front. 

Extra boxes to fit closely, in case of repairs, 
are an accidental thing, and in order to be sure 
that they are not too Bmall, you are pretty sure 
to order them a size or two too large. The 
wobbling, however, of wheels thus fixed is 
neither pleasant nor profitable. Axles are not 
marked distinctly enough to prevent the wear 
and tear, dust and grease, from obliterating the 
maker's name and marks, and the correct meas- 
urement of such axles, when well worn by the 
farmer or teamster, is a matter of great uncer- 
tainty and notorious inaccuracy. 

Orders for either axles, boxes or nuts, from 
such a source, will ordinarily have to be dupli- 
cated before a fit is obtained, and should such 
OrderB come from the mountains, several hun- 
dred miles off, the damage by delay — even of a 
nut being lost — may run up into hundreds and 
thousands of dollars, especially when a large 
body of men and horses are waiting the arrival 
of some special thing in connection with ma- 

The principal reason of serious delays and 
loss in this respect is that nearly all orders on 
this coast must come to this city, as tbere is no 
stock to speak of carried elsewhere. The next 
is the difficulty of filling the order after its ar- 
rival here. Most of the wagons and carriages 
in use here are of all conceivable sizes and pat- 
terns and come from the Eastern States, and, 
notwithstanding the great wealth of the whole- 
sale dealers in these articles in this city they 
are not equal to the task of furnishing 44,000 
different kinds of axles and make the business 
pay. Consequently, the old axles and boxes 
mast be thrown away and new ones take their 
place, or the orders sent East to be filled, per- 
haps, by the maker, while the stock of axles 
here is dwindling down under this process to a 
point that is not even respectable, and in smaller 
towns hardly any stock is kept. 

Iron boxes that vary in thickness cause a 
short life to wheels, for, in replacing in one 
case, the hub must be cut to admit the larger 
box, and in the other the hub must be filled 
with something to enable the smaller box to 
stay in place, and in neither case can the farmer 
or teamster place the box centrally and securely. 

If the boxes were made uniform in inside and 
outside diameter, and of a standard pattern, 
upon the principle of a gun and its cartridge, 
exactly alike of a given size, then any person 
could replace a broken box without loss of time 
or money. 

It axles, boxes, nuts and wheels were inter- 
changeable like our government's arms, or the 
mowers, reapers and farming implements of 
the present day, then a few extras would ac- 
commodate a whole neighborhood of farmers. 
The village blacksmith and the country store 
could then be persuaded to keep extras, for 
there would be a profit in it. 

In a business I have myself, I employ about 
30 wagons. They were picked up from various 
sources and no two are alike. I soon fonnd 
myself in trouble in the matter of repairs, and 
1 then adopted one make of axles and one siz ■ 
for each department. Also one size of wheel 
and one width of tread (five feet to outside of 
tires), and one width for shafts and poles where 
attached to the wagons with springs, as well as 
one size and make of springs. I keep a few 
springs and axles and extra boxes and wheels, 

perhaps a dozen of the latter, so that in paint- 
ing and tire setting the wheels can be shifted. 
And now I have no delay from breaks, as about 
all my wagons are now up to standard sizes, 
through repairing. 

It may be of general interest to say that I 
receive about 12,000 pounds of milk daily from 
Jersey Farm Dairy. San Bruno, Cal., on thor- 
oughbrace wagons carrying 6000 pounds at a 
load, going five miles an hour, on axles 2£x'2£x 
12, making <i0 miles daily or 22,000 miles annu- 
ally, or 150,000 made in the last seven years by 
two wagons that are alternated for repairs. 
One of the wagons bad axles 2jx2jxllJ which 
were always grinding and heatiug, and needed 

011 continuously, notwithstanding any set or 
gather we gave it, and it was only used while 
repairing the other. But upon changing the 
axles to the size and taper of the other, it gave 
entire satisfaction. I estimate the life or duty 
of such an axle, loaded and cared for properly, 
at 50,000 miles; and of the tires, 1x3, at 5100 
miles. My experience favors a g-inch taper to 

12 inches in length, and in axles 1 \ to 2£ inches 
diameter; the length should be about five times 
the larger diameter, as giving the greatest 
strength and durability. 

I think it would be safe to say that on this 
coast, with two millions of people, there are 
at least 1000 stores and places where at least 10 
sets of axles with boxes and nuts would be 
kept, if the business was simplified by the 
adoption of a few standard sizes, that were uni- 
form and interchangeable. These axles being 
worth say $10 per set, would make the stock of 
10.000 axles, at $10, $100,000. The wholesale 
stores in this city, and other large towns in the 
interior, would perhaps carry 5000 axles more, 
which would figure $50,003, or $150,000 worth 
in all would be carried by the trade over and 
above what is now canied. 

Now, the whole United States having 30 
times the population we have, would, if the 
same ratio is preserved, carry four million five 
hundred thousand dollars worth in excess of 
present stock, or with extra boxes and nuts 
from five to six millions. 

I can remember the time when, to get a one- 
half inch or three eighth inch nut for a carriage was necessary to visit the blacksmith, as 
no two nuts or bolts were alike, and he would 
perhaps have to recut the bolt or make a new 
one, as his screw cutter was unlike anybody's 
else. But now I venture to say that there is 
not a farm, store or shop on the coast where a 
three eighth or one half inch bolt and nut could 
not be obtained, either new or second-hand, 
and so it should be with nuts for ordinary iron 
axles for farmers; they should be obtainable 

The enormous growth in the trade of those 
articles that are manufactured cheaply, on a 
grand scale, because of their uniformity, inter- 
changeability and general use, can be noted in 
carriage and machine bolts, guns, pistols and 
cartridges, clocks and watches, mowers, reapers, 
sewing machines and many other things. 

It is only a few years since every planing 
mill in this city had a different gauge for floor- 
ing, and if a builder obtained flooring from two 
yards his floors would be spoiled, as the tongue 
and grooves would rjot match. Now all are 

It seems remarkable to me that in this mod- 
ern age so large a number of respectable people 
should be engaged in a calling wherein the 
public are damaged to the extent of millions of 
dollars annually through unnecessary delays, 
while they themselves are ruining their own 
market for their goods to the extent of millions 
also, and without having an apparent knowl- 
edge of the fact. 

There should be a combined effort on the 
part of all manufacturers, dealers and users to 
concentrate this business to a few standard sizes 
that can be agreed upon by the dealers and 
makers; and hardwood dealers are particularly 
interested in the matter, as the enormous 
variety of wooden hubs they are now con- 
strained to keep makes their business unprofit- 

Wagon and carriage makers by adopting 
standard sizes for wheels, especially for those 
most largely in use, and keeping extra wheels 
on hand for sale, would, no doubt, find a large 
demand for wheels that are finished in iron and 
paint, for emergencies, as thousands are broken 
every month and people have not time to wait 
for weeks for the paint to dry on a repaired 

And why not agree at the same time for 
width of tread and tires and between standards 
of bolsters, size of king-bolts, distance from 
doubletree to axles, length of tongues, etc., so 
that the bodies, racks, breaks, bols .ers, tongues, 
etc., can be interchangeable. 

These reflections coma from 40 years of 
actual and active experience, and the figures I 
have given, as the probable result of a change, 
I candidly believe to be not far out of the way. 
I have mentioned this matter to several 
gentlemen, who have dealt- largely in wagon 
materials for many years, who have universally 
coincided with me in the belief that this whole 
business has become intolerable and should be 
remedied immediately; and that if half a dozen 
axle manufacturers, or leas, should take hold of 
the matter promptly and advertise thoroughly 
that their work was interchangeable there 
would be no difficulty in selling all they could 
make, rapidly, ac better prices even than 

Merit will tell; misfit spectacles will ruin 
your eyesight; judge by comparison, Muller's 
optical depot, 135 Montgomery St. x 

Tne Credit Foncier. 

The Credit Foncier of Sinaloa is a scheme for 
a co-operative colony, to be planted in Mexico 
near Topolobampo Bay. The projector of the 
enterprise is Albert K. Osven, of Chester, 
Penn., — a civil engineer, who has made ex- 
tended surveys for Mexican railroads and 
written much upon transcontinental short lines. 
He is of Quaker parentage and a strong prac- 
tical socialist. In a letter to Minister Romero, 
he says: "Our colony i8 a co-partnership of 
artisans, mechanics, inventors, farmers and 
other skilled persons, who are not necessarily 
'capitalists,' but we unite our 'money,' skill 
and talent to purchase a tract of land, to build 
houses, to lay out farms, to erect factories, to 
buy machinery and to operate the same — 
agreeing that each member of the co partner- 
ship, firm, company, corporation or colony will 
be directed and assisted to do that which he 
or she is most capable of doing and be paid in 
accordance with the quality and quantity of the 
work finished." 

His plan is to establish a hacienda of 150,000 
or 200,000 acres in the neighborhood of Topolo 
bampo Bay, (the Pacific terminus of the pro- 
posed American and Mexican Pacific Railway) 
and there not only raise grain and fruits, sugar 
and fiber plants, horses and mules, cattle, sheep 
and goats, poultry, etc., but also grind the 
wheat aud corn, make bread and crackers, can 
and dry the fruits, spin the wool and cotton, 
weave cloths and blankets, tan the hides, 
make the leather into shoes, saddles, etc. and 
trade in all their surplus products — in short 
"unite farm, factory, transportation and ex- 

"In the construction and management of 
these houses, workshops etc.," continues Mr. 
Owen, "we wish simply the same protection 
and rights enjoyed by the haciendas in the 
building and management of their villages, 
factories, etc. * * * to have a wholesome 
place where we can live and work, educate 
ourselves and be useful." 

Minister Romero, who bad already shown an 
interest in the scheme and conversed with Mr. 
Owen regarding it, in his reply refers to his 
government's desire to promote the immigration 
of worthy settlers and to the colonization laws, 
insuring liberal franchises, which have been 
lately enacted by Mexico; although he was un- 
able to say officially just how warm a welcome 
Sinaloa would give to a colony introducing so 
radical novelties, or what substantial and 
definite encouragements they might depend 
upon in the way of subsidies and contracts. 

A little weekly, edited by Marie and Ed- 
ward Howland, is published at Hammonton, 
N. J., to further integral co operation in gen- 
eral, and this enterprise in particular. A late 
issue informs us that of the proposed 15,000 
shares over 10,000 have been taken; that up to 
April 4th upwards of $330,000 has been prom- 
ised for deposit — not counting real esta e, &c, 
offered — and that the persons represented num- 
ber 2200. 

Inoculating Fruifc Trees. 

We had a call recently from Mr. W. M. Ed- 
gar, of lone, who wrote his "Cure for Curl 
Leaf " last May, He is a practical nurseryman 
and fruit-grower of many years' experience, and 
has lately devised a method of inoculating trees 
and vines with a certain preparation, which 
he claims will be taken up into their sap and 
prove the death of aphides, scales and borers. 
Mr. Edgar was just back from a 10-days' tour 
in Sacramento and Yolo counties, where he had 
been exemplifying his plan of treatment on 
orange, peach, apple and pear trees, vines and 
also roses, at Woodland, Winters and Putah 
Creek. The effects, he claims, are to be looked 
for in four to six weeks. He spoke of an old 
apple tree upon his own place which was fairly 
white with aphides when he took it in hand. 
In five weeks from that time every insect was 
gone — not a vestige of one left. Mr. Edgar is 
an old Californian and early subscribed for the 
Rural. He lived in Humboldt and Yolo be- 
fore settling in Amador; has worked hard and 
seen the ups and downs of life. He has been 
at lone four years, and now has a nursery ot 
about 8000 trees — apples and stone fruit — and 
50,000 rooted vines, includiug Tokay, Muscat, 
Rose of Peru, Isabella, Z nfandel and man\ 
other standard varieties. He feels confidem 
that his process of inoculating diseased tree- 
and vines (on which he has already filed a 
caveat) will be of great service to the horticul- 

Cheap Money for Farmers. 

Farmers in this State will be glad to learn that 
hey can borrow on mortgage any amount, from 
$5000 to $500,000, from S. D. IJovey, 330 Pine St. 
San Francisco, at 6 to 7 per cent and taxes. ** 



Cures all Diseases originating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD or 
LIVER. Rheumatism, Neuralgia, 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula, 
Tumors, Salt Rheum and Mercurial 
Pains readily yield to its purifying 
properties. It leaves the Blood pure, 
the Liver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 
J. R. CATES & CO. Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St. San Francisco 
—THE — 



10 TONS BOXCAR 5«00. 



Fruit Drier on Exhibition. 

One of the Meeker Sun Fruit Drien, with all the latest 
improvements suggested by the experience of last season, 
is now on exhibition at the factory, 6th and Bryant 
streets, on and after Monday, Jan. 25r.h. 

As now arranged we consider it much the mist per- 
fect and economical of any of the various driers to which 
the attention of fruit-Krowers has been called. Its vari- 
ous productions are the perfection of purity and excel- 
lence, and at the same time the moet economical in cost 
of production. Fruit-growers are invited to ex mine aud 
test the drier and the fruit prepared in it. Those using 
this drier last season realized handsome profits on their 

Puts 10 Tons in a Box Car. 
Bales from 10 to 15 tons per day. 

Any young man can earn more on an invest- 
ment of $600 in this press than can be earned 
in expending $2000 for any other machine. 

Sold on Easy Payments. Address 








Send for Catalogue. 


At Sacramento, Sept, 6th to 18th. 


The Attention of the Farming Community 

of this Slate is particularly called to the Liberal 
Awards, and advantages offered for 


The importance of an exhibit made by separate coun- 
ties, showing the productive qualities of the various sec- 
tions of our State, has become more apparent each year 
since the s\stem was inaugurated by this Board. Recog- 
nizing the interest made manifest in the past by both 
tl e public and the exhibitors, through whose energy and 
enterprise valuable agricultural lands have been brought 
to the notice of the world, and counties with small popu- 
lations have increased in a manifold degree, by reason of 
the producer having come forward with hi* products that 
were of siich quality as to enable him to meet all com- 
petitors, the Board have deemed it proper to increase 
the premiums in this Department, and to that end have 
appropriated $2000 to bedistributed among th ■ various 
counties making displays under the following provisions: 

To those who may have charge of the exhibits, we 
would call their attention to the fact that these awards 
will be made for the most extensive, perfect, and 
varied exhibit of Farm Products (exclusive of 
live stock) exhibited as a County Production. 
Thus it will be seen that it is to be wholly devoted to 
the products of the farms located in the county where 
the exhibit is made from, and does not include manu- 
facture 1 goods of any kind or character except those 
grown and raised in the county from whence the display 

For the best display, as per explanation 
above. First premium of $500, cash. The 
remaining exhibits shall receive premiums in pro- 
pnn.i 'D to their excellence, as compared with that re- 
ceiving the First Premium. Competition to be between 
■ ounties only. That is to say, that the entire exhibit 
made by one coimtvmust compete against the entire 
exiiibit of another county The premium awarded to 
each county exhibit will be paid to the committee in 
charge of said i xhibit. 

The state Board of Agriculture earnestly desires the 
hearty co-operation of the various subordinate Granges 
throughout the State, in making this exhibition of Cali- 
fornia's product" a success, whereby the varied products 
of different localities may be fully shown Wo would 
ask the appointment of a committee from the Orange in 
each county to call upon and urge the patrons to make a 
display representing their respective counties. 

h ddrcss the Secretary at Sacramento for Premium Lists 
and other information. 

JESSE D. CARR, President. 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Sacramento. 


The German Savings and Loan 

For the hal' year ending June 30, 1886, the Board of 
Directors of The German Savings aud Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of four and thirty-two 
one-hundrtdths (4 3:2-100) per cent per annum on term 
deposits and three and sixty one-huiidredths (3 60-100) 
per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, payable on and 
after the 1st day of July, 1886. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 



[Jdly 10, 1886 



The next term of th ; s well known Institution will 
commence on 

Wednesday August 4, 1886. 

For Circulars givi< g particulars, address 

Mills Seminary P. O., Ahmed* Co., Cal. 


A Sulkct School for Yoi-xo La dips. — The next ses- 
sion will beuin Monday, August 2,1898. Knr catalogue 
or information address the Principal, Knv. Edward B. 
Church, A. M . 1036 Valencia St , San Francisco, Cal. 


San Francisco. Cal. 



Young Ladies and Children, 

1222 Pine St., San Francisco. 

Thorough training in practical studies and accomplish- 
ments, and p'easant surroundirgs, are the principal ad- 
vantages offered. 

Fall Term Opens Ju'y 28, 1886. 

For Catalogues an 1 particulars, apply to MRS. S. B. 

Rrherrnces — Kt. Kev. \V. I. Kip, Bishop of California; 
Rev. C. O. Tillotson. Santa Cruz; Hon. C. H Hartson, 
Napa; John I> Yost, San Francisco; F. A. llihn. Santa 
Cruz; E. J. Wilson, Vallejo; Capt. A. U. Wood, San Fran- 
cisco; Eugene Sherwood, San Francisco. 

Field Seminary for Young Ladies, 

1825 Telegraph Avenue, 
Oakland, California. 

Address MRS. R. O. KNOX. Proprietor, or MISS 
FRANCES A. DEAN, Principal. 

Tub FIFTEENTH YEAR will beois 
Wednesday July 28, 1886 


Boarding and Day School, 

1625 Telegraph Ave., 

Oakland, Cal. 

Mrs. Hbrmon Pkrrv, Miss Km M. Filler, 


Next Term will begin Monday, Aug. 2, '86 



1020 OAK ST.. - - OAKLAND, 

WEDNESDAY, JDLY 28th, 1886. 

W. E. Chambbrlaih. Jb 




Fall Session Will Open July 28, 1886. 

Faculty Consists of 12 Members. 


Classical, Philosophical, and Scientific Courses leading to 
the degiees of A. B., B. Ph., and B. S. 

Preparatory Department Course in Music, 
Art, and Elocution. 

of tenhers of experience and ability, chosen with 
special fell rence to their work. 

The Commercial Department is well provided with 
fac litics for acquiring a Tiioroi oii Practical BrsiNRss 


Delightful climate, pleasant surroundings, with home 
on grounds where pa'cnts may know Hi it their a ns and 
daughters are carefully guarded, and un ei the direct 
bui ervision of tt e faculty. 

For Catalogue or information, address 

A. E. LASH!- R, President. 



REV. H. E. JEWETT, M. A, - Principal. 

SI.YTF.ENTH SCHOOL YEAR begins Tuesday morning, 
July 27th, 1SS6. Boarding and Day Scholars received. 
Send for Catalogue. 

California Military Academy. Oakland. Cal. 

Special Feature— Commercial Department. Next Term 
begins July 19, 18S6. Send for circular. 

COL. W. II. O'BRIEN. Principal. 



First-Class Boarding School for Boys. 

Preparatory, Commercial, and Academic Classes. 

Preparatory Dcpirtment, $30 per school month. Com- 
mercial and Academic Department, $3;". per school month. 

Next Teim will begin Monday. August 
2, 1886. 



Alameda Co., Cal. 

A Preparatory School for Young Men and Boys. 
ijTNext Term will corunence on Monday, July 10, 


Healthful location, pleasant home, and thorough 
School. Send for circular. 

D. P. SACKETT, Principal. 

Returned to new building, former location, 320 Post 
street, where students have all the advantages of elegant 
balls, new furniture, first-class facilities, and a full corps 
of experienced teachers. 


Ladies admitted into all departments. Day and Even 
tag Sessions during the entire year. 

XyCall, or send for Circular to 


' Telegraph Institute 


Open dny and evening for fid 
both sexes. Expenses less CfX) y, VVS 
than oue-half the usual V W-L-T-filZ 
rates. Excellent board in 
private families from $«to $10 per month. Ad- 
ir^ss. for College Journal and Circulars, 
J. C. BAlNBRiDGE, Principal. Sto. kton, Cal. 



Monday • . • August 2, 1 886 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 




PRESS No. 1 $270 00 

PRESS No. 2 300 00 

The No. 1 Press makes a bale 16x18 inches, vari- 
able length, and presses 8 or 10 tons a day. The 
No. 2 Press makes a bale 18x22 inches, variable 
length, and will bale from 10 to 14 tons a day. 

Write lor Circular. I am Accra for tliis Press, 


iiita Sixth Street, Han Francisco. 


El Ca.ios, Cal., August I, 1S85. 
We have pressed 4O0 tons with our Whitman Hay Press. 
We have pressed from 8 to 14 tons a day: in grass hay, from 
8 to lO tons per day with ease; we have pres'ed in train hav, 
8 tons in G hours. In grain l ay, hales run frc in 180 to 24 
pounds; In gran Bay, 188 to I 90. We have pressed 190 
pounds with 1 O feeds, which the * ' ' Prrss cannot do, as 
their feed box is smaller. Our biles are mu ;h smoother and 
more lightly than those made in the * ' • Press. We 
have averaged 15 toi.s a day in wild oat hav. 


These are unquestionably the BEST MADK and 
FASTEST Perpetual Presses, and are guaranteed 
superior to all others. 



ACME" WHEELED The Z. O. 50 P. C. 

Willi RidiDg 


As shown above, with two rakes 
like th s, $175. The cheapest 
stacking outfit. Will sta> k, 
from sn atli.4 > or SO tons perday. 






Proprietor ami Manufacturer 

buying another. 

Office, 012 J St. P. O. Be 





(Successors to HOWE & HALL) 







Nos. 408 and 410 DAVIS STREET, 

Between Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 


24 Post St. S. F 

Send for Circular 

The only secure-locking device to keep sewer gas entirely 

away from dwelling houses. 
JOSEPH BUDDE, Manufacturer, 43 Fremont Street, 
itS" All kinds of Water Closets, Slop and Waste Hoppers 
always on band. Write for information 

DBS. E. H. and GEO. C. PARDEE, 



Corner Clay, 

626 Montgomery Street, 

S n Francisco 

£>:30 A. m. to .1:30 P. m. 


Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, Asthma. Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbago, 
and Deafness. 

Everybody should have it. 
G. G. BURNETT, Ag't 

327 Montgomery 8t, S. F. 
Price, $1.00. Sold by all Drug 

gists. 4&*Call and see 

Of FicK— 426 Kearny St. 
San Francisco. 


Needhara's Red Clover Blos- 
soms and Extracts prepared from 
the blossoms, cure Cancer, Bait 
Rheum and all diseases arising 
from an impure state of the 
blood. It will also clear the 
complexion of all pimples, erup- 
tions, etc. Is a Buro cure for 
Coustipation, Files and many 
t ther diseases. Is both laxative 
and tonic. For full particulars, 
address W. C. NEEDHAM, Box 422, San Jose, Cal. Need- 
ham's Red Clover cutes after everything else fails. 

ft D A l| p p A practical treatise by T. A. Garry, 

J M A PI U L giving the results of long experi- 

V II n II U k enoe in Southern California. 196 

piii T 1 1 n r* P a - CM> bound. Sent post-paid 

1 1 Kt" at reduced price of 75 cts. per copy 

UULI U 1 1 U by DfclWEY & CO. , Publishers, S. F. 



Soli Aqknt, 

922 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


P R I V A T F Collector and Insurance Broker. 

i The undersigned respectfully offers 

Q£Y|ZQY|y£ his services in any of the above 

I ' capacities. ConeM ondenee so- 

licited. Address ". U. KICHAKDSON, car* "fraternal 

1 Record," No. 252 Market St., San Francisco, Cat 

JoLY 10, 1886.] 



Fruit Display for the G. A. R. at Sac- 

Preparations are under way for a grand dis- 
play of California fruit during the reception 
which the Sacramento people will tender to the 
delegates to the G. A. R. Encampment next 
month. The Sacramento Bee gives the follow- 
ing report of a recent meeting for arrangement 
of details of the event: 

A meeting of the Committee on Fruit Display 
on the occasion of the G. A. R. reception, was 
held last night at W. P. Coleman's office. 
Present: R. D. Stephens, Wm. Johnston, Jos. 
Routier, Robert Williamson, Sacramento; A. 
F. Abbott, Sutter county; K. H. Plate, Nato- 
ma; JL. W. Buck, Vacaville, and Captain Wein- 
stock, of General Committee. 

R. D. Stephens was elected chairman, and J. 
O. Coleman acted as secretary. 

A communication from A. T. Hatch, promis- 
ing his co-operation and a liberal donation of 
fruits, and making some valuable suggestions^ 
was read and placed on file. 

On motion, L. W. Buck, P. E. Piatt and 
Chairman R. D. Stephens were appointed an 
Executive Committee on Fruit Display. 

On motion, the secretary was instructed to 
furnish members of the committee with stencils 
for marking packages. 

On motion, each member of the General Com- 
mittee on Fruit Display will be a committee of 
one, and be instructed to canvass their respect- 
ive districts for contributions, and report at the 
next meeting. 

The General Committee on Fruit Display, as 
at present constituted, is as follows: R. D. 
Stephens, chairman; A. T. Hatch, Suisun; K. 
H. Plate, Natoma; Hon. Win. Johnston, Rich- 
land; P. E. Piatt, Sacramento; J. C. Boggs, 
Newcastle; Hon. J. Routier, Routier's Station; 
Hon. John Bidwell, Chico; Webster Treat, 
Divisville; R. B. Blowers, Woodland; Hon. L. 
W. Buck, Vacaville; Sol. Runyon, Courtland; 
Hon. Thomas E. Frazer, Placerville; Prof. E. 
W. Hilgard, Berkeley; A. F. Abbott, Sutter 
county; James Rutter and Isaac Lea, Florin; S. 
H. Kerr, Eik Grove; C. P. Wescott, Rocklin; A. 
C. Gray, W. G. Murphy and Wm. T. McLean, 
Marysville; A. F. Boardman, Auburn; W. D. 
West, Stockton; C. H. Smith, Vina; Will S. 
Green, Colusa; B. R. Hackdtt, Winters; George 
Parker, Vacaville; C. M. Price, Oroville. 

A general discussion was had as to the best 
means of making this feature of the proposed 
reception a grand success, and all agreed that 
the fruit display should and would be one 
creditable to the State. 

Adjourned until 1 P. M. on July 12th. 

A Few Recent Field Fires. 

At lone, last Saturday week, some workmen 
were engaged setting up headstones in the 
Catholic cemetery, when a pot of molten metal 
was accidentally overturned. The dry grass 
took fire and the names spread rapidly, but an 
alarm was sounded, and presently men, women 
and children were running to the fire with 
buckets and wet sacks. A full head of water 
was on, and hydrants being near at hand 
the fire was soon under control without much 
damage being done. 

On the 30th ult. four miles southeast of Ath- 
lone, 300 acres of grain, valued at $3000, were 
consumed. The fire was supposed to have been 
caused by a passing locomotive. No insurance 
A fire started near the railroad track east of 
Pomona, extended through a field of stubble 
and burned near Mr. Hill's haystack and house, 
each of which was saved only by hardest ex- 
ertions of the family and one or two neighbors, 
On the 1st a fire broke out at the threshing 
machine at work in a field on the Gabilan 
ranch, probably from a spark from the engine, 
and consumed about 200 acres of grain standing 
and in stack. The machine was not much 
damaged. There was no insurance. 

On the 2d a tire on Del Burge's ranch, near 
Waterloo, destroyed about 100 tons of hay, 
which was stacked near the house. The bouse 
was saved by some trees which stood between 
it and the haystack. 

On the ranch of Frank Tomb, near Marys- 
ville, $50 worth of fencing and some stubble 
were burnt. The grain sacks were saved by 
the strenuous efforts of two harvest hands 
Careless hunters caused the fire. 

Matches dropped in a stubble field on New 
belt's place, eight miles east of Marysville, 
caused a fire which consumed considerable 
stubble and a feed wagon and burned one horse 
to death. The fire was prevented from reach- 
ing the stacks and threshing outfit in the field 
by hard work of men in the vicinity. 

At Dixon a fire broke out in the stubble near 
the cemetery. Fortunately, a large number of 
men were near at hand and the flames were ex- 
tinguished before they had made much head- 
way. If the north wind had been blowing at 
the time, the destruciion of property might 
have been terrific. The fire doubtless owed its 
origin to the carelessness of some cigarette 

Beware of dropping sparks, hot ashes and 
cigar stubs.' 

Eastern Frnit Shipments. 

The second special fruit train was sent from 
Sacramento to the East on June 30th. It con- 
sisted of 15 cars sent by Strong & Co., E. T. 
Earl, Lyon & Curtis, and other members of 
the California Fruit Growers' Association. The 
early fruits are in rather small supply, and can- 
ners and fruit-shippers seem to be ready to pay 
such good prices that the Fruit Union is not 
yet sending train loads. 

The following letter concerning the sale of 
California fruit at the East was lately received 
at the office of the California Fruit Union in 
this city: 

Chicago, June 26, 1886.— A. T. Hatch, Pres. 
Fruit Union, San Francisco, Cat. Dear Sir : — 
Inclosed we hand you duplicate account sales for 
various lots of fruit, for which we have forwarded ac- 
count sales and New York draft to the various par- 
ties. We trust sales will be found correct and 
satisfactory. There are no particular changes to note 
in our market except that we are getting a little bet- 
ter prices to-day for apricots; are selling at from $1.- 
10 to $1.25 and $1.50, and hope first of the week to 
get them up to $1.50 and $1.75. Peaches are selling 
here at from $2.00 to $2.25; we think we will be able 
to get even higher prices the coming week. Plums 
are selling at $2.00 to $2.25 and occasionally at $2.- 
50. We are in receipt of a letter to-day, forwarded 
to us by one of our California friends, in which a 
certain party tried to figure out the way the grower 
is getting left by consigning apricots to Chicago to 
be sold at $1.00 a box. We have soid apricots at 
$1.00 a case, but we had to do it to meet competition; 
the bulk of our sales will be found considerably 
above $1.00. We think the sales we have forwarded 
to the growers up to the present time cannot fail to 
be very satisfactory to them. You can rest assured 
that we will leave no stone unturned that will ben- 
efit the California Fruit Union. Some of these par- 
ties have an idea that by dropping down the' prices 
in this and other eastern markets, they can make the 
fruit growers tired of sending fruit so they can buy it 
for almost nothing, but we think your fruit growers 
will not be taken in by any such chaff. The parties we 
speak of sold plums here at $1.25 to $1.50 per half 
crate, when we were selling at $2.00 to $2.25, and in 
some instances at $2.50; they sold peaches at $1.00 
to $1.50, when we had no trouble in getting $2.00. 
We can at all times get higher prices for stock than 
any other house in this country; we have the trade; 
people know when they get goods from us that they 
get just the fruit we represent it to be; for that 
reason they favor us with their orders. We have no 
doubt but that all the growers will be more than 
satisfied with the results of their shipments when 
they receive sales. Sales will go forward as prompt- 
ly as they can be closed out. You understand that 
it is a difficult matter to make shipments to these 
eastern cities and get account sales back in a day or 
two; it takes a little time to close the goods out. 
Just as fast as sales are forwarded to us we will for- 
ward New York draft and account sales to the grow- 

Shall be pleased to hear from you soon, and will 
give your favors prompt and careful attention. 
Yours very truly, 

Porter Bros. Company. 


[Furnished (or publication In this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. S. A. 


Red Bluff. 


S. Francisco. 

Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 













| Rain 



I Weal 









1 Weat 

June 31-July 7. 




her. . | 































































s w 







































































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A Delicious Table Fig. 

Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Anderson, Shasta 
county, brings us a sample of a very fine fig, 
which is considered by experts to be different 
from other figs grown in this State. It is a 
medium-sized fig of a delicate yellowish-green 
color, very tender, thin skin, sweet and of good 
flavor. Mr. Frisbie has had this variety for 
many years, and before going to Shasta county 
he grew it on his ranch near Vallejo Junction, 
in Napa county. In 1858 he ordered a lot of 
fruit trees from the Eastern States and from 
Europe, and is not sure whence this fig came. 
One feature of its growth is that the figs become 
nearly half grown before the foliage puts out. 
The fig has been cherished by Mr. Frisbie and 
his family as a very tine fruit, and their guests 
who had traveled in various parts of the world 
pronounced it the best fig they had eaten; but 
it was only recently that they concluded that it 
was a different variety from those grown by the 
fig-growers of California. Mr. Pettigrove, of 
Anderson, has dried some of them for Mr. 
Blowers and others, and reports that they dry 
well, and the skin, which, as we have said, is 
thin, becomes beautifully translucent. Mr. 
Blowers considers it a different variety from 
any other in the State. Being thus thoroughly 
convinced of its desirability, Mr. Frisbie has 
made arrangements to have trees grown to meet 
any demand for it which may arise. We con- 
sider the fruit well worth the attention of fig- 

A. T. Dewey and family have just returned 
from a three weeks' season of delightful rest and 
recreation at Crystal Springs, near St. Helena. 
No section of the State affords more beautiful 
scenery or attractive drives for pleasure. The 
faithful managers of the Rural Health Retreat 
and many generous-hearted friends met in their 
pleasant homes in and around St. Helena will 
long be held in kindly remembrance by their re- 
cent visitors. 

He dropped a cigarette by the wayside and 
the loss was $25,000 in the burning of Dorsey's 
wheat field. In lighting a pipe the match fell 
on the grass and over 1000 acres of wheat on 
the West Side was consumed last Saturday and 
Sunday. Is it not about time that there was 
some law to make smoking and using matches 
on the public highway a misdemeanor? — Mo- 
desto Herald, 

Explanation.— CL for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard time), with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents in Dswby & 
Co. 's Patent Office Library, 252 Market St., S. F. 


344,563. — Belting — J. D. Channell, Nevada 
City, Cal. 

344.519. — Settler — Clayton & Mackie, Salt Lake 
City, U. T. 

344.520. — Concentrator — Clayton & Mackie, 
Salt Lake City, U. T. 

344,357.— Mechanical Movement — S. De- 
visme, Los Angeles. 

344,370. — Whistlk, Match Safe and Cigar 
Cutter — A. Greth, S. F. 

344,373. — Sign — H. L. & W. L. Harris, S. F. 

344,654.— Gas Regulator— H. L. & W. L. 
Harris, S. F. 

344,532.— Electric Light Reflector— W. A. 
Jones, S. F. 

344,538. — Lamp Filler — J. M. McFarland, Vir- 
ginia City, Nev. 

344,456. — Bridle Blind and Loop— H. J. 
Noyes, S. F. 

344,401.— Car Axle Box— J. Petithomme, Sac. 
344,682.— Animal Exterminator — M. Scholl, 
S. F. 

344,689. — Carriage Gear — Edward Squires, 
Beaverton, Oregon. 

344,466. — Knitted Stocking — Frank Wil- 
comb, S. F. 

16,758. — Design, Bridle Bit — W. Davis, S. F. 
16,762. — Design Metal Ingot — F. B. Mor- 
row, S. F. 

How to Prevent Green Slime in Tanks. — 
Some one asks how to prevent green slime from 
collecting on inside walls of a water tank. My 
tank for several years was troubled the same 
way and had to be frequently cleaned, and at 
length I chanced upon what seems, after two 
years, to be the remedy. It is forcing air 
through the water. At first the feed-pipe to 
the tank discharged upon the surface of the 
water and there was very little disturbance. 
Then the pipe was changed so as to enter the 
tank at the bottom, and as the windmill is on 
slightly higher ground than the tank, the forc- 
ing in of the water by the pump carries with it 
a large amount of air, so that when the tank is 
tilled it boils and bubbles at a great rate. Since 
that time the tank has been perfectly free from 
slime, and after two years has not required to 
be cleaned even once, and a colony of brook 
fish have kept it free from " wigglers " of all 
sorts, and seem to have made fair growth, 
though fed very unfrequently. — Country Gen- 

Lowell Wagons and Buggies. — Readers 
must have noticed the attractive full-page ad- 
vertisement of the Lowell Manufacturing Co.'s 
wagons and buggies in last week's Rural. The 
establishment is a new one and should be given 
a trial. As stated in the advertisement, there is 
a full descriptive catalogue issued which can be 
had by addressing Lowell Manufacturing Com- 
pany, corner San Pablo avenue and Peralta 
street, Oakland, Cal. 



Horton & Kennedy's Enterprise windmills (ad- 
vertised elsewhere in this paper) have been in use on 
the Pacific Coast 16 years. They are perfect regula- 
tors, and have given entire satisfaction — many of the 
oldest (still in use) having cost little or nothing for 
repairs. Parties desiring the old reliable Enterprise 
mill, with all the latest improvements and at prices 
lower than ever before, will do well to address 
Horton & Kennedy, Livermore, Cal., or Jas. Lin- 
forth, 116 Front St., S. F. 

Take a Receipt. 

Always take a receipt from a newspaper agent. Not 
•imply because a few out of many are tricky or careless, 
but because accidents will aometinies happen to the beat 
of buainesti men. It is a favor due to the publisher that 
e^ery subscriber shall take a receipt from the agent, or 
clerk whom they pay. All our receipts have a corres- 
ponding stub which agents are accountable for and are 
required to return. 

Swift Steamer. — Efforts have recently been 
made in Europe to invent small steam craft ca- 
pable of being propelled at almost express rail- 
way train speed. A small vessel for service in 
the Adriatic is now being constructed by a 
Prague engineer, the speed of which will, it is 
alleged, equal that of a fast railway train. This 
result is expected from an improved screw and 
a novel method of construction, 


Probably all of our readers have occasion to u^e a 
dictionary every day. Id some cases words cannot 
he correctly spelled; in otiirrs, rbe pronunciation 
is difficult ; while in still other cases the meaning is 
not understood. This is tine, not only ot cniinrm 
and of the uneducated, but ol many of" the more in- 
telligent as well ; and eVcfy one who miempts lodo 
without Webster's Practical Dictionary attempts to 
do without one-halt of his opportunities tor intel- 
lectual improvement. 

Webster's Practical ts an entire! v new work ^y 
the editors and publishers ot Webster's Unabridged 
and contains more than twice the amount of matter 
and illustrations ever before offered for the price. 


0- q 


1, enri ; 2, forelock ; 3, foro* 
head ; 4, evo ; 5, eye-pits ; ti, 
nose , 7, nostril ; 6. point of 
nose i 9, lips ; 10, nether jaw ; 
11, cheek . 12, poll , 13, mane; 
14, wif horn ; 15, parotid. 
,-■>:,'. , 16, tbro&t ; IT, neck . 
13, iujnilar i bid : 19, shoul- 
der [ lift, chest ; 21, whs ; 22, 
back ; S3, luins ; 24, hip ; 2o, 

81, le; 
; 34, en 

bono ; 35, armt ; ' 
37. p&as&ge f< 
33, elbow ; 30, s ruins; ; tu, I 
let ; 41, pasterns ; 42. c 
Dot -, 43, loot J 44, boot | 

p 3 

p s 
— j 

It also embodies several en* Ively new feature" 

which render it pre-eminent losii'-li a degree that 
for general reference in every household, H w ill uot 
pay to use even the best of the older works any 
more thau it would pay to Journey across the con- 
linent in a lumbering old stage-orach while Ihe 
numerous advantages of a lightning express are 
available. Those wishing to see sample pstgosani 
learn the particulars in regard to these n* \ 
features belore purchasing, should send their ui 
dress to S. S. WOOD, Sole Ag< in, „ 

134 M West 33d St.. W. V. 


Webster's Practical Dictionary will be sent 
postpaid as a present to any person who shall 
send one new subscriber for THIS PAPER, 
or for any subscription two years in advance. 


Who will pay one year in advance for this 
paper (while this notice appears), and 50 cents 
extra, we will send the Dictionary postpaid. 

For farther information ADDRESS THIS 
OFFICE, 252 Market St., S. F. 

Catching Fish by Machinery. — A Mr. Rob- 
ertson, of Stockton, Me., owns a patent on a 
machine for catching fish, and is having a num- 
ber of them made in Belfast. The implement 
consists of a frame on which is mounted a wind- 
lass which is geared to a strong spiral spring. 
The fish-line is wound on the windlass, and 
leads over a sheave at the end of an arm which 
extends out-board, and then to the water. The 
spring being wound up and the line ruu out, the 
machine is ready for operation. When the fish 
bites the pull on the line disengages the spring, 
and the fish, if he isn't stronger than the ma- 
chine, is pulled in. When the sinker reaches 
the end of the arm, a catch which has held the 
arm in place disengages, and the fish is thrown 
in-board, and landed on deck. The model 
works well on land, and the inventor claims 
that he has given it a practical trial in catching 
haddock in the bay, and that it works perfectly. 

Heat of the Gulf Stream. — It is well un- 
derstood that Great Britain and other parts of 
Northwestern Europe owe much to the warming 
influence of the Gulf Stream. The extent of 
the effect has been given in the calculations of 
Dr. James Croll, who has found that the 
amount of heat conveyed northward in the 
Atlantic by this stream is equivalent to 77, • 
479,650,000,000,000,000 foot pounds of energy 
per day, which is equal to all the heat received 
by 1,560,935 square miles at the equator, and 
more heat than conveyed by all the air currents. 
The heat of the Arctic Seas and North Atlantic 
would be dimiuished that much by the stoppage 
or diversion of the great ocean river. 

Salt for Corns. — It is said that if common 
salt is placed upon corns on the feet and al- 
lowed to remain there for two weeks, the 
troublesome pets will come away without pain, 



[Jdly 10, 1886 

breeders' directory. 

Six lines or less in this Directory at 50c per line per month. 


E. C CLA.PP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas, 
Plymouth Hocks and Silver Spangled Hamburg's. Fowls 
and Eggs. Ex. and P. 0. Money Order otliees, Pasadena. 

JAS T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of lhoroughbred Poultry Of the leading va- 
rieties. Send tor circular and price list. 

O. J. ALBEE, Santa flan, fal , bre< derof Langshans, 
Partridge Cochins, Pedigreed Scotch Collies, W. C. B. 
Polish, Wyandottes, B. Leghorns, B B. R. G. Bantams. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

Bale at all times of all the most and profitable 
varieties. Plea3C inclose stamp for new circular and 
price list to K. G. Head, Na).a, Cal. 

D H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

J. N LUND, Box 118, Oakland, Cal. Wyandottes, 
Langshans, L. Brabmas, P. Kocks, B. Leghorns, B. B. 
K. Game Bantams, T. Guineas, Hom g Antwerp Pigeons. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Gatos, Cal. Fancy Poultr y breede r 

AXFORD INCUBATOR— Best in the world; never 
beaten in competition; from $37 50 to $35.00. Pekin 
and Kouen Ducks; best iu the State; $7.50 per trio, or 
$2.00 each per uoz. Kggs, $3.00 per doz. For particu- 
lars address I. P. Clark, Maylield, Cal. , 

Cal. Send -J-cent stamp for Illustrated Catalogue. 

W. C DAMON, Napa, Wyandottes, W. and B. Leg- 
horns, P. Kocks, L. Brahmas, Pekin Ducks. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Laugshans, Plymouth Rocka, Light 
Brahmas, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and most 
profitable Land and Water Fowls. Publisher of the 
Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book and Guide. Price 
40 cents. Send 2-cent stamp for Illustrated Circular. 

Prop'r, Vlartinez, Cal., iiup'er and breeder of the finest 
strains Wjandottes, P. nocks, Langshans, Houdaus, 
Crevecoeurs, W. Leghorns, L. Brahmas, Bronze Turkeys. 


H. S. SARGENT, Stockton. Thoroughbred Jersey 
Cattle, and Poland-China Hogs f rom imported stock. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Uolstein Cattle. 

Full bloods and grades on hand and for sale. Address 
G. B. McNear, Secretary. 

PETER S AXE Si SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, cl 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for clroular. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. 0., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me 
rlno Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

C. registered, is owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 

R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

Estate of M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

GEO BEMENT, St SON, Redwood City. Ayrshire 
Cattle. Southdown Sheep, Berkshire and Essex Swine. 

SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sale. 


I. L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Snnora, Tuol- 
umne Co., Cal., breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. 
Pigs now ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 

WILLIAM NILES, LosAngeles.Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pltrs. Circulars free. 

JOHN RIDER, Saoramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the Amerioan Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkehires. 


Kerry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

EASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Lan-ling, C.U., importer ami 
breeder of Shropihire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 


That the public should know that for the past Fourteen Tear* our Sole Business has been, and now is 
iniportin ' (Over 100 Carloads) anil breeding improved Live Stock —Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires 
and Jerseys (or Aldernevs) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, ai.d at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, (SI., Oct. 22. 1SS4. PETKK SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. 


Heifers in Calf to such grand bulls as Nether- 
land Star, Clifden Prince (Holstoin) and Ashan- 
tee's Sultan (Jersey) for sale at reasonable prices. 


P0ULTRY-A11 Varieties. 


Los Angelee, Cal. 



l_ Proprietor. 



Clean ■MSB on Plymouth Rock Chicks at 
Great California Poultry Show at San Francisco, 
.Ian. 11th tol0th,lS¥6. The BfSt is the Cheap- 
est. Illustrated Catalogue seutfreeon applica- 
tion; worth $1 to any breeder of poultry. 
Send me your name on a Postal Card; 5000 
copies of Hue Illustrated Catalogue for free 


Milk Oil Sheep Dip 

the gf\e/\t REDUCTION in PRJQE, 
makes it the |M 0<5 T EQ0 N M I CAL 

in th ewor,ld. safe:, . sure:. 


S-/\ M iz. CABOT, sole man'fr.and 

patentee. 70 KILBY 5T. BOSTON, MAS 5. 


L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stookton.Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Ked Duroc 
»nit Berkshire Swine Hh/h irrade'I Ra,no for aal« 


J. D. ENAS, Napa Cal., breeds pure Italian (Queens. 
The best honey and wax extractor; manufacture* comb 
foundation, sections £ hive material; send for circulars. 


Packages, 25 cents. Makes 5 gallons of a delicious, 
sparkling and wholesome beverage. Sold by all drug- 
gists, or sent by mail on receipt o( 25 cents. C. K. 
11IKKS, 4S N. Delaware avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Using the Beuoit Corrugated Boilers. 


This Mill has been in use on this Coast for 5 years, 


Four years in succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 200 of them in use iu California, Nevada & Oregon. 

t~™_ / It is the most economical and durable Kend Mill in use. I am sole uoa> 

7 facturer of the Corrugated Holler Mill. The Mills are all ready to mount 

"' ou wagons. 

I thank the public for the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 





This is the Greatest Novelty ever 

offered, and a boon to Farmers. 
• Traces anil lloobletrres ilone n«»\ with. 
C»!Ur $.-1.5(1, 
l.iurs 2 
| I'.riilli's .t 

TRUMAN, ISHAM & HOOKER, San Francisco. 

If not Satisfactory, we pay ALL FREIGHT 

Are you using Welling- 
ton's I iiipi ovcd KgK Food 
for Poultry? Ir 50T, WHY 
, sor? Every Grocer, Druggist 
; urd Merchant Sells this Egg 
i Food. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Jorinson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Brancn Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety,520 Commercial St., S. F. 


$i_po ONLY ONE DOLLAR $100 

For One (juart Battle, making full half gallon of 

Dr. "Fisherman's Carbolized Alkaline Lotion 

The be^t remedy for Stable and Farm yet discovered. 
Each bottle guaranteed to give satisfaction or money 


Mr. Joel Merchant, of Ccttluma, says it is the finest 
remedy he has ever used. J. Morton & Co., 204 Battery 
St., S. F., say it iu superior to all ether remedies that 
they have med, and they cannot recommend it too 
highly. Write and ask them. 

LYNDE & HOUGH, Proprietors, 
1 16 California St., San Francisco. 

S. B. SWIFT, M. D, 


Late Veterinary Inspector of Cattle ior the Slate 
of Kentucky. 

Operative Surgery and Treatment of 
Chronic Lameness Specialties. 

JtiTOrdcrs may be left at the St. George Stables. 


Tklephonk No. 60'24. 
Rp.singNCK— 7S2 Harrison St., bet Third and Fourth. 

Houses \hd Q\jjle. 



On his Ranch at Vina, Tehama County, Cal. 
For prices and catalogue address 

Room 69, C. P. R. R. Building, 

Cor. 4th and Townsend Sts. , 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Kentucky Jacks and Jennets, 
Work Horses and Mules 


Some of the Stallions were imported from Europe, 
others from Illinois, and some young ones were bred in 
t'aliforn a from imported stock. The prices will be less 
than animals of equal value can be purchased else- 

Call at or address Patterson's Ranch, Hueneme, Ven- 
tura County, or Patterson's Ranch, Grayson, Stanislaus 
County, or for further information call on or address 
JAMES M. PATTERSON, No. 8 Davis St., San Francisco. 




Also Grades for sale iu lots to suit purchasers, at the 


Ash Folk, Arizona. 
W. H. WILLS CRAFT, Proprietor. 


Pure-Bred Southdowns, 

From the Cehbrated Sheep of Long John Wentworth, 
Chicago, III. Address 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. 


Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, - San Mateo Co., Cal. 


For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View. 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we inijiorted from England in 1880. Pigs from I in- 
ported Boar and Sow, $25 each; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, $11) to $20. Our Im|>orted Pigg are as 
nice Pigs ;<.s there arc in the State. Address 

I J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 

"Walnut Grove 


My herd consists of the best strains that con be found. 
Stock all recorded in A. P. 0. R. I have a fine lot of 
spring, summer and fall pigs, also a few choice yearling 
sows, for bale. Prices to suit the times. 

J. MELVIN, Davlsville, Cal. 


Berkshire?), olii and young, reentered , at farm en* 
prices. Jersey Bull, 5 months' old, solid faun, very 
large; also A. J. (J. C. Bull, fashionable strain. Inquire 
Koniu LiS. Merchants' Kxrhauve, San Francisco. 


Is shipped Snywmrc M nprrme on trial ng«in«t »U other 
ProMos, ptirrbaner to krri, tin* ntir- doing mn it ami best work 
for He trust BOS*/. GEO. Kit TEL St CO., Qui&oy, 111. 

male or female, with all the 
latest improvements, will be 
sold until furthernotice at the 
remarkably low price of $6. 
Call or address J. U. WIDBEK, 
Druggist. 701 Market SI, cor 
uer Third, San Francisco. 

Joly 10, 1886.] 




Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
mento, and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1885 
as the best machine made. 

It will hatch any kind of Eggs 
better than a Hen. 
Send Stamp for Illustrated Cir- 
cular to GEORGE B. BAYLEY, 
Manufacturer, 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal 

N. B. — A large line of Poultry 
Appliances, such as Wire Netting, 
Bone Mills, Chopping Machines, 
etc. , for sale at the lowest rates. 

The Pacific Coast Poulterers' 
Hand Book and Guide; price 40c. 

The Halsted 
Incubator Co. 

1011 Broadway, 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $20 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Poultry and Eggs. 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 

StfEEf \HQ StyEEpW^Sl). 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



Have taken the First 
Premiums at the State Fair 
for the last three years. 




£STOkdf.r8 promptly filled. Address 

FRANK BULLARD. Woodland, Cal. 



Bred from Importations from the leading registered 
Mocks of Vermont, offered at prices reduced to suit the 
times. The finest lot of Rams on the Pacific Coast 
Ewes in lots to suit. E. W. WOOLSEY & SON. 

Fulton, Sonoma Co.. Cal. 





Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of interest 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY. Manager. A. M. BELT. Assistant Manager. 

CGUpissiop fflerchapls. 



by practical experience, found that the JUDSON POWDER especially, is the best adapted to REMOVE 

FROM 5 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 
roots clear out of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONE-HALF the cost of Grubbing. 

In most instances, Giant Powder, or any other "High Explosive," is too uick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong enough. 

iVFor particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BAN DM ANN, NIELSEN ft CO., General Agents 




Shipping and Commission 

San Francisco and New York. 

Receive consignments of Produce for sale in San Fran 
Cisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, England, Aus 
tralia, etc. Make advances on approved consignments, 
Fill orders for staple goods in New York and other mar 
kets. Effect fire and marine insurance in best offices. 
Charter vessels and engage freights for all trades. Agents 
for line clipper ships from Philadelphia, China, etc. All 
business has faithful and watchful attention. 


Price Reduced to 


™^ Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
In a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 
poisonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
lates the fleece, and greatly adds to the yolk. It destroys 
all vermin. It is efficaoious for almost every disease (in- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to, 


San Francisco. Cal. 


Bred by Mr. J. H. Sto- 
bridok. Sired by his Im- 
ported Vermont Registered 
Buck, and out of his prem- 
ium flock of breeding ewes. 


Haywards, Alameda Co.. Cal. 

Recommended by Professors Hilgard, Cooke, etc. 

Powdered Potash & Caustic Soda 

Makes a pure Soap at a cost of $1 per 125 lbs. .Send for 
directions to T. W. JACKSON & CO., 

304 California St., S. F. 

1886. 1887. 

Mission Rock Grain Dock and Warehouses, 


Regular Warehouse for S. F. Produce Exchange Call Board. 

Storage Capacity for 75,000 Tons of Grain. 


Freight paid, fire insurance and loans effected, and proceeds foi warded free of commissions. Money advanced 
at lowest rates on grain in warehouse, interest payable at end of loan. Storage season, ending Juno 1, 1887, at 
reduced rates. On all wheat shipped to Mission Rock by barges, freight rates guaranteed the same as to Port Costa. 
All applications for storage or other business addressed to CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent. 
OFFICE , 3X8 California St.. Room 3. 


Fruit and Vine Growers, 

Here is Something that Interests 
Everyone of You. 

Those who have purchased say they 
would not be without them 
at any price. 


Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyping 
done at the office ot thin.paper. 


JULY 8, 1884. 

every day it is in use. Used with any trace without change, or by adding a little supplementary trace we furnish 
Price of Singletree only $1 ; set Doubletrees, $4 ; Leathers, 50 cents per pair. 

Gr. Gr m WICKSON C*3 CO., 

38 California St., San Francisco. 


Mechanics' Institute Fair, 

Opens August 24th, Closes September 25th, 




PACIFIC COAST, including a magnificent collection of 
Oil and Water Color Paintings, Art Work, and Photog- 
raphv; MACHINERY in operation; a SPECIAL FLORAL 
EXHIBIT each week; the finest display of FRUITS, 
GRAINS, and VEGETABLES ever before presented to 
the people, and a Grand Instrumental Concert day and 

43TThe San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany and the South Pacific Coast Railroad Company, and 
the steamers under the management of Messrs. Goodall, 
Perkins & Co. will transport perishable articles consigned 
to the Mechanics' Institute Exhibition free of charge, 
and other articles at half rates. 

LIBERAL PREMIUMS of Gold, Silver and Bronze 
Medab, Diplomas and Cash, will be awarded. Members 
of the Institute entitled to SeaBOn Tickets at half rates. 

Prices of Admission— Double Season Ticket, ?5; Single 
Season Ticket, S3; Adult's Single Admission, 50 Cents; 
Children's Single Admission, 25 Cents. 

Full information given or sent on application to the 
Assistant Secretary, 31 Post St. 

W. P. Stout, Sec'y. 
J. H. Gilmore Sup't. 

P. B. Cornwall, Pres. 
J. H. Culver, Ass't Sec'y. 




Regular session begins Friday, October 1, 1S8C, and 
runs six months. For annual announcement, giving all 
particulars, address the Secretary, 

120 Twenty-Fifth St, - - Chicago, 111. 

""HE H. H. H. Horse Liniment puts 
■ new life into the Antiquated Horse I 
For the last 14 years the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for the 
cure of Sprains, Bruises, Stiff Joints, 
Spavins, Wmdgalls, Sore Shoulders, etc., 
and for Family Use is without an equal 
for Khenmatism, Neuralgia, Aches, Pains, 
Bruisps, Cuts and Sprains of all characters. 
The H. II. H. Liniment has many imita- 
tions, and we caution the Public to see 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
every Bottle before pnrchasing. For sale 
everywhere for 50 cents and $1.00 per 

For Sale Everywhere. 



F^ G 

Send for prices 
and Illustrated Cutalegue of 


O. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Game, 05, 66,67 California 
Market, s. F. 43TAU orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 





Wholesale Grocers 


305 and 307 FRONT ST., 
Bet. Sacramento and Commercial, San Francisco 
P. 0. Box 1940. 
<3TSpecial attention given to country traders. 1£S 



Commission Merchants 




Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. O. Box 1938. SAN FRANCISCO 





General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

aSTPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



Commission Merchants 


Hides, Pelts, Furs, and Tallow. 

360 TOWNSEND ST., S. F. 

^^Consignments Solicited and advances made on 

Geo. Morrow. [Established 1854.] Gko. P. Morrow. 




38 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 


240 Davis St. and 120 Washington St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants, 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 
consignments solicitbd. 324 Davis St., S. F 


Commission Merchants, 

404 and 406 Davis St , S. F. 
^ySpccial attention paid to shipping'. 


Commission Merchants, 

422 Front St., and 221, 223, 225 and 227 Washington St. 
Consignors receive the benefit of our large shipping trade. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments Solicited. 624 & 526 Sansome St., S. F, 


pACIFie FyjRAb fRESS. 

[July 10, 188C 

>3c(* Market Ref Q1T 

Note.— Our quotationsare for Wednesday, not Saturdaj 
■he date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco. July 7, 1886. 

The week's trade in staple produce has been small 
owing to the adjournment of exchanges from Friday 
to Tuesday. The prevailing topic of conversation 
is the lessened yield of wheat over large areas of 
the State, because of the hot winds. Some informa- 
tion upon this point is given elsewhere in this issue. 
It seems that the great wheat States of the West are 
also greatly reducing their yield from the too gener- 
ous estimates which were early made. A dispatch 
from Chicago, July 4th, says this week's Farmers 
Review, will have the following: Detailed reports 
from the spring wheat-growing States, together with 
actual results Iron winter wheat harvesting, indicate 
that the official estimates as to the probable total 
crop yield will not be realized. Actual injury to 
crop in Minnesota is already serious, while the aver- 
age reports Irom Dakota, Nebraska, Wisconsin and 
k>wa indicate that many sections have felt the blight 
and that the average yield has already been con- 
siderably lessened. 

Rains in Ohio, Indiana and portions of Illinois 
have delayed harvesting and caused some injury. In 
27 counties of Illinois which return reports as to 
actual results of the wheat harvest, the yield has 
varied widely from 5 to 18 bushels to the acre. The 
range of wheat yield is from 10 to 18 bushels. Re- 
ports from 11 counties of Minnesota indicate that 
the present wheat outlook does not promise to ex- 
ceed one-half to three-fourths of an average, where 
the full effects of drouth have been felt. In Fair- 
bault, Sherburn and Chippewa counties the outlook 
is declared to be unusually poor. Reports from 
Indiana show that the wheat harvest is of ex- 
cellent quality, though the field will fall short of an 
average crop. Need of rain (or all growing crops 
is indicated throughout Wisconsin. In Dakota the 
need of rain is again beginning to be felt throughout 
the entire Territory. In Hughes and Clay counties 
the drouth is ve-y severe. 

The latest by cable from abroad is as follows: 
Liverpool, July 7.— WHEAT — Firmer, and held 
higher. California spot lots. 6s 4d@6s 7d; off 
coast, 32s 6d; just shipped, 33s; nearly due, 32s 6d: 
cargoes off coast, hardening; on passage, firmer and 
held higher; Mark Lane Maize, steady; English 
country markets, firm; French, generally dearer; 
Wheat in Paris a turn dearer, and Flour dearer. 
Wheat and Flour on passage to U. K.., $2,425,000 
qrs.; quantity on passage to Continent, 670,000 qrs. 

Rapid. Advance in Wheat in Chicago. 

Chicago, July 7. — During the first hour on 
'Change there were some wild scenes in wheat puts. 
August opened at 82KC, and an avalanche of offer- 
ings were brought out, which broke values down a 
litile, but the shorts came out in force, and with al- 
most no stops August advanced to 83HC. The 
market was greatly excited. The rapid advance 
caused the suspension of John W. Rumsey, an old 
member of the board. The amount involved cannot 
be yet learned. There has been, within a week, a 
straight advance in wheat at 8c per bushel. 

Foreign Review. 

LONDON, July 5. — The Mark Lane Express in 
its review of the Eritish grain trade during the past 
week says; The brilliant and unbroken fine weather 
is opportune and is improving tlie surviving crops. 
If there is no rain the finest possible samples will be 
obtained. The trade still favors the buyers. The 
sales of English wheat during the week were 36,243 
quarters at 3 is, against 38,837 quarters at 3333d 
during the corresponding period of last year, i'lour 
has been depressed, especially American. Two car- 
goes of wheat have arrived, nine were sold, four were 
withdrawn and two remained. Trade forward is 
almost nominal. At to-day's market wheat and flour 
were quiet and unchanged. 

London Wool Sales. 

London, July 5. — The bidding at the wool sales 
to-day was animated with improved business. Sales 
areas follows: Victoria, 2700 bales; scoured, 9 l A 
d@is iod; greasy, 6d@is 2d; fleece, is@2s 6d. 
New South Wales, 4600 bales; scoured, 8j^d@iS9d; 
greasy, 5^@iiKd; fleece, nd@is 4i4d. South 
Australian, 1000 bales; scoured, 7 }4d@is 4d; greasy, 
6d@n !4d. Queensland, 400 bales; scoured, 2%d@ 
is sd; greasy, 754d@od. Tasmania, 1000 bales; 
greasy, 7Kd@is 2d. New Zealand; 3600 bales; 
scoured n J^d@is 4d; greasy, 6J^d@nd. 

English Wheat Markets. 

Liverpool, July 6.— Market dull. No business 
passing in cargoes. Indian shipments large, and 
unless we have bad weather our market will not re- 
spond to American markets for several months. 

Chicago Fruit Market. 
Chicago, July 6. — California Fruit Union: The 
weather with us is very hot. Apricots are selling 
from $1.65 to $1.75; plums, from $2.00 to $2 50 and 
what peaches arrive in good order at from $2.00 to 
$2.50, but many arrive in bad order. Figs arrive in 
such a condition that they are worthless; there is no 
demand whatever for them. Porter Bros. Co. 

New York Wheat Market. 

New York, July 4. — Wheat closed % cent off- 
July, 85 '4 cents; August, 86M; September, 86%; 
November, 88%; December, 89 % ; January, 907-3 ; 
February, 92S; May, 95^. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 4. — A good business is doing in 
available stocks, and sellers claim that they could in- 
crease the movement if wools were only here to offer. 
Supplies, however, come forward slowly. More 
manufacturers than usual are in the market, and 
every day seems to add to the value of attractive 
grades. Among sales were 3000 pounds spring 
California at 21 cents, 10,000 pounds Utah at 27 !4 
cents, 50,000 pounds Oregon at 20 to 21 cents, 50,- 
000 pounds Oregon at 23 cents. The tone of the 
Philadelphia market is very strong, and desirable 
new wools a-e promptly marketed at full and im- 
proving prices. Among sales were 115,000 pounds 
fine and medium Territory at 22 cents, 5000 pounds 
medium Territory at 23 cents, 10,000 pounds medium 

Territory at 22'< cents, 45,000 pounds medium Ter- 
ritory at 24 cents, 10,000 pounds medium Territory 
at 24K cents, 21,000 pounds low and medium Ter- 
ritory at 20 cents, 5000 pounds Nevada fine at 19 
i cents, and 125,000 pounds California on private 
terms. In the Boston market sales were heavy, and 
the increase in prices ranged from i to 2 cents. The 
tone of the market is very strong. 

Boston, July 6. — Wool firm; good demand. 
Ohio and Pennsylvania X fleeces, 32c; XX and XXX 
and above, 34@35c; Michigan X fleeces, 32c $ lb. 

New York Hop Market. 
New York, July 4. — All hands are on the fence 
awaiting the effect of the weather this week on 
crops. There is not enough demand to offer a good 
outlet for the slocks on hand. A sharp rise in 
prices is expected if there is no improvement in the 
crop before the 10th inst. Pacific coast crop of 1885, 
common to choice, 8 to 12 cents. 

Local Market. 

BAGS— The syndicate put on a bold face and say 
they can make bags worth 20c, but they don't want 
to. The reduced crop should counsel them to be 
moderate in their views. 

BARLEY — Barley is 2 He lower per ctl. for the 
best feed. There is enough feed Barley arriving, 
and there is not much interest in the trade. Old 
Barley is scarce and firm. 

BEANS — There is little change; bayos and pink 
beans are 10c higher. 

CORN — Corn is quiet and unchanged. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Full notes are given below. 

EGGS — Ordinary lots of ranch eggs have sold a 
little cheaper than last week, but fancy have sold 
h igher than quotations. 

FEED — Bran is unchanged. Cornmeal is $1 
cheaper per ton. Hay receipts have been small this 
week. The range is as follows; Alfalfa, $6@o; bar- 
ley, $6@8; oat, $7@9, wheat, 5o@i2 ij? ton; extra 
choice, do, $I3@I4. 

FRUIT — Full notes are given below. 

HOPS — The market is lull of interest and is dis- 
cussed in other columns of this issue. 

OATS — There is no change. 

ONIONS — Supplies are small and rates have ad- 

POTATOES— Potatoes have also advanced from 
10 to 20 cents per ctl. for the best sorts. 

POULTRY AND GAME— There is much differ- 
ence between ordinary and fancy lots, though all 
are higher than last week. Venison is again in 
market in fair supply. 

PROVISIONS — Trade is good, and Eastern ham 
prices have advanced. 

VEGETABLES — Descriptive notes are given 

WHEAT — The local market is firm and consider- 
able sales are being made. Today's sales on call 
were as follows: Buyer season— 200 tons, $1.31 l A \ 
300, $1.31^; 5°o. $i-3'^: 3°°. $ I -3'; 3°°. S 1 -3°% 
$ ctl. Buyer 1886 — 1700 tons, $1.28; 500, $1.27%; 
100, $1 27K ctl. Seller 1886 — 600 tons, $1.22; 
1400, $1.21%; 1900, $i.2iX; 3300, $1.21*4 $ ctl. 
Buyer season — 200 tons, $1.29%; 300, $1.30; 100, 
$i.z9X; 300, $1.29%. Buyer 1886 — 1000 tons, 
$l.2o%; 100, $1.27; 200, $i.26K. Seller 1886 — 500 
tons, $1.21; 100, $1.2074; 300, $1.20%; 400, $i.20$i; 
1000, $1.20}/.; 1200, $1.20^ ^ ctl. 

WOOL — There is a good demand, with no nota- 
ble change in values since last week. 


Market Information. 


Beef cattle, if choice and will cut up without wast- 
age, find a ready market at full prices. Butchers 
prefer paying % ct advance for a bullock that will 
cut up well, even though it be small-siwd, and when 
selling, cattlemen must alw ays take this into consider- 
ation. The offerings on the market continue mod- 
erate. Shipments of choice beeves to the East con- 
tinue to be reported, which emphasizes the impres- 
sion that our market will probably rule higher soon. 
Mutton and lambs are marked up under stronger 
holdings in the interior and light supplies near by to 
draw from. It is now claimed that our market will 
rule strong until drives are made from the summer 
pasturages. In cows there is nothing new to re- 
port. The horse market continues quiet, probably 
due to the holiday season. There is a continued in- 
quiry for general utility horses and also medium- 
sized work horses. 

The following are to-day's meat prices: Beef — 
Stall fed 6K@ 7c ^ lb; grass fed, extra, 6'/@6<4c; 
first quality, sK@6c; second, 5@5J4c; third, 4%@ 
4^c. Calves, small, 7 l A@S'Ac; larger, 6@6Kc 5? 
ft. Mutton — Ewes, 4'Ac ; wethers, 4@5C 
Lamb — Spring, 6@6^c $ ft>. Pork — Live hogs on 
foot, 4@4 He for both grain and dairy fed; 2jf@2>6c 
for soft; dressed, 6@7c for hard, and 4@sc for soft. 
Grass-fed stock sell on foot, gross weight, at one- 
half the price they fetch dressed; stall-fed, on foot, 
fetch one-third less than they sell at dressed. 


The market has shown more strength, owing to 
lessening offerings by outside holders. It is claimed 
that all of 9,000,000 bags have been sold this season. 
This includes sales from the pool and also from the 
outside. Well-informed parties say there are only 
5.000,000 bags not held by the pool, and when these 
are placed the price will be advanced. Outside 
holders are selling at 9 to 9 'A cts and the pool ad- 
heres to 10 cts. 

Advices from Colusa report grain bags being 
offered in that place at 8% cts by farmers who over- 


Crop advices continue to be of an unfavorable 
character. It is now conceded that the wheat crop 
on the west side of the San Joaquin will fall short 25 
per cent of estimates made the forepart of last month. 
Some claim that the shortage on previous estimates 
is all of 33 y 3 per cent. Harvest returns from Co- 
lusa, Yolo, Butte, Yuba and Sutter are confirmatory 
of the shortage reported in last week's Rural Press. 

Barley is not threshing out so heavily as was 

Owing to the past week having only two market 
days, not much can be said regarding prices here. 

Interior advices confirm current reports that an ad- 
vance is being paid for both wheat and barley over 
the bids made by buyers here. 

A large-sized vessel is loading for New York the 
barley mentioned in last week's issue. The grade is 
choice feed and brewing. 

European cables the past week report a strong- 
growing wheat market on the continent, owing to 
adverse crop reports in France and Germany. In 
England there is fine growing weather, but advices 
report it impossible for the crop to be an average. 

Eastern advices are confirmatory of a shortage of 
wheat on former estimates. It is now doubtful if 
the entire crop of the United States will go over 
400,000,000 bushels against an estimate the forepart 
of last May of 485,000,000 bushels. Corn crop ad- 
vices at the East are favorable. 

Farmers ought to guard against so-called sal<>s on 
call at the Produce Exchange, for it is claimed that 
the call board will be used to make producers sell 
when they should hold. 

Dairy Product. 

Choice grades of butter hold to strong prices, but 
fair to good is in oversupply, necessitating conces- 
sions, at times, to effect sales. It is feared that the 
price of packed butter will rule very low this winter, 
owing to the low prices ruling West for fresh butter 
and an increased quantity packed. 

Cheese is without change. The demand is slacker 
and stocks are beginning to accumulate more freely. 
Western advices report a falling market, with sur- 
plus in excess of the demand. 

Eggs are reported weaker, yet without change in 
prices. Very choice fresh-laid from well-known 
shippers fetch 27 to 28 cts. 

The market is well supplied with eastern and Salt 
Lake eggs, but owing to poor quality they are more 
or less neglected. 

The market for hens, roasters and turkey gob- 
blers has ruled exceedingly strong throughout the 
week. Some extra choice large, fat hens sold at $8 
to $9.50 a dozen, and large young roosters for roast- 
ting fetched on Friday last over $12 a dozen. Gob- 
blers sold at 20 cts, but they were choice. The gen- 
eral run of the poultry received was only fair to 
good, and did not fetch much more than was 
quoted in the daily press. Ducks have been hard to 
sell, as the Chinamen are too poor to indulge much 
in such luxuries. 


Potatoes have ruled steady at firm prices under 
moderate receipts and a good demand, Stocks are 
not allowed to accumulate. 

Onions ruled strong up to Saturday, when a 
weaker feeling was noticed, as the party buying for 
shipment East had his wants met. The market 
closed weak to-day. Green Peppers are in liberal 
supply at lower prices. They sell by the box. 

Green Okra is in better supply, with some diffi- 
culty met in getting over 20 cts a pound. 

Summer squash ruled steadier up to Tuesday and 
to-diy. when the market was weaker but no lower. 

Tomatoes are coming in very freely with lower 
prices ruling. Yesterday it was hard to get over 50 
cts a box, unless they were choice. 

Cucumbers have ruled weak and lower throughout 
the week. The pickle factories are buying the small 
sized, also peppers, small white onions and cauli- 

Green corn has come in liberally, yet the price for 
choice kept well up, owing to a good local and ship- 
ping demand up north. 


The market for apricots has been advancing each 
day under strong buying from canners. On Thurs- 
day, choice six-inch boxes sold at 80 cts, Friday 
85, Saturday 90, Tuesday $1, and the same to-day. 
The advance was due to strong competition owing 
to a leading firm in this city buying about 200 tons 
at Vacaville, which they sold to canners outside 
of this city. 

The first consignment of large (average weight 12 
pounds each) Ice Cream melons was received on last 
Saturday by Thurston & Hartson from F. M. Slater 
of Vacaville. The same firm received on Tuesday 
the first consignment of Sweet Water Grapes. One 
box was from D. Dutton of Vacaville, and two 
boxes from G. O. Mead of Winters. The melons 
sold at about 40 cents each, and the grapes at $1.25 
a box. 

The receipts of both pears and plums are increas- 
ing, and as canners are not in the market, prices are 
falling. The quality of the bulk received is im- 
proving but as yet is far from choice. Choice vari- 
eties find a ready market at from $1 to 1 1.50 a box. 
No Bartlett, except wind-fall, has been received. 
Currants have advanced steadily until $4 was 
reached yesterday for some very choice. The crop 
is lighter than thought, which coupled with the 
Eastern and increased canners' demand have kept 
prices from falling to as low prices as obtained last 

Peaches have come forward more liberally, causing 
lower prices. The more choice varieties, when in 
good condition, sold readily, but inferior were slow 
and hard to place. 

Apples have kept steady with choice Red Astra- 
cans selling at $1.50 to $1.75 a box, extra slightly 
higher. Early Harvest sold at from 90 cts to $1.25 
a box. Heavier receipts are looked for commencing 
with next week. The market closed strong to-day. 

Figs have been a drug at lower prices. Some 
had to be dumped on Thursday and again on 

The first nectarines of the season came in yester- 
day from P. Fischer, Vacaville. They sold at fi.75 
per box. 

Apples closed very strong to-day, but peaches, 
pears, plums and strawberries, weak and lower. 

Los Angeles oranges are weak and dull at from 
$1.50 to $1.75 per box; but lemons and limes are 
higher and strong. 


The tonnage-movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 

1886. 1885. 

On the way 327.398 213,861 

In port, disengaged 30,390 90,858 

In port, engaged 4i.4°9 19.288 

Totals 399. '97 Z^.o°7 

The above gives a carrying capacity as follows: 

1886, 638,704 short tons; 1885, 497,711 short tons. 

Increase over last year, 140,993. 
The hop market is very active, with higher prices 

bid. Some contracts were drawn the past week at 

15 and 17H cts for choice new of this year's pick- 
ing. It is reported that for something extta of this 
year's picking 20 cts was refused by a grower. De- 
liveries are to be made as soon as possible after 
picking. The demand for last year's picking is 
strong at higher prices. It is claimed that 12 H cts 
was paid for some that runs from good to choice. 
The cause of the advance was given in last week's 

Hams are selling at another advance of H ct per 

Hay is reported weak, but no lower. 


Owing to the past week being brcken by a two 
to three days' business vacation to allow the 
proper celebration of the Fourth, trading in wools 
has been lighter. Prices are fairly maintained under 
strong buying competition, particularly for medium 
to fine clips that are light and clean, and of fair 
length and storing staple. Both the European and 
Eastern markets are higher and active. Stocks are 
not allowed to accumulate with us. for buyers stand 
leady to take all desirable clips at full figures, even 
off grades find readier buyers. J. R. F. 

Sa/i Francisco, July 7, 1886. 

Domestic Produce. 


' 1 35 

1 75 
1 00 


) 10 @ 

Large White.. 

. 3 00 © 

Small White... 

. 1 65 

2 00 

Kid Peas, eye 1 50 

i oo <a 

. 1 25 

1 7 






Southern 3 (a 

Northern I <i 


California. 4 <a 

German 644 



Cal. treab roll, S>. 14 

do Fancy br'nds 1 I <t 

Pickle roll 20 

Firkin, new 15 

Eastern 10 


Cheese, Cal.. lb. . 6 
Eastern style... 8 

Cal.. ranch, doz.. 

do, •tor* 



Eastern, by ex.. 
Pickled hero.... 

Utah pjjjD 

Bran, ton 14 00 @14 50 

Cornmeal 24 00 025 00 

Hay 6 00 @14 00 

Middlings 16 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 

Straw, bale 30 

Extra, City Mills 3 75 4 25 
do Co'ntry Mills 3 60 4 10 

Superfine 2 75 3 25 


60 1 00 

I 1 CO 
1 10 


20 <a 


17 00 

26 50 

1 25 i 
1 00 i 
1 20 I 
1 20 I 

Barley, teed. ctl. 77 1' 
do Brewing.. 1 50 w; 

do new 87i0 

Chevalier 1 40 

do Coast... 1 10 


Corn, White 

Small Round. 1 1 

Nebraska 90 

Oats, choice 1 

do No. 1 1 25 

do No. 1 1 20 

do black.... 

do Oregon . 

Rye i 

Wheat, No. 1 

do No. 1 

Choloe milling 1 25 


Wet salted 


Beeswax, 8> 21 (8 

Honey in comb. 8 
Extracted, light. 318 
do dark. 3 

Oregon — 

California. 8 


Red 65 @ 

Silverskin, new.. 85 
Walnuts. 710 

do Chile. 7t0 
Almouds, hdsbi. 6 

Soft shell 10 

Brazil 11 

Pecans 10 

Wednesday. July 7, 1886. 

Peanuts 3 4' 

Filberts 130 14 


New ctl — @ — 

Burbunk — ft* 

Early Rose 

Cuffey Cove 

Jersey Blues... 

Petal uma. 


River reds 


do Kidney.... 


do Oregon... 


Salt Lake 

Sweet ctl — ■ 


Hens, doz 6 00 If* 7 00 

Roosters 5 00 8 9 00 

Broilers 2 50 « 5 00 

Ducks, tame.... 3 50 5 00 
do Mallard. ... — — 

do Sprig — — 

121 Oeese. pair 1 00 1 50 

do Goslings ... 1 00 @ 1 50 
7} Wild Gray, doz - Iff - 
12i White do... 

Turkeys, lb 

do Dressed.. 
tall and wing.. 
Snipe, Eng. , doz. - - — 
do Common.. — 

Quail <§ - 

Rabbits 1 00 S 1 26 

Hare - 

Venison <J 

Cal. Bacon. 
Heavy, t>.. 


Light 1 

Extra Light.. 1 


CaLSmokedBeef 1 

Hams, Cal 1 

do Eastern.. J 

1 60 


io <a 



1 22( 

1 10 
1 22( 



Clover red 







Millet, German.. 

do Common. 
Mustard, white.. 



Ky. Blue Grass.. 


2d quality 16 l 

15 16 




Sweet V. Grass 

Orchard. 20 

Bed Top U 



Meruit. . . 
Timothy . . 


Crude, lb 30 

ReAned 610 

upbinu— 1386 
Humboldt aud 
Mendocino . . . 
Sact'o valley. . . . 
Free Mountain. 
.N 'hern defective 
9 IS Joaquin short. 

— do long 

- Cata'v & FthH. 
12 'Oregon Eastern. 

121; do valley 22 6J 

121 Southern Coast. 14 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

WxDKKHDAr. July 7, 1886. 


Apples, box..... 50 1 

do red 1 00 @ 1 

Apricots, bx 85 W 1 

Bananas, bunch. 2 00 2 
Blackberries, cb. 6 00 8 
Cantt loupes, ea. 1710 

Cherries blk — 

do white — 

do Royal Ann.. — 
Cherry plums... 60 

Cranberries 7 00 »«10 

Currants chest... 3 50 @ 4 

Figs, bx 25 

Gooaebenies tb.. 1 

Grapes 1 00 1 

do EngliBb 2 @ 

Limes, Mex 9 00 9 

do Cal. box ... 25 
Lemons, Cal., bx 2 50 4 
do Sicily, box. 9 00 @10 
do Australian. — 
Nectarines, box. 1 75 
Orauges, Cal . I.i 2 00 2 
do Tahiti. M — 
do Mexican, M — 
do Panama... — 
Peaches, bx... 50 

do bask 55 

Crawfords, bx 1 25 1 
do bskt.. 1 00 1 

Pears bx 1 00 1 

do basket 40 

do Bartlett.bx 1 50 
do do bskt £0 

Jap, bx — 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 5 
Pomegranates, b — @ 

Plums lb 2 

Prunes bx — 

quinces bX — 

Raspberries cb. . 8 00 9 
Strawberries ch. 4 00 7 
Watermelons ea 37 

Apples, siloed, ft) 110 
do evaporated. 6 

do quartered.. 110 


00 do evaporated 

85 Blaokberriea.... 

00 [Citron 

50 (Dates. 

00 Figs, pressed.... 

20 Fltti, loose 

— Nectarines 

— Peaches 

— do pared. .... 
65 Pears, sliced.... 

00 do qrtd 

25 do evaporated 

50 Plums 

23 Plums pitted 

50 Prunes 

do French 

50 Raisins, Cal. bx 1 76 

50 Zante Currants. 8 i„ 

00 Artichokes, doz. 35 

— Asparagus box.. — 

— Beets, ctl 1 CO 

50 Cabbage, 100 lbs. 60 C 

~ Carrots, sk 

— Cauliflower, doz. 

— Celery, doz 

85 Cucumbers box. 

75 Eggplant, lb 

75 Garlic, ft) new.. 

25 Green Corn, sk. 
25 do. sweet doz. 

50 Green Peas, sk. 1 00 i 

— Lettuce, doz 10 i 

75 Mushrooms, bx. 1 00 I 

do cultivated. 16 

— Okra. dry, lb... — 
00 do gretn 10 

— Parsnips, ctl.... 1 50 j» — 
3 Peppers, dry lb. . 10 — 

— do green, bx.. 76 1 25 

— Rhubarb box... 50 76 
00 Squash, Marrow 

00 fat, too 15 00 020 00 

— do Summer bx 25 30 
Tomatoes box.. 1 25 A 1 50 

21 String beans.... 2 2J 
8 Turnips ctl 76 1 00 

I 1 25 


July 10, 1886] 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

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It is the chief medium for the dissemination of in- 
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Enlarged or Reduced. 

Also Photographing on Wood and 

Other Special Photo Work, 
including the reproduction and printing of photo- 
graphs for salesmen, stereopticon views, porfaits, 
scenery, natural specimens, etc. All promptly and 
reliably done by the most successful and best 
approved processes. Favorable rates guaranteed to 
transient customers, and all trade, professional and 
commercial firms. 

Send, as early as possible, with full description as 
practicable, of any work wanted, stating size and for 
what use plates are wanted. Photographs, and other 
prints similar to those desired, will aid us in making 
definite estimates. 

If requested we will send an assistant to give in- 
formation and make estimates in the city. 

Call and see specimens, or write for samples and 
prices and any further information wanted, to 

S. F. Photograving Co., 

659 Clay St., S. E. cor. Kearny, S. F. 








General Agents, 
309 & 311 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 


We have an arrangement by which we can furnish our 
readers with Stencil Plates for marking boxes, bales, and 
sacks of produce, at greatly reduced rates during the 
continuance of this notice in our columns. Address 

252 Market St.. S. F. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agenct 
presents many and important advantages as « 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects oj 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
taining official American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. > We transact every branch o; 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majovity of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 
No. 252 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 



We will furnish all who desire 
first-class (Imported) French Seed- 
ling stocks of 


For next season's planting, at the 
lowest possible rates. 

43TA11 orders should be sent in by August 1st to insure 
early shipments. Correspondence solicited. Address 

C. W. REED & CO., 
Box 101. , Sacramento, Cal. 



First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. 


GEORGE H. LEMMAN, Proprietor. 

Goods taken from the Dock and from the Cars ot the 
C. P. R. R. and S. P. R. R. Free of Charge. Storage at 
Current Rates. Advances and Insurance at Lowest 
Rates. Telephone No. 327. 4 

"The Great Carriage Firm" 



Finest Grades of Carriage Work, 


Specialties: Work to Order, and Henderson's Pat. Buckboard; 
also Agents Studebaker M'fg Co. Farm Wagons, Etc. 





[July 10, 1886 

hwk apd banking. 



Authorized Capital^ ■ • $1,000,000 

In 10.000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Keserved Fund and Paid up Stock, $21,1 78. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. O. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELL1ER Cashier and Manager 



A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H. J. LEWEI.LIXG Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Coun'y 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, hank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and* coun'ry produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 


Cashier ana Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 



CAPITAL $200,000 


ASSETS $1,931,000 

A. C. Henry, J. West Martin, G. J. Ainsworth, 

J. C. Ainsworth, S. Huff, R. S. Farrelly, 

R. W. Kirkham, A. A. Moore, D. Henshaw Ward. 

Hiram Tubbs, C. E. Palmer. 

West Martin, PreB. C. E. Palmer, V.-Pres. & Treas'r. 

I.VTEKEST allowed upon all deposits remaining 
three calendar months, beginning from the first of the 
month succeeding the date of deposit. 

Remittances from the country may be made by Express 
or Check ujion Banks iD San Francisco, and book will 
be returned. 

LOANS made only upon Mortgage of Real 
Estate and Bonds at current rates. 




Monarch Fence Machine, 


With one of these Machines a farmer can build his 
own fence cheaper and better than he can buy it, or 
make it by hand. TRY ONE. Send for Catiloguc. 


628 MarKet Street, San Franc isco 

Mechanics' Tools, 

Hardware, and Machinery. 

American Exchange Hotel, 


Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to be the 
most convenient as well as the most comfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in the city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Per Day, Accordino to Room. 

£JTHot and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to and from 
the Hotel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS , Proprietors. 


l 111 NEK Y furnishes pure w:iler. pays 
the affenl well, and the business if- pro- 
tected by patents. We make everv- 
tiniitf known and belonging to we'll 
sinkinir Are the largest w ui ks in the 
business. If interested, send 15 cents 
for mailing you our catalogue 
or 3tiO engravings. 
Advance Tur bine 
Wind Mills. Steam 
E n ir ines. Art, sian 
pumps. &c. The 

Anui li-HQ Well 
WorL a. A n rum, 

IN., D. s. A. 

A Good Opportunity for a Ma- 

A variety of good Tools, Patterns, etc., with business 
for sale cheap by a party retiring from business. A 
splendid opportunity for an enterprising mechanic. 

Address A. B. O. care Of thin o«r>er. 

Should consult 

California Inventors 

AND Forkion Patent SOLICITORS, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats. EfltaUithed in I860. Their loug experience as 
journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better service thaa 
they cau obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of infor- 
mation. Office of the Minino and Scientific Press and 
1" tODlO Kcral Press, No. 252 Market St., San Francisco, 
Klevator, 12 Front St. 







Has been subdivided into 20-acre lots with convenient ROADS AND DITCHES on the land' 
Situated 14 miles X. W. of SELMA (a fast-growing Railroad town 15 miles S. W. of 
Fresno and the second in the County) and 2 miles S. of Fowler, also a Railroad town. 


Vine, a;iid. 


Some of it being specially adapted to (Jardening. It has 


Having a main Canal 00 feet on the bottom, running through the land and all necessary main 
distributing ditches, making it a very desirable location for a Colony, as its 


Cannot be surpassed in the County. 




^"Correspondence solicited and lands shown free of charge. 

L. SHARPE. Selma, Cal., or 0. J. WOODWARD, Fresno, Cal. 

San Diego County] El Gajon Rancho! 

16,500 acres, known as the Jarvis Tract, situated 13 miles from San Diego, surrounded by 
high hills, protected from winds and fogs — the most equable climate in the world — rich soil and 
ovely surroundings. Will be offered as a whole or in subdivisions, from 10 acres upward, at 
prices according to desirability, from $10 to $75 per acre, part cash, balance on time. The 
wonderful Raisins and Olives grown in this valley command the admiration of every one. Water 
from 6 to 1*2 feet. No irrigation, and Fruit and Raisins cured by solar heat. All the Semi- 
Tropical Fruits raised to perfection. 

Also 1000 acres, the Smith Tract, adjoining, now in grain. 

G. W. FRINK, General Manager Pacific Coast Land Bnrean, 

618 Market St , opp. Palace Hotel, and 16 & 17 Post St., San Francisco. 


Riverside. California. 


San Diego, California. 



Grain Separator 

(Known as the Oregon Cleaner) 

Has proved itself to be the only 
Cleaner that Successfully Cleans 
the Grain from the 

Every Mill is Gitarantf.kd and it should be in- 
spected bv every intending buyer before purchas- 
ing elsewhere. 

I also build a Cleaner for Com- 
bined Harvesters. Fanning Mills and 
Warehouse Mills of larere capacity. 

For further particulars send for I lli'stratbd 


Successor to BEST & ALTHOUSE, 

513 Fifth Street. 

Oakland, Cal. 


Will Clean 1600 Bags 
of Wheat in a day. 

Manufactured by 

& SONS, 



Send for Illus- 
trated Circulars 
and Price Lists. 

Lapds for £ale apd Jo Let. 


40,000 ACRES 

Of good land in Fresno, near the County 8eat. 8ome of 
this land is already irrigated, and all can be easily irri- 
gated. It is adapted not only to grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1000 ACRES 

Of the above land for sale at the low price of per acre. 
Apply to 

402 Kearny St. San Francisco- 

50 ACRES. 

of the New City Hall; on main road to San Mateo, 
and well adapted to fine stock raising or dairy purposes. 
Ruilroad passes through the property. Commutation 
tickets to city only 6J cents rer trip. Price, (12,500. 
Terms, one-fifth cash, balance easy. Apply to 


8 New Montgomery St, S. F. 

$125 PER ACRE 

IN TRACTS TO SUIT; adjoining the site of the great 
Stanford University at Menlo Park; one hour from San 
Francisco, in Upp^r Santa Clara Valley; ono mile from 
station; fine climate; beautiful scenery; exoellcnt roads; 
title perfect; easy terms; first-class location for a home 
or an investment. 
lafAIaps and particulars of 

26 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 


5680 AcrCS of rolling adobe hills, 

situated in Tehama County. Well watered by numerous 
springs, etc. Several thousand acres suitable for culti- 
vation. Good two-story House, Barn and other out- 
buildings. Seven miles of fine wire fence. 

Cheapest tract of land in Tehama County. Price, 96.00 
per acre. Fair time and interest. Apply to 

R. E. ARMSTRONG, Cottonwood, Shasta Co., Cal. 
Or J. E. CBOOKS, Benlcia, Cal. 

N. B.— Upon proper notice, Mr. Armstrong will take 
intending purchasers from Cottonwood to the ranch and 
return, free. 

$500 to $50,000. 

and Grain Ranches in every County in the State. Send 
Stamp for Catalogue. We can find quick sale for your 
fat ui, large or small, if it is cheap and you will send us 
full description. If you want to buy, tell us what you 
want, and we can suit you. 

339 Kearny St., San Francisco. 


Permanently and Thoroughly Cured. 

New Jbri-salem, Ventura Co., Cal.. Apr. 16, 1SS6. 
For twenty-three years I had been afflicted with Stam- 
mering. After two months' instruction under Professor 
Whitehorn, So. 1 Fifth St., S. F., I cannot express my 
feelings of gra'itude for being relieved of my affliction. 
I now have full control over my articulation, and can 
ta'k well. I think there c»n be no method of treatment 
more perfect for the cure of impediments in speech than 
Prof. Whitchorn's, and earnestly request all Stammerers 
to avail themselves of his instructions. 

Harvey Waliiridob. 
All Impediments of Speech permanently and 
thoroughly cured. Highest Testimonials. 

No. 1 Fifth Street. San Francisco. 


The Eureka Improvrd Windmill, 

12-foot Size. Strong, Simple. Durable, 
Self-Regulating, Beautiful in appearance, 
Noiseless, Central Motion, Solid Wheel. 

-V<< little rods, wood screw* or spider legs to pet out of 
order. 8ave agent's commission by applying to the 
manufacturer and inventor. Pamphlets free, 

E. B. SAUNDEBS, San Jose, Cal. 



5th and K Streets, Sacramento, Cal. 

labgest stock i 

'lowest pbicesi 

^"Inquiries attended to. 

Orders promptly filled "W 


A. & J. HiHN, Prop'rs, 
Noi. 278, 276, 277 and 2 Main Street, Stocetoh, Cal. 
Rates, $1.85 to $3 Per Day. 
Stage offices for Collegeville and Oakdale, Roberts and 
Union Islands, and I u-e's Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit 
ted In the best style for the accommodation of the public 

Anobll's Liver Pills cure rheumatism and hoadaobs. 

Joly 10, 1886.] 



1,300 Engines now in use. 
40,000 Horse Power now running. 
Sales 2,000 H. P. per month. 

JSTSend (or stratcd Circular and Reference List. 


Sole Agents for Pacific Coast & Territories 
21 and 23 Fremont St.. San Francisco. 







Is recognized as 
tub Bust. 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
doublr bearings for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating. 

With no oo springs, or springs o any kind. No iltlli 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out o) 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years ir 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacifio Coast tradt 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear 
Ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, at 
Inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were givon for ours. Price! to suit th< 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 



San Francisco Agency— JAMES LINFORTB 
116 Front St.. San Francisco. 

R. A. SWAIN & CO., 

No. 16 Post Street, San Francisco 






They are constantly receiving the latest Novelties, and 
are offering goods at very low prices. 

Visitors are invited to look at our Stock, even M they 
are not prepared to purchase. 

and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 188S. Windmills from $6T>. Horse 
Powers from $50. F. W. KROGH & CO., 51 
Beale Street, San Francisco. 

I SON.niUoiigabj.O. 


to use the very best Butter 
Color ever made; one that 
never turns rancid, always 
gives a bright natural color, 
and will not color the butter- 
milk, ask for Wells, Rich- 
ardson & Co's., and take uo 
other. Sold everywhere. 


than of all other makes com- 
bined. Send for our valua- 
ble circulars. 
WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO., Burlington, Vt. 

W.R & CO'S 


J. N. KNOWLES, Manager. EDWIN L. GRIFFITH, Secretary. 



iSporm "\7*7"li«,lc>, 3El©^>la.«,xs.t; and Flsli Oils. 


Especially adapted for Vineyards and Fruit Orchards. OFFICE— 28 California St., San Francisco. 



With Improved Cover Fastening. 

The Only Practical Churn for the Dairy. 

Awarded First Premium California State Fair, 1885; also 
First Premium Mechanics' Fair, San Francisco, 1884 and 1885, 
over all opposition. 

The Stoddard Churn is as great an improvement over the 
cumbersome, leaky, and often sour box churns as the Cream 
Separator is over setting in pans, and this fact is fast becom- 
ing realized, as is proven by the growing demand for them, 
and they are being adopted by our best dairies with the 
most gratifi ing results. Beware of imitations of the "Stod- 
dard." All interested in dairying will regret if they fail to 
all or address us to investigate these matters. 


No 1— 10-gallon Churn, 1 to 4 $ 8 00 

No. 2— 15-gallon Churn, 2 to 7 9 00 

No. » — 20 gallon Churn, 3 to 9 10 00 

No. 4 — 25-gallon Churn, 4 to 12 12 00 

No. 5 — 35-gallon Chum, 5 to 16 14 00 

No. 6— 60-gallon Churn, 6 to 28 20 00 

Extra heavy frames, pulleys, etc. , extra. Send for price 
list of larger sizes, of which we carry up to 120 gallons. 



38 California St., San Francisco. 

If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale. 










































Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian Prunes, Plums, Figs 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Ornamental Shrubs, Greenhouse Plants. 

8,000 WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS— The fig of commerce, home grown, for sale thecoming 
season. Sixty varieties of Grapes, rooted and cuttings, including all the best Wine and Raisin 
varieties. Catalogue free. 


P. O. BOX 175. Fresno, California. 




























Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 



Entirely Prevents Lead Poisoning 
and Salivation 

The most perfect appliance for people engaged in 
Smelting, Dry Crushing, Guano Works, 
Quicksilver Mines, Lead Corroding:, Thresh- 
ing; and Stock-driving, and all other occupations 
where there is dust, poisonous vapor, or bad odor. 

In Feeding Til resiling Machines, and simi- 
lar work, they are indispensable, as no foreign substances 
can be inhaled when they are worn. 

The Respirators are sold subject 'O approval after trial, 
and if not satisfactory the price will be refunded. Price, 
$3.00 each or $30.00 per dozen. Sent post-paid to any 
address on receipt of price. 

Address communications and ot Jcrs to 

T. E. JEWELL, Sole Agent, 
330 Pine St. (Room 4) San Francisco. 

£g"Send for Descriptive Circulars containing Testi- 
monials of well-known parties who are at present using 
them . 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rFrne Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, proprietor. 

Frilit Fnrira Y/inrtC The finest, beet and cheap- 
rrUll CligraVinyb, ,-st Photographs ami En- 
PHOTOGRAPHS, KTC. gravings of Fruits, Vege- 
tables, Houses, Farms, Landscapes, etc,, made by S. F. Co., 659 Clay St., S F. 

Concrete Apparatus 

RANSOMK, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. Send for Circulars 



Self- Tramping Hay Press. 

Patented July 22, 1SS4, by JACOB PRICE, and manu- 
factured solely by the PRICE HAY PRESS COMPANY 
at San Leandro, Cal. , has the following 


31 Tons (259 Bales) in one day (13 hours); 
136 Tons in one week. 20 Tons 
ner day average for weeks 


(Petaluma) HAY PRESS 
With Latest Improvements (Price, $350), 

Invented by JACOB PRICE, 
and manufactured by the 
San Leandro, Cal , has for 
20 years past been the lead- 
ing Press of the Pacific 
Coast, and though now dis- 
placed in the large Hay- 
producing sections by our 
raoid Self-Tramping JUN- 
IOR MONARCH, is still in 
large demand back in the 
hills, on account of its 
cheapness. We have got 
them up in splendid shape 
this year, having imported Eastern Hard Maple for their 
construction. We have thein made of White Oak also. 

l^"For Large Illustrated Catalogue of the finest line of 
Hay Presses in the United States, address me at SAN 


Superintendent PRICE HAY PRESS CO. 


— FOR — 


device shown in the above engraving is covered by 
Letters Patent awarded to me by the U. S. Government, 
and are warned against making and using the same with- 
out my consent. 

AH those desiring the Angular Supporting Arms or in- 
formation about them, will be furnished therewith by 

Red Bluff, or Tehama. Cal. 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 


Maclrfncry of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pomps, and all appliances used in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 



Apricot, Plum, Prune and Peach on Myrobolan Plum 
stocks. Bartlett, Winter Nelis, B. Clairgeau, B. Hardy 
and other varieties, 1 and 2 years. A full stock of 1 and 
2-year-old Apple Trees, Peach on Peach, Nectarine, 
(Quince, Fig, Grape, Currants, Gooseberries, Almonds, 
Walnuts, Chestnuts, etc. Prices reasonably low. No 
scale bug. Also Myrobolan Plum and Pear Seedlings, 
home grown. Address W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 



[July 10, 1886 





Bright, Galvanized, Telegraph, Baling, 

Annealed, Tinned, Telephone, Furniture, 

Coppered, Lacquered, Fence, Spring. 

Trade Mark. 









For 12-foot Mills, $65 00 each. For 14-foot Mills, $75 00 each. 

Dolivcrcd to Hailroad or Steamer. 





N. B. — An active Agent wanted in every town on the Coast. 



AHJnfringements Forbidden under 

^9 Territory 
Et, trolled 67 the 

r-H S.F, 






Best Stand, 
Best Feed, 
Best Shuttle, 
Best Attachments, 
Best Woodwork, 
Best Wearing. 



Hibernia Saving and Loan Society 

N. E. cor. Montgomery and Post Streets, 
San Francisco, July 2, 1S86. 

At a regular meeting of the Board of Directors of this 
Society, held this day, a dividend at the rate of 3} per 
cent per annum was declared on all deposits, for the six 
months ended June 30, 188C, free from all taxes, and 
payable from and after this date. 

R. J. TO BIN, Secrctarv. 


With the many improvements inaugurated at my Nur 
series during the season, I am now better prepared than 
ever to furnish all manner of designs for exquisite Bou- 
quets, Flowers for Marriage Ceremonies, private and 
public Parties and all other Entertainments. Will also 
rent shrubs in pots or boxes for Hall or House Decora- 
tions. Mourning Wreaths and other Funeral Designs to 
order at the shortest notice, and on reasonable terms. 
EMIL BOUROUIONON, Sainsevain Villa, near Narrow 
Gauge Railroad, } mile from Depot. Telephone No. 34 
free to all patrons. Floral Depot, 72 N. 1st St., San Jose 


The Only Genuine Grain-Saver on the Pacific Coast. 


[This Cut represents Mc- 
Lean's Grain-Saving At- 
tachment as It appears 
when attached to a Sepa- 

Manufactured by 

Watsonville, Cal, 


Can be found in every grain-pro- 
ducing county and on every kind 
and make of Separator used in 
thiB State, and the work of ad- 
justing it to a Separator is so 
simple that any practical ma 
chine man can put it on, and 
heDce there is no need of sending 
a man from my shop to attach it 
to a Separator as heretofore, and 
that expense is saved the pur- 
chaser in reduced cost of attach- 
ment. * Former priced HBO; where 
purchaser attache* it, ?100. 


Vol. XXXIL-No. 3.] 


( $3 a Year, in Advance 
\ Sinolk Copies, 10 Cts. 

The Woolly Aphis. 

We saw something in the University orchard 
the other day which we never noticed before and 
have not seen on record, though it may be. In 
looking for signs of the codlin moth we saw a 
little woolly substance on the calyx end 
of the apple, and breaking open the apple 
found a colony of woolly aphis snugly 
ensconced in the calyx tube, which was 
slightly open. The aphis had evidently 
found a snug harbor here while the lady- 
birds were scouring the tree and had 
destroyed all in sight. Of course a col- 
ony of aphis thus protected would escape 
the ladybird, which could not enter the 
very small opening, nor could it be 
reached by any spray. We are watching 
to see whether the tree will be repeopled 
by aphides bred in these covers. 

Profeesor Hilgard gave us the other 
day a letter which he had just received 
from the eminent French horticulturist, 
M. Ch. Joly, Vice-President of the Na- 
tional Horticultural Society of France. 
He speaks in commendatory terms of the 
publications of the College of Agriculture, 
and comments especially upon Bulletin 
55 concerning the woolly aphis which 
was published in the Rural Press of 
May 15, 1886. Thousands of remedies, 
he says, are used to get rid of the woolly 
aphis, but he gives it as his opinion that 
a remedy must be much as possible an 
insecticide and a manure as well. It is 
no doubt true that such a combination is 
highly desirable, and such, in fact, is 
the case with most of the remedies now 
used in this country. The wood ashes 
used about the root crown of the trees 
is a valuable manure. Gas lime has 
some manurial properties and has shown 
itself to be valuable also as an ameliora- 
tor of harsh soils. Lime, which has 
been often used in this country, has also 
a tonic effect upon some soils. We have 
also a number of special applications 
which are kept secret by those who use 
them, which are known to have fertiliz- 
ing constituents. 

M. Joly gives this as the treatment 
which has proved best by long experience 
in France. First: Scrape off the rough 
bark during the wet season, and burn all 
the moss, dead bark, etc., and burn up 
the scrapings. Second: Make in a barrel 
a mixture of "black soap," powdered 
sulphur and lime, with clay in sufficient 
quantity to make the mixture about as 
thick as cream. Apply this with a brush 
on the trunk and larger limbs of the tree; 
in fact, cover the whole tree with it as 
far as practicable. The clay acts merely as a 
medium for holding the other substances to- 
gether. As the rain follows it will gradually 
wash off the mixture and will let it fall on the 
roots and will reach the insect there. 

M. Joly urges California apple-growers to try 
this treatment for the woolly aphis, and assures 
them they will find it satisfactory. He does 
not think a perfect cure is to be expected if 
there are neighboring orchards which are not 
treated, but the result of the treatment will be 
clear, bright-barked and vigorous trees. The 
operation has to be repeated every two or three 

years, and will pay in the beneficial effect upon 
the trees. 

We regret M. Joly does not give more defi- 
nitely what he means by "black soap." If he 
means such soap as is made at home with grease 
and lye from wood ashes, such a material would 

Ramie. — There is just now exceptional inter- 
est in the extraction of ramie fiber in all parts 
of the country. New Orleans seems to be a 
focus for the Southern interest and parties who 
believe they have the coming ramie machine are 
urging the growing of the crop and the estab- 


be out of the reach of most people for lack of 
ashes, for in this country of large orchards and 
small need of fires the size of the fruit-grower's 
ash pile bears a very small proportion to the 
size of his orchard. Perhaps M. Joly will write 
us more fully as to the alkaline element in his 

An exhibition of Fresno county products will 
take place at San Francisco on the occasion of 
the Mechanics' Fair and Grand Army Encamp- 
ment next month. A similar exhibition that 
took place last year was a great success. 

lishment of the ramie industry. San Francisco 
is also attacking the problem, and at least two 
machines, one working dry fiber and one green, 
are being run experimentally. The ramie plots 
at the State University are furnishing the stalks 
for these experiments. If full success should 
be reached, ramie growing may be very profit- 
able in this State. 

Eastern shippers at Vacaville are purchasing 
whole crops of grapes at $70 to $100 per ton 
on the ranch, and whole crops of peaches at 
$80 per ton, furnishing boxea. 

Opening of the School Year. 

This week the public schools in the bay re- 
gion have reopened their doors and the too- 
short vacation is over. According to the daily 
paper reports, the ferries carried more people 
on last Sunday than during any single 
day this season, so great was the rush 
of people from rural haunts, returning 
on time to place their children in the 
schools on Monday morning. The pupils 
attending private schools have a longer 
summer rest, but the last of July will 
gather them in too and the study for 
another year will begin all around. 

The opening of the school year re- 
minded us of the excellent engraving 
which we have reproduced on this page 
as appropriate to the season. The pic- 
ture. represents the three great elements 
in the educational problem — the parent, 
the schoolmaster and the pupil. Do the 
young pupils ever think that they are 
the recipients of the combined sacrifices 
and exertions of the other two, and 
properly appreciate the work done for 
them ? Does this little lad in the picture 
think that these two full-grown men 
are earnestly discussing some matter 
which is for his sole benefit ? It is, no 
doubt, well that the children do not bur- 
den themselves too much with thoughts 
of the exact relations of things, else we 
might have too old heads on young 
shoulders; but it will do pupils no harm 
to think occasionally of all that is done 
to educate them, and conduct them- 
selves accordingly. 

We have thought how we could in 
a few words present the importance of 
the educational interest of the country. 
The philosopher, the statesman, the the- 
ologian could all give us volumes on this 
theme; in fact, libraries could be filled 
with treatises on education. We adopt 
the usual method of writers, who desire 
to give, in small compass, that which 
may provoke much thought, and take re- 
course to statistics. The report of the 
United States commissioner of eduoation 
for 1884 shows that there are in the 
United States 16,794,402 children of 
proper age to attend school, and about 
three-fourths of these are in attendance 
upon either public or private schools. 
For the instruction of these children 
there are about 300,000 teachers em- 
ployed. The total annual expenditure 
for educational purposes is over $104,- 
000,000, and the value of school property 
is nearly $250,000,000. 
All these large figures show what is be- 
ing. done for the children. It is done cheerfully 
because in the children lies the hope of the na- 
tion. Let each one of our young readers who 
may be attracted by these statements remem- 
ber that upon him rests a part of the obligation 
to prove to history that the nation's hopes are 
well placed. 

Sam, a Merced-river Chinaman, is shipping 
potatoes by the car load from Merced to El 
Paso, Texas. He pays $160 a car freight, 
and the potatoes in El Paso sell for two cents a 


f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jdly 17, 1886 


California Fruit at the East. 

Editors Press:— The great and yet unsettled 
question as to the best methods of picking, 
packing and shipping our rapidly increasing 
fruit products should be constantly kept before 
the people, although many may regard it as 
supererogation to continue this harping upon 
this old subject. For one, however, to keep 
silent who may have witnessed the deplorable 
condition in which a large portion of our fruit 
reaches the Kastern markets is simply a dere- 
liction of duty, if he has a proper regard for the 
whole fruit interests of the Pacific Coast, where 
so much is involved. My recent trip to the 
Kist was largely, it if> true, in the special interest 
of fruit shipments of Southern California, yet 
I am free to say that I was not altogether un- 
mindfukof the welfare of the entire State, and 
to reduce my observations to practical sugges- 
tions, I would say: 

First of all, that we want to ship ripe fruit 
first, last and all the time. 

Second, as a rule, greater care shoi'ld be ex- 
ercised in taking the fruit from the tree, cut- 
ting the stem being undoubtedly the better 
way, instead of pulling the fruit off. 

Philosophy of Rind-Curing. 

Third — All fruit should be allowed time to 
evaporate the surplus of watery secretions in 
the rind after picking, before packing for the 
market. In other words, it should be allowed 
ample time to sweat. By this process consid- 
erable shrinkage occurs, and when packed 
direct from the tree the rigid, unyielding rind 
is easily abraded in handling and pressing into 
packages; and when it is generally understood 
that it is the oxygen of the air penetrating these 
little cracks or abrasions of the skin or rind that 
causes decay, the sweating process will be more 
generally adopted in preparing all fruits for 
packing. Too much can scarcely be said upon 
this point. The cells composing the skin or 
rind of fruits are constantly distended to their 
utmost while on the tree by a watery secretion, 
and hence are ruptured at the slighest contact, 
or at least by rough handling, and this condi- 
tion obtains until the fruit is past its prime ripe 
condition, when it will have lost its rigid text- 
ure, and these delicate cell membranes thus 
having parted with most of their watery secre- 
tion, through this natural curing process while 
yet on the tree, results in a shrinkage of parts, 
and consequently a collapse of the cell walls, 
which renders them not only tough in texture, 
yet plastic to the touch. The sweating, after 
picking, accomplishes the same as nature has 
indicated and described above, but in a much 
more rapid manner by proper management. 
Fruit thus prepared offers almost absolute im- 
munity against decay caused by improper hand- 
ling. It is somewhat analogous to dried fruit, 
i. > the rind has been permitted to commence 
the process of drying, by which the inner pulp 
and juice are nearly hermetically sealed against 
atmospheric influences. Dried fruit, however 
much it may be banged about, never decays if 
kept in a dry and well-ventilated storage. 

Ventilation in Package and Car. 

Fourth — Fruit packages should be con- 
structed as open as wire work, if it were pos- 
sible, so that a free circulation of air would 
thereby be secured in every direction, affording 
a continuous escape of all evaporated moisture 
from the fruit in transit to market. Not only 
should the Bmall packages that compose the 
crate be secured separate from each other to 
insure perfect ventilation, but likewise the 
crates themselveB, and, last but not least, the 
car should then receive such attention in its 
construction and interior conveniences that the 
fruit packages can be firmly secured in place 
with this system of perfectly free and full 
ventilation, to enable all of the moisture escap- 
ing from the fruit to find rapid exit. 

The first cherries that reached Chicago from 
California in May were from half to two-thirds 
either rotten or so moldy as to render them 
worthless. The cause of this was unquestion- 
ably the moisture thrown olf and confined in 
the almost tight boxes in which they were 
packed after picking, and in which they were 
also shipped. After repacking they readily 
sold from 10 to 15 cents per pound in packages 
and retailed at '20 to 25 cents. Now, the loss 
here was simply frightful, and due also to a 
want of knowledge in handling this fruit under 
the circumstances. With a schedule of six 
days to Chicago, for instance, by rail, thor- 
oughly ventilated packages, crates and cars, and 
these frightful losses can be, in a measure, pre- 

The Opportunity at the East. 
In this connection I wish to remark, what I 
base upon moBt diligent inquiry in our different 
sections of the Eastern States widely separated, 
thst it is practically impossible to overstock 
those Atlantic city markets with ripe, clean, 
Bweet oranges. Cherries, pears, Muscat grape and 
other favorite varieties, and possibly peacheB 
and apricots, are laid down there in a wholesome 
and inviting condition. Our unripe fruit they 
do not want, nor will it pay to ship fruit to de- 
cay en route. The question of production, of 
course, has long since been fully settled; but 

we certainly are most sadly remiss in the 

As regards the orange, which claims the at- 
tention at present of Southern California pro- 
ducers, we also have many things of vital im- 
portance to this special industry yet to learn. 
To continue to pick and ship the unripe fruit 
will sooner or later bring curses home to roost 
to all of those possessed of this unreasonable 
greed. The few green fruit consumers scattered 
over the Eastern world are usually possessed of 
unbridled tongues, and no better advertising 
medium could well be secured for any unholy 
purpose; and although 1'rovidence and the phy- 
sician may be easily invoked to allay the men- 
tal and physical Buffering resulting from this 
infraction of the arbitrary law of cause and ef- 
fect, yet its pernicious results can scarcely fail 
to recross to the Pacific Slope. 

During nearly a two months' stay at the East, 
besides being almost constantly on the move 
from place to place, afforded me ample oppor- 
tunity to gauge public sentiment in regard to 
our oranges a* they were then receiving them. 
I also made it a point to sample them myself at 
10 cents apiece, in order to speak from knowl- 
edge, and I desire to assure all orange-growers 
that no unfavorable criticism ever greeted my 
ears on the quality. In fact, they were sweet 
and juicy, but occasionally some one would 
ask where our sour oranges grew that came to 
market in February and March. 

As another pointer, I saw carloads of the San 
Gabriel valley oranges from Duarte to Pasa- 
dena (seedlings) sell for S4.50 to $7 per box; yet 
the famed Washington Navel is justly the king 
of oranges. 

Another incident that is quite amusing to 
note, to nay the least, was the great enthusiasm 
manifested by the retailers and newsboys sell- 
ing fruits on trains, in crying the orange. To 
my mind it seemed to enforce the idea that too 
great a prominence before the public is some- 
times a disadvantage, or may be so, and possibly 
it may be so in the present case. These news- 
boys, especially, as we all know, come rushing 
along seeking business with every one, and in 
offering their oranges the stereotyped cry was: 
"Here's yer nice, sweet Riverside oranges; two 
for a quarter." And the laugh comes in on 
Riverside, in these oranges having such black, 
smutty faces, while they claim not to grow 
smutty fruit. 

Now, the point is, if Riverside did not grow 
these most delicious sweet smutty oranges, 
then some other community was grossly swin- 
dled out of the credit so justly their due, and 
inall of my humble efforts m correct thi9 seeming 
abuse that thedevil might receive his just deserts, 
I was almost insulted. With all the eloquence 
of a Demosthenes, I doubt whether it would 
have availed in convincing those orange- venders 
that it was the product of the great San Ga- 
briel and Santa Ana valleys. The smut they 
seemed entirely oblivious about, but the sweet 
orange was the burden of their unceasing song. 
It may, therefore, be a question whether too 
great a notoriety is of enduring advantage even 
in the orange culture. 

Upon the whole, in summing up, California 
has a grand future before her in fruit culture, 
but better brain and more science should take 
the lead, that ways and means are provided to 
save for a small profit what now is a double 
loss of production and decay in seeking a mar- 
ket. O. H. Conoar. 

Pasadena, July 4, 1886. 

Keeping Lemons. 

Pertinent to the letter of Dr. Congar, which 
we publish above, will be some notes of experi- 
ence in handling lemons by two lemon-growers 
of California. We give first an item about G. 
W. Garcelon's practice with lemons, as de- 
scribed by the Riverside Echo: Mr. Garcelon 
has now (June 14th) several hundred boxes of 
lemons in tiue condition, worth about six dol- 
lars a box in Chicago. These lemons were 
picked last December and January. How did 
he keep them, do you ask ? He uses raisin 
trays, not sweat boxes, to keep them in, picking 
as soon as large enough (which he thinks is 
when they will go about 250 to 300 to the box). 
He lays the tray with cleats up, and places one 
layer of lemons upon it, placing another tray 
over them cleats down. Upon that he dupli- 
cates the arrangement with one layer of lemons 
and two trays, and so on. He keeps out both 
light and air, but finds a plastered frame build- 
ing just right— does not know how an adobe 
would affect the atmospheric conditions. They 
keep six montbB all right, Mr. Garcelon says, 
and by that time, generally about June or July, 
the market is sure to be good. 

N. W. Blanchard, a large orchardist at Santa 
Paula, Ventura county, writes under date of 
June 22d to the Riverside Press as follows : I 
am now shipping by each steamer about 100 
boxes, and the lemons have been picked from 
two to three months. A correspondent of the 
San Francisco Bulletin from Sicily not long ago 
stated that the lemons picked there in Novem- 
ber were kept till March before shipping, while 
lemons picked in January were only kept three 
weeks before shipping, and that lemons picked 
early kept better than lemons picked late. He 
also stated that lemons were handled very care- 
fully. In regard to this last point I have yet 
to learn from my experience that such careful 
handling is necessary. I have purposely bruised 
lemons to see if they would decay, and have 
noticed lemons that were cut with the pruning 
shears in gathering and have not yet discovered 

that they decayed in consequence in either case. 
It has generally been thought necessary that in 
curing lemons they must have air, i. some 
little air circulation. Now comes Mr. Garcelon 
to the front as one of the most successful men 
in curing lemons, and he tries to make his 
lemon-curing house air-tight. Apropos to the 
sand treatment, a man from Melbourne in my 
employ tells me that there the lemons are 
placed about three deep on shelves and dry saw- 
dust poured over them, which settles down and 
around them, serving the same purpose as sand, 
perhaps. The important question is to keep 
lemons from December (I suppose) at Riverside, 
from January here, till July and August and 
September. Is not the answer: Pick in season, 
keep from circulation of air in a cool place, in 
sand, sawdust, or in tight stove-room in not too 
large bulk so that one rotten lemon shall not in- 
jure others in contact with it ? 

Another correspondent of the Riverside Press 
gives the following : Some of our lemons were 
picked in December and some in January. 
These were at first placed in an adobe room, ill- 
ventilated, and they decayed some; then re- 
moved the lemons, placing them about three 
deep on shelves, far enough apart to admit free 
passage of air; building open at each end. We 
found this to be satisfactory. We have kept 
Borne of them to test durance, and believe they 
will dry up without decay. The lemons that 
were picked when green proved bitter. Our 
experience thus far for beat results decides us 
to let them color quite well, if they will do so 
without getting too large. Size and color are 
both governing influences. 

My lemons that were picked early in the 
season and were well cured sold in the San 
Francisco market for two and three times as 
much net as other shipments were quoted. 
Sent some East, and the house immediately 
ordered five times as many as I could furnish. 

I am satisfied that if we raise the right vari- 
eties and prepare them properly for market, 
our area for lemon culture is not large enough 
to meet the demand. Lemons if kept on the 
trees until, say, the latter part of March 
and April, thereby attainiug large size, will de- 
cay very rapidly after being picked. 

Ordinary help cannot be trusted to pick. My 
rules are: Cut carefully from the tree; place in 
the receiving basket with equal caution; keep 
dry; do not rub them; assort according to size, 
and when ready for market pack in a careful 

For keeping qualities the Eureka stands first; 
so called Lisbon next. The Australian Lisbon 
is a proline bearer, but keeping qualities poor. 
I have only two trees, but they gave me 20 
boxes. Age of trees, eight years from bud; tree 
very thorny. I am planting entirely to Eureka. 
I consider they have more good points than any 
other. The only mark I can make against the 
Eureka iB its form, and this will be obviated in 
a great degree by picking the fruit in the proper 
season and condition. If I have the true Lisbon, 
it ia a very poor lemon for culinary purposes — 
too bitter. 

Plnm Apricot vs. Black Apricot. 

Editors Press :— Some weeks since you gave 
a handsome illustration of a fruit called the 
" Plum apricot," Prunus Simorii, if I remember 
aright. The picture and description strongly re- 
minded the writer of the " 1 Hark apricot " which 
has been for many years in the standard orchard 
of the University of California, and to some 
extent propagated by nurserymen and others 
who have received scions from that source. It 
would be easy to send specimens of the fruit 
and foliage of the " Black apricot " to some dis- 
interested gentleman east of the Rocky mount- 
ains who has the " Plum apricot " and find out 
whether the two are synonymous. The ripe 
fruit should also be submitted to the judgment 
of the State Horticultural Society. Let the 
fruit-growers of the State take these simple 
steps and they will know whether this candi- 
date for their favor is really new and suited to 
their wants. 

Aside from the question of the economic uses 
of the fruit of the black apricot, it has occur- 
red to me that the tree may prove to be of value 
as a stock on which to work apricots and allied 
stone fruits. It- general appearance is that of 
a tree but little changed from its natural state 
by cultivation, and the slender twigs suggest 
suitability for cuttings that would strike root. 
Here in Europe it is found that the study of 
stocks to draft upon is of prime importance. 
We cannot know too much of this subject. 

C. H. Dwinellk. 

Florence, Italy, May 21, 1886. 

Paint for Iron. — A cotemporary throws out 
the following suggestion: "Required to pro- 
duce a perfect paint for the preservation of iron 
and steel. It must have a high mechanical ad- 
hesive property, and be composed of material 
electro-negative to iron and mixed with some 
tenacious fluid vehicle containing no oxygen, if 
possible, and not liable to be decomposed by the 
iron beneath." Inventors would do well to 
give the subject their consideration. 

Mildew Destroyer.— Sulphide of potash has 
proved in our practice all that has been claimed 
for it by the English press as a destroyer of 
mildew on roses, chrysanthemums and some 
other greenhouse plants. A quarter of an ounce 
dissolved in a gallon of water and thrown on 
the affected foliage with a fine rosed syringe 
will wholly destroy the fungus, and the leaves 
will not be injured.— Vick's Magazine. 


Warm Weather Suggestions. 

Editors Press: — In all branches of business 
there are times and seasons for doing some kind 
or kinds of work to the best advantage, and 
also some kinds of work can only be done at 
stated times in the year. 

I don't think any farmer will doubt that what 
I have said will apply to farm work. Now a 
thought that I would like to have stick in the 
mind of each one, and all who keep fowls, is 
that this applies to the poultry business with a 
double force, and I would urge you to make a 
study to find out all you can as to how and 
when to do to the best advantage, for, as you 
make a success of this, and then apply your 
wisdom, just so far will your efforts be blessed 
with the chink of solid coin. 

To help in this way let me give a few points 
that have come up in my own experience which 
will relate in main to warm weather doings in 
the poultry yard. 

First, while warm dry weather is an impor- 
tant factor in the poultry yard, yet too much of 
a good thing may do harm, and so, for the 
health of the chicks (old and young), for July, 
August, and September, see that a good shade is 
provided for them in some shape, and do not de- 
pend on the roosting coop for shade from the 

Let your fowls run in the orchard, and if 
there is a tree near the coops where the soil is 
moist and loamy, there you will find the chicks 
in the heat of the day holding high court. Give 
your fowls all the room possible during the hot 
weather; the more you confine them, the less 
you will get for them, or from them, next fall. 

If you have no shade trees or old buildings 
for their use, then buy some lx3-inch stuff and 
some shakes, or in place of the shakes use old 
grain sacks and make a shade, for shade the 
• •(.!• k- must have to prosper. Use your wits 
about it. 

As July, August and September are poor 
months in which to hatch out chicks, I have never 
tried but one brood in these months, and that 
brood learned me this lesson : Never to try to 
do the like again, if by any possible means I 
could avoid it; and I think I can, even if I go 
out of the chicken business. There are several 
points against hatching in these months. Eggs 
are not apt to be fertile; the little fellows that 
come out are weak and seem doubly liable to 
diseases, and those that live do not seem to 
grow into good, plump, well-developed fowls, 
and the pullets will not lay until late in the 
spring when eggs are way down cheap. 

Be careful and not give much, if any, corn or 
cornmeal during the warm weather, as it is only 
poison in a mild form to little chicks. It may 
do for a feed once a week for a change, but 
should be cooked, or at least soaked, till it will 
not swell in the crop. 

Keep clean water in a cool, shady place, and 
be sure that it is fresh. There is no brute or 
fowl, or even one of the human kind, does seem 
to relish a drink of fresh cool water on a hot 
day more than a little chick, and they are large 
drinkers for their size. Give them thick milk 
if possible, as it seems to be food as well as 
drink to them. Another great thing in these 
hot days is to have the coop and runways kept 
very clean; to make them too clean is not in 
the power of man or woman. This much yon 
can be sure of : If you don't keep them clean 
they will drop away on many little legs which 
you have not seen in the shape of lice and 

And, last of all, don't be afraid to use all 
your powers to keep your fowls in good health 
and the little fellows growing. Little atten- 
tions amount to large dollars in the poultry 
yard. E. C. Clapp. 

South Pasadena, Cat. 

Wild Oats for Fowls. 

Editors Press: — An old subscriber wishes to 
be informed, through the columns of your paper, 
whether wild oats are beneficial to poultry or 
otherwise. Let's hear from those of experience 
whether there is any stiff or briery hulls that 
would be like barley, or otherwise injurious. 


Toll House, Fresno Co., Gal. 

Poultry in France. — The number of fowls 
is estimated at 45,000,000, which, valued at 2) 
francs each on the average, would amount to 
1 12,500,000 of francs. The number of laying 
hens is taken at 34,000,000, and taking the 
number of eggs laid by each at an average of 
90 yearly the total production of eggs in 
France would not fall short of 3,000,000,000, 
which, at an average of five centimes each, 
would amount to 150,000,000 francs. Of that 
number it is caloulated that 100,000,000 eggs 
are hatched, of which 10,000,000 die as young 
chickens, 10,000,000 serve for reproduction, 
while 80,000,000 of chickens serve for food, 
which, valued at li trancs each, would repre- 
sent 120,000,000 francs. To these figures must 
be added an extra value of 0,000,000 for capons. 
Altogether, the value of poultry and eggs pro- 
duced in France may be taken at 300,000,000 
francs, or $60,000,000. 

July 17, 1886.] 


JIJhE (g>ARG)EJ^. 

Various Small Fruits and Vegetables. 

Editors Press:— On June 8th we were 
right in the hight of strawberry picking. The 
crop is rather light this season; average picking 
about 60 pounds per day from one acre of 
ground. Varieties are Monarch of the West 
and Wilson, with a few other varieties on trial, 
such as Bidwell, Finch and Big Bob. The 
Wilson for this locality takes the lead, and con- 
sequently stands at the head both for market 
and for canning. Finch comes next; a large, 
fine, round berry, fl ivor like our old wild-meadow 
berry that I used to gather when a boy. Bidwell 
is a large, long, pointed, irregular-shaped berry 
too soft for transportation and rather mealy, 
with a flat, insipid flavor not worth much except 
as a show berry. Prices this season ranged well 
up, from 12 to 25 cents per pound. 

While speaking of strawberries, perhaps our 
method of culture, etc., will not come amiss. 
We prepare our ground by plowing and grading 
so as to give a fall of about three-eighths of an 
inch to every 10 feet, and in order to do this I 
made a level out of l£x4 inch pine lumber. Take 
one piece 10 feet long, and on each end put a 
leg 16 inches long, and in the center of the 10- 
foot piece put a spirit level. Then to give the 
fall, tack on the bottom of one of the legs a 
three-eighth inch block, and when this is set ex- 
actly level we have a fall of three-eighths of an 
inch to every 10 feet. With this instrument 
we can run a ditch or lay off ground to irrigate 
around the bend of a hill, or sag, as we choose, 
and have the desired fall, and as correctly as a 
surveyor's level will do it. 

We mark off our rows feet apart and set 
our plants about two feet in the row, so as to 
work with horse and cultivator. We used to 
do all with a horse, but we find that we do not 
stir the ground deep enough the first time going 
over; so this season early in the spring we went 
through the patch with spades, and worked the 
ground up deep, and then followed with the cul- 
tivator and found it a decided improvement; 
the ground takes water better and our berries 
were larger and finer than when worked with 
the cultivator alone. The soil being moved to 
a greater depth gives chance for the roots to 
spread out, and we have a stronger and finer 
plant to produce the berries. We (June 19th) 
have just finished picking this season's crop; 
average picking about 60 pounds per day of four 
or five weeks' run, while last season our average 
was about 80 pounds per day. Thus you see 
there is a falling off of about 20 pounds per day. 
This patch contains nearly an acre, and we 
picked a little over 1240 pounds of berries from 
it and prices averaged for the whole crop about 
12 cents per pound. 


I was telling one of my customers a few days 
ago that I would soon have cauliflower in the 

"Well, well," said he, "that beats me; who 
ever heard of cauliflower in the month of June 
up in these mountains? What variety are 
they ?" 

"They are 'Henderson's Early Snowball,' and 
a sure heading variety; heads are now about 
five inches across." 

Cauliflower likes good rich soil and plenty of 
water; coarse, long manure answers the purpose 
for a fertilizer very well. It keeps the ground 
loose and the water soaks through, and thus the 
soil is always moist. Our method of growing 
cauliflower, I presume, is the same as others, 
with this exception: we set lettuce b^cween 
every cauliflower at the same time of setting 
out the plants. As soon as the lettuce is ready 
to cut, we plant some variety of early beans 
close to the lettuce, and by the time the lettuce 
is cut the beans are up; and by this time the 
cauliflower is ready to cut. We pull the stumps 
as we cut the cauliflower, and this gives the 
ground to the coming crop of beans. Thus we 
raise our three crops on the same ground the 
same season. This cropping can only be done 
on a summer crop of cauliflower. For winter 
cauliflower we have just sowed our seed and got 
it up about half an inch, and when we set 
out these plants we shall set Hansen's lettuce 
between each plant, and in this way we have 
early lettuce, which sells for a good, fair price 
when lettuce is scarce in the market. 


" How do your blackberries look this sea- 
son? "said one of our neighbors. "Is there 
going to be a good crop this season ? " "Yes, 
I think that the crop looks well this year. 
They are now just commencing to turn red, 
and I think by the 10th of July we will be 
able to make a small picking." 

Said neighbor B. to me a few days ago: 
" What do you do to make your blackberries 
so large and fine ? You always have such a 
lot of them. What variety are they ? I think 
I haven't got the right kind; mine do not pro- 
duce like yours — are not as large and fine." 
My answer was this, our variety is the Law- 
ton. We go through early in the spring, cut 
out all the old canes that bore fruit last year 
and thin them out to three or four canes to the 
hilt; cut back all the laterals to about eight 
inches. " Well," says Mr. B., " you cut away 
about half of your crop." Yes, in number, 

but we make up in size and quality what we 
lose in number, and the berries are much finer, 
and always sure of selling in the market, and 
they hold their size clear through to the last 
picking. Then, again, when the young shoots 
come up and get about four feet high, we go 
over them and pinch out the center bud; this 
makes the new growth throw out laterals clear 
down to the ground, whereas if this pinching 
out was not done the vines would have but 
few laterals. " I see, I see," he said; "you 
diminish the crop in no way by cutting back, 
and increase in size of fruit by the pinching out 
of the main shoot when young." That is it, 
exactly; besides, plenty of water and a light 
coating of manure help wonderfully. 

Our Montreal green citron canteloupes are now 
setting finely and bid fair for a good crop. 
Cucumbers likewise are setting heavily and are 
at this present time bringing a fair price in 

Beets for Stock. 
A great deal has been said in the agricultural 
papers about beets for stock. We are trying it 
this season; have sown about one acre; but we 
failed to get a good stand. I do not think it 
was on the account of poor seed, but think it 
was our own fault. After plauting we thought 
that the ground was too dry to bring them up, 
so we ran our furrows and turned on the water. 
The result was, the ground got too wet, and be- 
fore we oould get at it to stir the soil it got 
hard and the seed rotted in the ground. Now, 
I have sown Swedish turnips, where the beets 
failed to come, and thus secured a crop on the 
same ground. This crop we intend to feed out 
on the place to our milch cows and Essex 
hogs, as it is all-important to raise as much 
stock on the place as possible, or as much as 
the place will carry well, on account of the 
manure, for, as the old adage goes: -"No 
manure, no corn; no corn, no cattle; no cattle, 
no manure." 

Starting Seeds. 

Mr. Schneider, in the Press of July 3d, asks 
which would be the best way to start celery 
and cauliflower seeds. My method of starting 
celery is to prepare a hotbed early in the sea- 
son, making the soil in the hotbed as fine as 
possible; soak the seed 48 hours in warm water, 
then sow over the bed as evenly as possible. 
Take a block or board and pat down the seed 
lightly, and then sprinkle sand or fine, well- 
rotted manure over the bed and firm down 
gently on the seeds. It takes about three or 
four weeks for celery seed to come up. The 
bed must be kept moist all the time, with a fine 
rose sprinkler. Manure or sand keeps the 
ground from baking and at the same time acts 
as a mulch to keep the soil moist. 

For winter cauliflower we prepare a bed in 
the open ground in June or July, by making the 
soil as fine as possible; sow the seeds and 
cover with a slight coat of well- rotted manure; 
keep well wet down, and if the seeds are fresh 
no trouble will be experienced. 

I. L. Dickikson. 

Lone Oak Farm, Sonora, Cal. 

Poor Garden Seeds. 

Editors Press: — I see in last week's issue a 
piece on gardening. I have bought seed at the 
store and planted it and the result was it was 
worth nothing. I planted 300 plants which 
were bought for cabbage and they turned out 
to be nothing but plants grown from runout 
seed. Everything I planted did not make 
what it was labeled. I had a fine garden laid 
out, but got badly fooled in seed. In reply to 
my friend in regard to gardening, I would say 
to him that if he wants good seed do not buy 
at the country stores. If he wants to make a 
success in gardening he must have good, fresh 
seed, and it is best to buy it direct from 
firms which have seed farms, and furnish fresh 
seed true to name. 

I sow all my seed in a hotbed. To prepare a 
hotbed take a large box and fill with manure, 
set at the south end of a building in the sun. 
Put four inches of good dirt on top of the ma- 
nure, and then plant your seed one inch deep, 
and keep moist until the plants are up; then 
wattr every evening. I had splendid success in 
my plants this year. If my friend will get his 
seed of a responsible firm I think that he will 
have success in his garden. Potatoes should 
be planted in loose soil and about four to five 
inches deep. Sweet potatoes should be put in a 
hotbed or in a nice sandy soil to start. I start 
mine in a hotbed. A. S. C. 

Elmira, Solano Co. 

[Our correspondent advises planting seed one 
inch deep. That would not do for all seeds. 
Depth should be proportional to the size of the 
seed. An old rule is to plant as deep as four 
times the diameter of the seed. But depth de- 
pends upon moisture, etc. 

There is no doubt much poor seed sold at 
the country stores, and yet it need not be so. 
If country merchants would take pains to learn 
the results from the seeds they sell, and then 
refuse to take any more from a seedhouse 
which imposed upon them, we should have the 
wretched business in poor seed and "killed" 
seed stopped. There is no reason why country 

storekeepers should not sell good fresh seed, 
unless they are careless or their cupidity leads 
them to listen to the seed drummer who offers 
the largest discount. Selling poor seed, if it is 
done carelessly or designedly, is robbery. To 
guard against loss of time and labor, the planter 
should buy his seed early and test its germina- 
tion, as described in the Rural of July 3d, be- 
fore he puts it into the ground. — Eds. Press.] 


Wheat Crops and Prospective Market. 

Editors Press: — Press telegrams give the 
Rural New Yorker as authority for the state- 
ment that this year's wheat crop of the United 
States is 435,000,000 bushels against 357,000,000 
last year. Evidently the estimate is based on 
returns made at least a fortnight ago, since 
when fuller information of the damage during 
the last month to the crop in the West, North- 
west and in this State has been received. Even 
now there are many in this State not willing 
to accept so large a percentage of damage to 
the California crop as my returns and those of 
other persons give. I am not in possession of 
the New Yorker's detailed estimates, therefore 
cannot state if it takes the bag pool's estimate 
of our crops or the estimates of conservative 
and well-informed parties. The bag pool puts 
the California wheat crop at 60,000,000 bushels 
before the damage by winds, but well-informed 
parties only placed it at 45,000,000 and now at 
36,000,000. This is quite a difference. But. 
accepting the New Yorker's figures as correct 
and the following is the result: 

This year's crop, 435,000,000 bushels, carry- 
over visible and invisible from the crop of 1885 
-86, 65,000,000. Total, 500,000,000 bushels. 

Last year's crop, 357,000,000 bushels, carry- 
over visible and invisible from the crop of 1884 
-85, 155,000,000. Total, 512,000,000. 

So this season is entered under the most 
favorable circumstances with a lessened supply 
of 12,000,000 bushels. If last season's supply 
of 512,000,000 bushels was reduced to 65,000,- 
000 bushels at the end of the season, the 50,000,- 
000 supply ought to be reduced to at least 45,- 
000,000 bushels. 

This season the consumption for food will be 
greater, owiDg to increased population, and for 
seed there should also' be a larger consumption, 
as the acreage seeded to wheat last fall and 
spring did not equal that seeded to wheat the 
preceding fall and spring. The surplus or 
carry-over is based on the ground that the 
United States does not export any more this 
season than the season just closed. If our ex- 
ports are larger, then the carry-over will be 
just so much less; and that the exports will be 
very considerably larger is generally admitted 
by the best informed statisticians, and if such 
proves to be the fact, we will have a smaller 
carry-over in this country than for many years 

Turning from the country at large to this 
State and the following is the situation : 
Total crop 1,400,000 tons, of which there will 
be required for seed and food 350,000; giving 
us a surplus for export 1,050,000 short tons. 
The carry-over from the season of 1885-6 is 75,- 
000 tons, which added to the estimated surplus 
gives us an exportable surplus of 1,125,000 
short tons. Last season the surplus for export 
was 550,000 short tons; carry-over 325,000. 
Total, 875,000 tons, against 1,125,000 tons this 
year. These figures give us an increased sur- 
plus this season of 250,000 short tons. Last 
year at the commencement of the crop 
season, the tonnage on the way and in port load- 
ing and disengaged was 140,000 tons carrying 
capacity less than at the commencement of this, 
the present season. Deducting the increased 
tonnage from the increased crop and there is 
only 110,000 tons difference between now and 
then, with the present situation decidedly more 
favorable for the drawing of more tonnage than 
last season. This last assertion is based on the 
failure of the Australasian wheat crop, which 
has and will continue to set the Australian fleet 
:oward this port for return cargo to Eugland. 

Viewing the situation in all its bearings, I fail 
to discover anything to discourage farmers, but, 
on the contrary, everything to encourage. Of 
course, whenever there is a selling pressure 
buyers will take advantage of it, and get their 
supplies at as low a figure as possible, but then 
there does not, at this writing, appear any valid 
reason for farmers to sacrifice their grain at 
present low ruling prices. J. B. F. 

San Francisco, July 8, 1886. 

The flowering plants known to botanists, 
says the New York Independent, are, in round 
numbers, about 100,000 species, but it is not 
improbable that, by the time all the recesses of 
the earth have been explored, the number will 
be largely increased, if not, perhaps, doubled. 
The whole interior of China is, so far, compara- 
tively unknown; and, so far as the borders are 
occasionally penetrated, continually gives new 

The Air of the Sea —The air of the sea, 
taken at a great distance from land, or even on 
the shore and in ports where the wind blows 
from the opeu sea, is an almost perfect state of 


To the Fruit-Growers of California. 

Editors Press:— The California Fruit Union 
was organized for the purpose of providing 
means by which the producers of our fruits 
might dispose of their productions in the East- 
ern markets to best advantage, thereby reliev- 
ing the local markets so that local prices would 
be profitable to the grower, and so that the 
profits on these products might be saved to the 
growers instead of going into the pockets of 
speculators in these articles. The first two 
ends have been attained — at least the means are 
at the disposal of ths growers. Yet with the 
opportunities at their disposal many of our fruit- 
growers fail to avail themselves of them, but 
continue to sell their fruits to speculators for 
Eastern shipping. The results to those ship- 
pers are generally very profitable: besides, by 
competing with the shipping producers they re- 
duce the general average account of sales. 

We fruit-growers found ourselves at the 
mercy of a few speculators, who made prices 
for our goods, and by competition in Eastern 
markets reduced prices there by glutting the 
various markets one at a time. To make 
profits they necessarily had to make low prices 
here. To avoid such occurrences in the future, 
we concluded to throw off their yoke and con- 
centrate our products in the hands of a central 
agency for jurlieious distribution. 

We have the power to do this. Do we in- 
tend to use it? If we do, instead of selling to 
the speculators, we should ship our own goods, 
on our own account, to our central agency, and 
reap the profits the speculators otherwise will 
get, which, on nearly all shipments made this 
season, when the goods have arrived at 
their destination in good condition, have been 

Now, the question arises, will we ship our 
own goods, or will we sell them to others? 
Will we make these profits or will we 
still allow the speculators to have them ? 
The way is open. We have our facilities for 
the shipping second to none; we have the best 
house in the United States as our general agent, 
a house, the reputation of which insures fair 
dealing with all, highest prices, sure and quick 
returns. Those who have in the past availed 
themselves of the services of this house will 
continue to do so. Is this no inducement to 
others to try them ? We hope it is, and that 
the coming weeks, months and years will find 
our fruit-growers using the best facilities at 
their command for their own welfare. We 
hope that our union may be what it is intended 
to be, the great distributor of our products in 
the Eastern markets, returning satisfactory re- 
sults to all its members, and incidental benefits 
to all engaged in like pursuits. 

The outflow of apricots through the union 
has resulted, with few exceptions, very satis- 
factorily to the producers shipping, while 
the results on those not shipped the dullest of 
us can realize, when canners pay in San Fran- 
cisco 3 to 3J cents per pound, and at railroad 
stations 2J to 3 cents per pound. All we now 
have to do is to stick to our text, "Concentra- 
tion and judicious distribution," and our union 
will be a grand success. 

Members will send their fruits in any sized 
lots, from 10 boxes to 10 carloads, to our man- 
ager, L. W. Buck, Sacramento, and it will be 
taken care of. Trains will be made up just as 
soon as our members will put their fruit in the 
cars. Surely, if speculators can buy our fruits 
and dispose of them profitably to themselves, 
we, who have the best facilities which it is pos- 
sible to get, can do so. Or do we prefer to 
abandon the idea of a union, and place our- 
selves where we were before we started it? 

The prices of our fruits to-day are in a great 
measure due to the California Fruit Union, 
and much to the endeavors of the fruit specu- 
lators to break it up. While many of our 
members are directly and indirectly giving aid 
to a combination of speculators, a few are 
working steadily and earnestly to frustrate 
their endeavors to destroy the union. Many 
members ask why we do not make trains. How 
can we, when our members sell their fruits to 
those who are endeavoring to break up our or- 

Where will we land when we have much fruit 
and no union? Last season there was not such 
a great quantity of fruit, and no union. What 
did you get for your fruits? Be careful that too 
many of you do not trust this great salvation to 
too few to work out. Those who are working 
for the union are doing it for the best interests 
of the fruit producers, and will do everything 
in their power to benefit us all. But, for mer- 
cy's sake, do not do all you can to aid the 
speculators in their endeavor to put us where 
we were last year — simply at their mercy. 
They have no powder, unless you sell it to 
them; they will find it necessary to club mus- 
kets and retreat as best they can, if those of us 
who have shipping fruits will stand by and send 
part of it by the union, and sell the balance to 
canners and the local trade. Then we will suc- 
ceed in our endeavor to help ourselves. We 
pay our money; we take our choice. The fu- 
ture will tell how well we pleased to do for 
ourselves. "United we stand; divided we fall." 

Suisun, Cal. A. S. Hatch. 



[Joly IT, 1886 

Matrons of Husbandry. 

Correspondence on Orange principles and work and r* 

Erts of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect* 
lly solicited for this department. 

Sacramento Grange. 

Editors PbesS: — At the meeting of Saturday 
last, Bro. \V. G. Klee, Inspector of Fruit Pests, 
was present and gave a short outline of his visit 
among the fruit-growers, and his intention of 
continuing his visits at various points. He 
rinds plenty of work for a local inspector of 
pests in this county, and ur<;ed the Grange to 
take some action in having one appointed. He 
had at that day been at Davisville taking noteB, 
and giving instruction how to conquer the evils 
that are continuing to spread throughout the 

Bros. Lufkins, Greer, W. M. Hack, and 
others, participated in the discussion. The 
matter was laid over for two weeks to come up 
under the head of unfinished business, when a 
more extended discussion by the fruit-growers 
will take place. 

A class will take the fourth degree the fifth 
Saturday of this month at 10 o'clock A. M. On 
the same day in the afternoon the Pomona 
Grange will meet and confer the fifth degree on 
a class, and all will unite in a harvest feast. 

The literary exercises of the Grange will take 
place the second Saturday of August. 

Farmers and fruitinen are very busy. The 
fruit is good as far as the crops last. The grape 
crop will be large. G. T. R. 

Sacramento, Cal. 

Legal Honor in the Senate. 

On June 10th the United States Senate, by a 
vote of 37 to LI, passed a bill, introduced by 
Senator Beck of Kentucky, prohibiting Senators 
and Representatives from being the hired attor- 
neys of railroad corporations on which they are 
to sit as judges. Senator Hawley, of Connecti- 
cut, says the bill was sprung upon the Senate 
suddenly and stampeded through. The general 
public say that its obvious propriety left the 
Senators without any ready ground of opposi- 
tion and without the effrontery to vote against 
it. Out of the 76 Senators, however, b\> are law- 
yers, and if the bill becomes law, a large propor- 
tion of these who are either permanently re- 
tained by the roads or receive large fees from 
them, will be deprived of a rich source of in- 
come. Remember, many of them are employed, 
at high figures, precisely because their position 
as legislators enables them to be of service to 
their clients in matters of legislation, and the 
whole course of the Senate shows' that it has 
been steadily subservient to these great sub- 
sidized corporations, and that any law, however 
urgently demanded by the interests of the 
people, if hurtful to those of any of these cor- 
porations, can be passed by that body only 
when the force of public sentiment in its favor 
becomes irresistible. 

On June 22d, therefore, the bill was "recon- 
sidered" by a vote of 31 to 21, and instead of 
being passed, as the public had a right to ex- 
pect, was sent to the Committee on the Ju- 
diciary, made up entirely of lawyers, most of 
whom are the hired agents of corporations. 
Thirteen of the Senators — ten of them Repub- 
licans — who originally voted for the bill sub- 
sequently voted in favor of putting its fate into 
the hands of its deadly enemies. Mitchell, of 
Oregon, wanted to swamp the bill with ridicu- 
lous amendments. Evarts, of New York, re- 
garded it as a stigma on the Senate and an in- 
sult and reproach to the legal profession, 
whose members are incapable of subordinating 
the interests of the public to those of their cli- 
ents and themselves ! Edmunds, of Vermont, 
thought it required an ideal honesty in Con- 
gressmen, such as can only be found in an 
angel-governed world. 

In a body made up almost entirely of law- 
yers whose esprit de corps is notorious, Evarts' 
appeal was the most powerful, but the federal 
laws already contain many provisions for pro- 
hibiting lawyers in Congress from accepting 
fees to work for corporations and against the 
people. By laws passed by the Senate, a Sen- 
ator is forbidden to take fees for procuring a 
contract or an office, or for any sort of service 
on any question which may be brought before 
him in his official capacity; or to take bribes, or 
to hold an interest in public contracts, etc. If 
these are not insults to the Senate or the legal 
profession, why should the provisions of the 
Beck bill be so regarded ? 

All the special pleading of all the lawyers in 
the Senate, which contains many of the best 
special pleaders in the country, will not con- 
vince the great public that men who, as repre- 
sentatives of the people in the highest legis- 
lative body in the nation, are called upon to 
legislate on the obligations of subsidized rail- 
roads to the Government and the people, should 
have fat fees from those very railroads at the 
time in their pockets. A question forced on 
public attention by this discussion is: " Is it 
right, is it expedient, is it for the public inter- 
est that 65 out of our 76 Senators should be 
lawyers?" — Rural New Yorker. 

Stockton Notes. 

[Written for Riral Press by Mrs. W. D. N.) 
Two sharp midnight shocks of earthquake 
shook us from June rest into July. The night 
was still, with its sulphurous beauty of sky 
and glory of stars, divided by the sun's wide 
track. It is IS years since we have had such a 
shaking. Then, milk was slopped from pans on 
the racks, gates opened and shut with a bang, 
and orchard trees bowed to each other, giving 
poor mortals an awful sense of helplessness, as 
the earth, that seems so reliable, swayed with 
pent force. 

The just law to protect human life was exe- 
cuted June 29th, quietly, and with all the-re- 
finements of our high civilization. Uzza F. 
French, brought here for trial from Amador 
county for killing his brother-in-law, nearly 
three years ago, was hanged, after all efforts to 
clear him had failed. If a few more were 
strung up it might clear the papers of the sick- 
ening details that load them. Even he could 
sing " Washed in the Blood of Jesus " and feel 
that the blood bought pardon and the prayers 
of Father Brennan made him ready. 

The plans of Colonel Myers, the Detroit arch- 
itect, were accepted, and the courthouse is to 
be a tine edifice with regard to beauty of arch- 
itecture, space, ventilation, light and all mod- 
ern needs. The Independent, in a sensible and 
timely editorial, urges that granite from our 
foothills, not 60 miles distant, be used, that 
centuries to come may look upon the building 
that is to be the pride of our day. 

The medical profession has lost one of its 
most upright and able members, Dr. E. A. 
Stockton, President of the City Board of Health. 
A courteous gentleman, fulfilling the duties of 
home and society cheerfully while struggling 
with ill health. 

The pulpit reminded hearers of the Fourth 
with its sacred memories and present blessings, 
and the piff and whiz of boyish firecrackers 
broke the stillness of Monday. In the country, 
work went on in the harvest, for people feared 
fires, and a hard year bad closed on them, and 
hay and wheat and everything a farmer sells is 
low, and economy — old, homely, almost a 
stranger — is set up, and^her mandates deemed 
wise, even pleasant. 

Most all grain is falling short of expectation, 
owing to shelling by the norther June 12, when 
it was in the dough — swelled to the utmost and 
shelled easier than when ripe. Some fields are 
badly lodged and twisted, and bother new har- 
vesters. A Houser near here has averaged 20 
acres a day. 

Peach and Early June apricots do far better 
here than the Moorpark. The peach crop is very 
light. Now that it is canning and jelly-mak- 
ing time, I wish to recommend Cornell & Shel- 
ton's gummed labels (Birmingham, Conn.) I 
received the book from the Rural Press office 
and find it so convenient for pasting on glass, 
tin or boxes. 

Few persons do anything to prevent codlin 
moth, still early apples were good. 

San Joaquin Pomona Grange, No. 3, has de- 
cided to compete for premium at the State fair, 
though fruit is not as good as usual, except 
grapes. Few tine sheep are kept now to furnish 
fleeces, because they don't pay. Stockton 
Grange held a spirited meeting on Saturday, 
June 10, to help on the Pomona exhibit. 


In Memoriam. 

Sister JaneA. Holliday, one of the charter members 
of Alharnbra Grange, has recently passed away, 
and the Obituary Committee, consisting of E. B. 
Smith. W. A. Fraser and Mrs. M. B Lander, speak 
of her pure, quiet life in these fitting terms: 

Again has the angel of death passed over Alharn- 
bra Grange, not to gently remind us that he hovers 
near, but to fold in his icy arms the form of another 

On the first day of the month he took one of our 
younger sisters, and again, ere the month is gone, 
he calls sister Jane A. Holliday, one of our charter 
members and second of that substantial 26. who has 
taken the degree of death — a degree beyond the pale 
of the subordinate Grange. 

From the household has gone a prop; husband, 
daughters, sons and grandchildren have lost their 
best friend, and the place that knew her once shall 
know her no more. Her pure, quiet home-life that 
reached as well to neighbor and friend, has been one 
long sermon of patience and fortitude, and has left a 
fragrance that w ill follow all of hers, even to genera- 
tions unborn. In the home is a vacant chair, in the 
Grange a void, in the neighborhood is a loss; yet 
over all and through all is a memory that will be 
lasting and pleasing when the marble slab that 
marks her resting place has crumbled into dust. 

Alharnbra Grange has lost a loved and respected 
sister, and in her sympathy whispered to the sadden- 
ed household, "Your loss is her gain." She has 
but taken a higher degree, one given at the call 
of the Heavenly Master, and waiteth on the other 
side till, in the Master's own time, this same call 
conieth to her earth-waiting family and friends. 

Valley Grange, also, has been called upon for the 
first time to mourn the decease of one of its number, 
John E. Martin. The resolutions — prepared by 
A. Thurber, D. P. Griffin and Harriette T. Bailey- 
declare that in his death the Grange loses one of 
its choicest members, the community one of its best 
citizens, and his home one of the best of sons and 

Harvest Feast.— Temescal Grange will con- 
fer the fourth degree, opening at 10 o'clock, 
Saturday, July 17th. Remarks on a recent 
visit to Oregon will be expected from Rev. S. 

Goodenough, of Santa Clara. Also, speaking 
by other able Patrons and Matrons. All Pa- 
trons are cordially invited, and especially from 
Eden and other neighboring Granges. 

We were in error in stating that Mr. D. 
Lubin would speak at the next literary exer- 
cises of Sacramento Grange. Mr. Lubin has 
promised the State Grange Committee on Liter- 
ary Exercises to be ready to address the next 
meeting of the State Grange on " How to Per- 
petuate the Republic." 



Apples. — Fresno Republican, July 9: While 
it is a demonstrated fact that some varieties of 
apples grow to perfection in this immediate 
vicinity, it is equally well known that most 
varieties obtain greater perfection in the foot- 
hills than they do in the valley. The prob- 
abilities are that in the course of development 
of the fruit industry the bulk of the apple 
product in the county will be in the foothills, 
although there are now but comparatively few 
produced there. We were shown this week a 
twig six inches in length from a young apple 
tree in the orchard of H. Knepper, on Pancher 
creek, some six or eight miles above the plains. 
The twig contained some 14 young apples, and 
was removed with many others because the 
tree was overloaded. The fruit was thinned 
out by picking off some of the young fruit, bat 
the tree was so overburdened that many twigs 
were removed entire. All the apple trees in 
the orchard are loaded with fruit, and the va- 
rieties which are ripening appear to be first 


From South Fork. — Cor. Humboldt Stand- 
ard: We had the pleasure of a five minutes' 
talk with Mr. Jacobson, proprietor of the 
Palace shoe store, Vance block, yesterday, who 
has just returned from his fine ranch on the 
South Fork of Eel river. He says feed is 
splendid in that section, and that the country 
and stock never looked better than they do 
this year. Fruit, he thinks, will not be quite 
so abundant as last year, but the quality will 
be superior. Grain looks fine and will yield 
well. Mr. Jacobson owns something near 500 
acres of land in this section. It is a very valu- 
able property and is so situated that it must in 
time greatly increase in value. From Mr. 
Jacobson we learn that Captain Stinson, well 
known in Eureka, having formerly lived here, 
is improving his place at Phillipsville by the 
erection of a fine barn. Captain Stinson's place 
is one of the very best on South Fork. The 
captain has put out a little prune orchard 
which is coming on very well indeed. The old 
orchard on the place is one of the krgest and 
most productive in that section. Mr. Jacob- 
son's family remains at South Fork, and he will 
himself return there in a short time for further 


Editors Press: — I send you by express a 
small box of tomatoes grown on the hills, with- 
out any water, where two years ago was a 
waste of rocks, brush and trees. I send you 
these, as they may be of interest to some people 
who want homes in California. There are 
thousands of acres of as good land vacant in 
this county waiting for some man with a little 
money and plenty of industry. I planted on 
the hill, for experiment, where it is very steep, 
peas, beans, tomatoes and corn, and all are do 
ing or have done well. If I had had better va- 
riety of tomatoes for early kind I think I could 
have been some weeks earlier. Fruit crop — 
peaches, a half; plums, apples and grapes, very 
good. — Maurice K£atinge, Lower Lake. 
[The tomatoes duly arrived, have been put to 
the practical test and prove good enough for 
anybody.— Eds. Press.] 

Los Aogeles. 

Fruit Shipments. — Anaheim Gazette ; 
Messrs. H. E. Cornwell and Williamson Dunn, 
of Lob Angeles, connected with the freight de- 
partment of the California Southern R. R., were 
in town yesterday. They are offering special 
inducements to shippers of grapes to patronize 
their line. They will send through fruit trains of 
not less than ten carloads, on passenger time, at 
the rate of $280 per car to Kansas City and $300 
to Chicago. A less number of cars would pay 
proportionately more, and a single car attached 
to passenger trains wonld cost $450 to Chicago. 
Last year's rate was $600. It will be possible 
nnder this reduced rate to get our grapes to 
Eastern markets at a price which will place 
them within the reach of the masses, and thus 
stimulate the demand for them. 


Hop-Growers' Annual Mei;tino.— Dis- 
patch: The Hop-Growers' Association of Men- 
docino county held its regular annual meeting 
Saturday, July 3, 1886. When the meeting 
was first called together there was not a quorum 
present, but after an adjonrnment of an hour 
the association reconvened, found a quorum 
present, and proceeded to business, L. F. Long, 
president, presiding. The minutes of the pre- 
vious annual meeting read and approved, while 
the minutes of the special meetings were passed 
over unread. Treasurer McGarvey 'a annual re- 
port was received, and approved as correct, and 

Secretary Poage's report was also approved. 
The election of officers resulted as follows : 
President, L. F. Long; Vice-President, W. D. 
White; Treasurer, Robt. McGarvey; Secretary, 
J. A. Poage; Directors, J. B. McClure, N. Bart- 
lett, T. S. Parsons, Berry Wright, J. R. John- 
son, B. Pemberton and A. J. Gibson. Notice 
having been given at the former annual meet- 
' n Ki by B. Pemberton, that he would offer an 
amendment to the first article or section of the 
by-laws, reducing the membership fee from $5 
to $2.50, it was taken up for action, and the 
amendment adopted. Notice of an amendment 
to the by-laws was then given by W. D. White, 
worded as follows : " Any member of the as- 
sociation who removes from the county, or 
ceases to be a hop grower, his name shall be 
stricken from the roll." 


Growth of Trees, etc.- -Auburn Herald: 
R. G. Breckenridge owns — or did until a few 
days ago, when he sold out to Mr. Olaen, of 
Sacramento — a beautiful place a little more 
than a mile south of Auburn. He has a full 
assortment of trees, vines, etc., many of which 
are in bearing, and none of which have ever 
been irrigated in the least, except by the show- 
ers of nature. Mr. Breckenridge cultivates 
thoroughly, and the place is a splendid illustra- 
tion of the practicability of the theory of culti- 
vation instead of irrigation. The growth of his 
trees is rank, and those in bearing promise a 
liberal yield, according to their age, of excel- 
lent fruit. To illustrate the thriftiness of his 
trees and vines, he left with us last Monday 
some samples of this year's growth. There 
were peach, pear, apple and plum limbs on 
which the new wood was from four to six feet 
long. One rank old blackberry vine was lit. 1- 
ally loaded with fruit, and another of this year's 
growth measured between six and seven feet. 
Every limb left with us shows the highest de- 
gree of thrift and vigor. In the hay line Mr. 
Breckenridge has just harvested a crop, and a 
bunch of rye grown on his place can be Been at 
the office which measures eight feet and three 
inches. This place is above the ditch, and Mr. 
Breckenridge could not conveniently irrigate if 
he was disposed to. He, therefore, adopted the 
cultivation theory from necessity, and the ex- 
cellent result he is attaining promises to go a 
long way toward solving the irrigation question 
so far as the red land of the foothills is con- 


The Fruit Committee. — Record- Union, July 
13 : There was a good attendance of the fruit 
committee at their meeting held yesterday at 
1 p. m., at the office of W. P. Coleman, R. D. 
Stephens in the chair. Much interest was 
shown in the success of this branch of the re- 
ception. A resolution was adopted requesting 
the supervisors to make a suitable appropriation 
for the entertainment of the G. A. R. on August 
11th. The following names, previously omitted, 
were added to the fruit committees at the fol- 
lowing places : W. F. Crowmiller, Penryn; J. 
H. Burnham, C. Ecklon, Folsom; H. Mette, 
Mormon Island; Mr. Gillct, Nevada City; Sen- 
ator Pirfscher, Auburn; Senator F. De Long, 
Novato, Marin county; Mr. Le Franc, San Jose; 
Arpad Haraszthy, San Francieco; Mr. Portal, 
San Jose. The meeting adjourned to meet on 
August 2d. at 1 p. m., at W. P. Coleman's 
office, 325 J street. 

Sun-dried Apricots. — G. S. Brown, of 
Vacaville, was in Sacramento yesterday, and 
exhibited samples of sun-dried apricots, which 
were very fine. He sta'es that they are worth 
17 cents per pound dried, but that even that 
price does not equal what they brought green 
this season, as it takes from five to six pounds 
of the green fruit to make one when dried. The 
best quality will make a pound of the dried 
fruit from five of the green, but less choice in 
quality will require six pounds. Mr. Brown 
-tit. - tb&t the fruit dried nicely in two days, a 
third day being given after gathered and placed 
in a shady place. 

Hops. — A Chinese hop-grower on the river 
sold his crop yesterday for 21 J cents per pound. 
Last evening it was reported that 25 cents per 
pound was being offered by buyers. Evidently 
" hops are hops " again this year, and, though 
the big prices of a few years ago are not looked 
for, growers will make a nice profit. 

San Bernardino. 

Ore villa Robusta. — Riverside Echo: The 
wonderful flowers of the Ore villa Robusta are 
now in bloom. They are of a lovely toothed 
comb-like structure, the teeth or fringes stand- 
ing up, deep red at the base and yellow at the 
top. The general effect is rich, rare and deli- 
cate in the extreme. They can be seen in front 
of Dr. Patton's orchard, also A. S. White's 
and in Mrs. Gilliland's lovely lawn. 


Sheep. — Sierra Valley Leader: Deputy 
Assessor and Constable D inforth went to the 
Little Truckee bridge on Friday last to collect 
the new tax, according to a recent county ordi- 
nance, on 3000 head of sheep about to come 
into the couuty. The ordinance requires that 
all sheep not owned in the county ehall pay a 
tax of five cents each to the county. The 
"gall" of these lower country sheep men is 
without limit. They bring up their sheep to 
eat up the pastures that our own ranchers need, 
and destroy our roads by filling them with 
stones and debris from the hillsides, aud are not 
even willing to repair the roads tbey destroy, 
which the mountain counties have to expend 

July 17, 1886.] 

fACIFie f^JRAb f RESS 

large amounts of money in the repairing. They 
destroy the feed and the public highway with- 
out paying one cent, either directly or indi- 
rectly, into the county treasury; make a fuss 
because we wish to work our mines, and injure 
us in that way, and then some come up here 
and eat up our feed. Our people are getting 
tired of it, and thus the recent county ordi- 


Fruit Shipments. — Judicion, July 10: Dur- 
ing the past ten days there have been forwarded 
from Vacaville the following fruit shipments: 
July 1st, 203,540 lbs.; 2d, 202,6.30; 3d, 216,530; 
5th, 82,740; 6th, 224,095; 7th, 228,640; 8th, 
175,543; 9th, 198,500; 10th, 195,095; total, 
1,727,363 lbs. This is only the beginning of 
the season, and from the above figures we feel 
no hesitancy in saying that there can be no 
question about the grand future in store for 
Vacaville. The enormous quantities of fruit 
forwarded daily from this place to points 
throughout the State, and to Eastern markets, 
must be conclusive evidence, even to the most 
obtuse observer, that Vacaville can have no 
equal in the production of fine fruits. The 
main street of our village during the past week 
was thronged with commission merchants, can- 
nery agents, representatives of Eastern for- 
wardiug firms and local buyers, all bent on the 
purchase of our fruits. The scene presented 
reminded one more of a day on 'change, during 
the halcyon days of the Oomstock, than any- 
thing else we can liken it to. 

Tomatoes.— Winters Express, July 9: For 
the four days past, ending on Wednesday noon, 
B. R. Sackett & Co. shipped from the Winters 
depot 2203 boxes of tomatoes, for which they 
have received good prices all the time — better 
than they did last year. 

Apricot Drying. — As an evidence of the 
good done by the apricot drying we mentioned 
last week, we herewith give a statement of the 
number of pounds of apricots bought, the money 
paid therefor, and the amount paid the hands 
for cutting, spreading, etc. Number of pounds 
purchased from the growers, 81,408, for which 
was paid a cent and a half a pound, or $1221.12; 
amount paid for help, a little over $300. It 
will be seen from this that over $1500 have been 
left in this community. 


The Cattle Sent Overland. — Visalia 
Times: The Times is indebted to D. Markham 
for a copy of the Kansas City Journal of June 
15th, which contains the following item of in- 
terest concerning a lot of cattle that were ship- 
ped from Tulare recently, and which were 
mentioned in the Times of the 10th instant: 
" The arrival of 23 carloads of California grass- 
fed cattle in the city, yesterday, marked the 
opening of a heretofore undeveloped branch of 
the cattle trade, one which bids fair to develop 
to large proportions. The cattle were con- 
signed to the Fish & Keck Company, and were 
the first that have ever been snipped this far 
Eist. Notwithstanding the long and tedious 
journey they appeared in good condition and 
above the average in weight. They sold for 
$4.62£ per hundred and were shipped by G. D. 
Bliss, of Tulare county, Cal. The cattle from 
this State are high grade, and it is believed this 
experiment of shipping them to Kansas City 
will prove a success." The price mentioned in 
the above article is for live gross weight, and is 
equivalent to $9.25 per hundred according to 
the California method of selling cattle. 

Mesquite. — Mesquite grass and red clover 
are excellent forage plants, and they have been 
successfully grown in this county. H. C. 
Moore, of the Rancho de Kaweah, who has 
been experimenting largely in growing grasses, 
was in town on Monday last and left at the 
Times office a sample bunch of each of the 
above-named grasses. He sowed 10 pounds of 
the mesquite grass a year ago last March. It 
grew to be about two feet high during the sea- 
son and died, apparently, without going to 
seed, which caused Mr. Moore to believe that 
it was not adapted for the soil in this valley. 
In April last, however, he discovered it grow- 
ing in the field again, and it has since attained 
a growth of four feet four inches, and has 
headed out nicely. It has also scattered over 
the ranch somewhat, Mr. Moore having found 
it in places over half "a mile distant from 
where it was sown by him. He says that it 
will cut a ton and a half to the acre and is a 
fine fodder, especially for horses. The sample 
bunch of red clover is three feet in hight. It 
was first sown on this ranch about three years 
ago, and thrives well on the moist land along 
the Kaweah river. 

New Wells. — General Turnbull, of the Pa- 
cific Coast Land Bureau, has just received a dis- 
patch stating that an enormous flow of water 
had been struck upon the land of M. Spring, in 
the Tulare valley, of an artesian well. A six- 
inch pipe being sunk to the depth of 415 feet 
had penetrated a water bearing stratum that 
sent up a column of water nearly five feet above 
the surface. This is the largest stream yet 
found in the famous artesian-well belt of Tulare 
valley, and is close to some of the lands of the 
Tulare colony. 


Honey. — Editors Press : — Extracting is 
about over in this county, and the crop does 
not come up to the estimation formed earlier in 
the season. The average is about one-half or 
possibly two-thirds that of 1884. Sumac is just 
coming into bloom, so that the bees will be able 
to fill up for winter stores. The quality of the 

honey is good. The bee men are inclined to 
keep the honey in their own hands for the 
present. — S., Santa Paula. 

The New Fruit Dryer. — Free Press, July 9: 
A Free Press reporter visited the new fruit 
dryer of W. T. Coleman & Co., on Santa Clara 
and Canada streets, yesterday afternoon, and 
was cordially welcomed by the obliging man- 
ager, Mr. Bailey. It did not take long to make 
a tour of the works for, although extensive, 
they are all on one floor. There are two 
dryers, each containing 16 chambers, having a 
combined capacity of 60 tons of fruit per day. 
Just now they are handling 24 tons, which is 
all that is procurable, and the average time of 
drying is from 10 to 11 hours. If the fruit were 
better, of course it would require a longer time 
for its preparation. Entering the works at the 
south door you come first to an entry, and on 
the left is a commodious office and to the right 
a large store-room. Passing then through a 
low arch, we come into the pitting room where 
there are now only about 20 pitters at work, 
utilizing about one-eighth of the available 
space. The pitters, women and children most- 
ly, are paid by the tray and average $1.15 per 
diem each. The dryers are in the center of the 
building, and are built after the old Smoltz 
patent improved by Blatchley. Their princi- 
ple is a current of hot air passing from a fur- 
nace on a level with the fruit chambers and 
carried off by immense exhaust flues on top of 
the building. By this process only about 10 
degrees of heat are lost from the current pass- 
ing through the entire length of the fruit cham- 
bers. The fruit is shipped in sacks to the home 
house in San Francisco and is there put up in 
attractive packages best suited to the market 
demand. All the first-class fruit, however — 
which will be very little this year — is labeled 
as coming from Ventura county, and the poorer 
grades are sold under fancy names. The com- 
pany have large establishments at various 
points on the coast and the same plan of ship- 
ment is followed at all of them. The dryer 
will be run during the apricot season, closing 
about September 1st, and will work to some ex- 
tent on prunes and figs. Apples and pears, 
Mr. Bailey says, it will not pay to handle at 
present market prices. 


Pink Eye.— Phoenix Herald: The pink eye 
has broken out quite seriously among the 
horses of the valley. Mr. McCann's stallion, 
Orphan Boy, is suffering from it badly, and Mr. 
Wm. Isaac has had two horses down with it. 
The first symptoms are a general stiffness much 
like founder. When this is observed the ani 
mal should at once be given a purgative and 
turned out to pasture, when they will gener 
ally recover. A few hours' driving or work 
after the stiffness begins to come on may prove 


Fattening Cattle on Hay. — Reno Oazetle, 
July 12: Farmers East would laugh at a man 
who would talk about putting fat on cat 
tie in winter with hay, but here it is i 
regular business. The following statement 
shows the gain from feeding 133 head for 5 
months and 12 days. The cattle left Reno on 
April 12th. They weighed 1170 gross when 
they came in October, and would not net half 
of it because they were not in shape; so the 
gain is even more than appears in the state 
ment. They were called 585 when they came, 
and the statement nets them 636 pounds 

Oakland, May 8, 1886, 
D. C. Wheeler in acct. with Grayson, Owens 6V Co. 

Dr. Oct. 30, 1885, to 133 beeves, 76,705 pounds 

Cr. May 1, 1886, by one steer died, $29.11, 132 
beeves, 83,993 pounds, $6080.99. 


[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, IT. 8. A. 


Red Bluff. 


S. Francisco. 

Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 


July 7-14. 


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s w 























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. 24 

Explanation. — CI. for clear; Oy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. 
Wiud and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard timel, with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. 


A Short Eop Crop.— Tacoma, July 9: The 
hop crop in Washington Territory, as esti 
mated by competent judges, v/ill be about 20 
per cent short, caused by slack culture, due to 
a low market during the early stages of the sea- 
son. The recent copious rains have done the 
hops much good, and as the season is late and 
growers in many cases yet cultivating, it is 
hoped to bring up the yield to within 15 per 
cent of last year's crop. About 3000 bales of 
the incoming crop have been contracted for 
October delivery, varying in price from nine 
cents (the lowest) and 25 cents (the highest) 
paid to-day, and this far the highest for the 
season. Twenty-two and a half cents has been 
offered for large quantities and refused, as 
growers are now disposed to await develop- 
ments as to the amount of damage to the New 
York crop, daily reported here. The grade of 
this year's growth is sure to be good, as a light 
yield always improves the quality. There is no 
disease of any kind, and, in fact, never has 
been in hop plants of this region for the whole 
period of 17 years in which hops have been 
grown here. The yield for the Tacoma dis- 
trict, which includes Puyallap valley, will be 
something near 2,500,000 pounds, and for the 
whole Territory about 3,000,000 pounds. 


A Paint for Wood or Metals. — A mixture 
of zinc white with zinc chloride is found to fur- 
nish a paint of great value both for wood and 
metals, as it becomes very hard, and can be 
washed and brushed without injury, which 
qualities are, of course, of prime importance. 

Senatorial Conflict on the Debris Ques- 

On Tuesday of this week there was a conflict 
the United States Senate over the debris 
question, in which the two senators from Cali- 
fornia found themselves vigorously opposing 
each other. We give such information on the 
matter as is given in the several press dis- 
patches this (Wednesday) morning. 
Special Dispatch to the " Morning Call." 

Washington, July 13. — Senators Hearst, 
Jones, of Nevada, and Ingalls, of Kansas, suc- 
ceeded to-day, by combined effort, in defeating 
Senator Stanford's amendment to the river and 
harbor bill, to prevent dumping debris or slick- 
ens in the Sacramento, Feather or fcaB Joaquin 
rivers and their tributaries. The Senate Com- 
merce Committee struck from the bill the 
House proviso, which read as follows: 

The Secretary of War, if he be not so satis- 
fied, is hereby instructed to institute such legal 
proceedings as may be necessary to prevent 
washing, sluicing, dumping or discharging 
detritus, debris or slickens, caused by or arising 
from hydraulic mining by water used through 
pipes and used through nozzles under pressure, 
into either of said Sacramento and Feather riv- 
ers or any of their tributaries, or to such place 
situation from which detritus, debris or 
slickens may be liable to be washed or carried 
by storms or floods and either of said rivers or 
tributaries, and he is hereby instructed to use 
out of said sum as much as may be necessary for 
said purpose. 

Senator Stanford yesterday moved its inser- 
tion as an amendment, and debate began yes- 
terday afternoon and lasted nearly three hours 

Further in the bill is a general clause relating 
to all rivers that Ingalls, in his opposition to 
Stanford's amendment, claimed would cover the 
Sacramento, Feather and San Joaquin rivers. 
This clause, which Ingalls also savagely at- 
tacked, provides that it shall be unlawful to 
dump, discharge or wash, or cause to be dump- 
ed, discharged or washed, from any mine or 
mineral land or bank, tailings, boulders, gravel, 
clay, earth or debris, into any navigable waters 
or rivers for the improvement of which Congress 
has made or may make appropriations.or into any 
tributary branches or affluents of such waters or 
rivers. The flimsiness of Ingalls' argument lay 
in the fact that there is an appropriation of 
$210,000 for the improvement of these rivers 
as soon as the Secretary of War is satisfied that 
hydraulic mining is stopped, and Stanford's 
amendment was designed to stop such mining, 
thereby making the appropriation available. 

Hearst had proposed a cunning amendment 
to Stanford's amendment. It consisted of a 
few words intended to define hydraulic mining. 
After the words "by water used through pipes 
and used through nozzles under pressure," 
Hearst proposed to insert "directed against 
mountain sides or natural banks." Under this 
definition it is claimed that where ground had 
first been blasted, creating an artificial bank, 
or where it was desired to wash an old gravel 
bed, hydraulic mining could be carried on with- 
out Government interference. 

Senator Stanford apparently did not see 
through Hearst's amendment, and accepted it. 
His amendment was then agreed to and a mo- 
tion was made to strike it out, leaving the bill 
as originally reported from the committee. 
On this motion the yeas and nays were called, 
and it was adopted by a vote of 31 to 19. 
Hearst and Jones voted in the affirmative, and 
Stanford in the negative. Mitchell, Stanford 
and Ingalls took part in the debate, and Wel- 
ton, McKenna and Markham were interested 
listeners. Ingalls contended that the proposi- 
tion to stop hydraulic mining was an unprece- 
dented invasion of private rights. Stanford 
denied this and stated that hydraulic mining 
gave a few men the right to despoil property of 
many farmers, and to injure and destroy 400 
miles of navigable waters in the State, and to 
threaten the navigation of San Francisco, San 
Pablo and Suisun bays. 

Special Dispatch to the "Examiner." 

Washington, July 13.— This has been a field 
day in the Senate on the River and Harbor bill 
and has resulted in a victory for California, on 
which the valley and uiountain men can be 
equally congratulated. To explain the situation 

of the Sacramento and Feather rivers has not 
been used, owing to a provision in the bill that 
the Secretary of War should first be satisfied 
that hydraulic mining on these rivers had 
ceased. Not understanding the term hydraulic 
mining as it is understood in California in rela- 
tion to the " slickens " question, the Secretaries 
have refused to expend the money even since the 
hydraulic mining injunction was issued, be- 
cause, under a strict construction of the term, 
even quartz mining has been constructed as hy- 
draulic mining, owing to the water used in the 
milling process. When Senator Hearst appeared 
in the Senate committee on the River and 
Harbor bill, he saw that it would be necessary 
to protect both farming and mining interests to 
make it acceptable to California, and he induced 
the committee to modify the limitations on the 
expenditure on the Sacramento and Feather 
rivers by inserting the words : " hurtful to 
navigation," as applied to the kind of hydraulic 
mining which the Secretary of War must be 
satisfied is ceased. He then secured the inser- 
tion of the amendment which defined hydraulic 
mining, as understood in the slickens lawsuits. 
This work was done by Senator Hearst during 
the time when Senator Stanford was away from 
Washington. It was done with the co-operation 
of Senator Jones of Nevada, who is a member of 
the committee having the bill in charge. The 
committee amendments secured by Senators 
Hearst and Jones included the striking out of 
the clause in the bill which made it the duty of 
the Secretary of War to institute legal proceed- 
ings against almost every class of miners in Cal- 
ifornia. It was therefore a surprise to Senators 
Hearst and Jones when Senator Stanford in the 
Senate moved to insert^ the objectionable 

Senator Hearst said that he supposed his 
colleague understood the committee's amend- 
ments were perfectly satisfactory to all interests 
in California, and hoped that the section as re- 
ported by the committee would not be dis- 

As Senator Stanford insisted upon the rein- 
sertion of the clause, then Senator Hearst 
prepared an amendment, defining what kind of 
mining might be proceeded against, following 
the definition of the court in the famous 
slickens suits. This amendment was adopted. 

Senator Stanford then moved, again, to have 
the objectionable clause inserted and the motion 
was lost. All the Democrats and enough 
Republicans voted with Senator Hearst to keep 
out the clause. Jones of Nevada, Edmunds of 
Vermont and Ingalls of Kansas, all Republi- 
cans, voted with Hearst. 

Stanford took the defeat rather roughly at 
first, not liking the idea of the new California 
Democratic Senator winning a single victory in 
a Republican Senate. 

To a reporter who spoke to Senator Hearst 
about the matter, he said: "lam sure this 
will meet with Senator Stanford's approval when 
he understands it. I know already that the 
amendments I have secured are approved by 
both the mining and farming interests of Cali- 
fornia, because I framed them only after 
thorough discussion with the representatives of 
both interests. What the valley men want is 
an expenditure of the appropriation for the im- 
provement of the Sacramento and Feather 
rivers. Thia the Secretary of War will proceed 
to do, when the bill becomes a law, as my 
amendment, 'hurtful to navigation,' requires 
him to see that only such mining as has been 
enjoined shall be stopped. The mining men, 
on the other hand, are satisfied that the clause 
which encouraged the blackmailing of quartz 
mining has been stricken out. Mr. Stanford 
did not seem to understand that the amendment 
defining hydraulic mining still remains in the 
bill. It is in its proper place, 12 pages further 
on, where it was inserted by the committee at 
my request." 

The World Must Move. — In 1877, electric 
lighting by the incandescent system was de- 
clared by many to be contrary to scientific 
principles. The same was said of the use of 
iron, and later, of steel, in bridge building. 
The Suez canal was once denounced as a wild 
and foolish scheme. Less than 50 years ago 
educated mechanics asserted that steamships 
could never carry enough coal for a long voy- 
age. Leading ship-builders told us that iron 
ships could not swim, and when one or two 
floated it was said that they would not hold 
together permanently. Rolls for flour making 
it will" be necessary to recall that for a number I were once hooted and derided. The world 
of years the appropriation for the improvement ! will not stand still for any one. 



[Jdly 17, 1886 

[By Jons Grbekleaf Wiiittier.] 

"And I went into the Vale of Beavor, and as I 
went I preached repentance to the people. And one 
morning, sitting by the fire, a great cloud came over 
me, and a temptation beset me. And it was said: 
'All things come by Nature;' and the Elements and 
the Stars came over me. And as I sat still and let it 
alone, a living hope arose in me. and a true Voice 
which said: '77iereisa living God who made all 
things.' And immediately the cloud and the temp- 
tation vanished, and Life rose over all, and my 
heart was glad, and I praised the Living God."— 
Journal of George Fox, iboo. 

Still, as of old. in Beavor 's Vale, 

man of God! our hope and faith 
The Elements and Stars assail, 

And the awed spirit holds its breath, 
Blown over by a wind of death. 

Takes Nature thought for such as we, 
What place her human atom fills, 

The weed-drift of her careless sea. 
The mist on her unheeding hills? 
What recks she of our helpless wills ? 

Strange god of Force, with fear, not love, 
Its trembling worshiper! Can prayer 

Reach the shut ear of Fate, or move 
Unpitying Energy to spare? 
What does the cosmic Vastness care? 

In vain to this dread Unconcern 
For the All-Father's love we look; 

In vain, in quest of it, we turn 
The storied leaves of Nature's book, 
The prints her rocky tablets took. 

I pray for faith, I long to trust: 

1 listen with my heart, and hear 

A Voice without a' sound: "Be just, 
Be true, be merciful, revere 
The word within thee: God is near! 

" A light to sky and earth unknown 

Pales all their lights— a mightier force 
Than theirs the powers of Nature own, 
And. to its gotl, as at its source, 
His Spirit moves the Universe. 

" Believe and trust. Through stars and suns, 
Through all occasions and events, 
His wise, paternal purpose runs; 
The darkness of His providence 
Is star-lit with benign intents." 

joy supreme! I know the Voice 
Like none beside on earth or sea; 

Yea, more, O soul of mine rejoice, 
By all that He requires of me, 
1 know what God Himself must be. 

No picture to my aid I call, 
I shape no image in my prayer; 

1 only know in Him is ail 

Of life, light, beauty, everywhere, 
Eternal Goodness here and there! 

I know He is, and what He is, 
Whose one great purpose is the good 

Of all. I rest my soul on His 
Immortal Love and Fatherhood, 
And trust Him, as His children should. 

Not less than His restraining hand 

Is on our selfish seekings laid, 
And, shorn of words and works, we stand 

Of vain illusions disarrayed, 

The richer for our losses made. 

I fear no more. The clouded face 

Of Nature smiles; through all her things 

Of time and space and sense, I trace 
The moving of the Spirit's wings, 
And hear the song of hope she sings. 

— Atlantic Monthly. 

In Colorado. 

[Written for Rural Press by Fankib Isabel Siifrrick.) 

Next to California, Colorado ia certainly the 
most beautiful State in the Union. There are 
many who rank her first; but it seems to me, 
with all her snow-clad ranges and green valleys, 
she yet lacks a certain spirituality — that inde- 
finable charm of atmosphere which makes her 
sister State pre-eminent in the world of beauty. 

Among the Rockies are many enchanting 
pleasure places, with vistas of purple foothills 
overshadowed by giant mountain peaks, snow- 
covered the year round; but one sometimes 
misses the natural luxuriance that clothes the 
SierraB with verdure to their summits and longs 
for the cool breath of the redwoods and the tall 
majesty of these straight-limbed giants. 

There is an awful grandeur and sublimity 
about the Rockies that commands a speechless 
admiration, rather than that near love which 
fills the hearts of those who have lived many 
seasons in California, close to the throbbing 
pulses of her ocean beaches, and the sacred 
silence of her wooded mount lin temples. 
Then, too, is the charm of her Spanish missions, 
their old time bells echoing the chants of 
medieval days, their picturesque ruins quaintly 
contrasting the old with the new. 

But " comparisons are odious," and let me 

tell you something about the beautiful "Queen 
City of the Plains," though I suppose many of 
the readers of the Press are familiar with it. 

The first glimpse the traveler catches of Den 
ver is usually at sunset, after a long day's jour- 
ney westward over the plains. For some hours 
he has seen the great ranges darkening the 
u rut. The sun illuminates their summits, then 
sinks behind them, lost to view long before the 
dusk. To the south a hoary head has lifted 
itself now and then out of the mists. As the 
night approaches it grows more vague, and at 
last the mystic sentinel disappears altogether. 
It is Pike's Peak, and the tourist gives a little 
sigh of disappointment as the dim outlines 
elude his vision. But the flame of the sunset 
has revealed a newer object of interest, the 
queen city lying at rest on the plainB with her 
golden spires pointing heavenward, and her 
white highways reaching to the very portals of 
those grim, shadowy range* 

For awhile one is content to look upon this 
beautiful picture without a thought of all the 
life that stirs within it, but the illusion is dis- 
pelled when at last its peaceful streets are in- 
vaded and the train pulls up in the fine stone 
depot, where all is bustle and confusion, and one 
is reminded forcibly of the enterprise and activ- 
ity that has made Colorado what it is. 

Denver is a bright city with all the modern 
improvements. Rows of pretty cottages line 
the well-shaded streets, and in the wealthier 
portions of the city mansions of the finest build 
and beauty mark the outgrowth of Western 
taste and culture. The busiuess portions equal 
in pretentious buildings Chicago or St. Louis. 
What is known as the Tabor block is really a 
specimen of magnificent architecture, and doeB 
credit to the bonanza king who planned it. 
Whatever Senator Tabor's shortcomings may be, 
socially or otherwise, he has certainly done 
much toward the improvement and advance- 
ment of Denver. 

Socially, Denver is very attractive. Her 
people are kind-hearted and hospitable, and 
their entertainments are always of the highest 
order. The Tabor opera house is considered 
the most beau if ul of any in the State, and it is 
finished in the most elaborate style. All of the 
" stars " gravitate there, and the people who 
patronize it are always sure of good attractions. 

Denver is what might be called a thoroughly 
wide-awake city. Every new idea is eagerly 
grasped and all improvements speedily appro- 
priated. It was one of the first cities to be lit 
by electricity. 

The most charming spot near Denver is the 
summer resort called Manitou Springs. No one 
could " do " Colorado without seeing the points 
of interest that surround Manitou. 

It lies directly at the base of Pike's Teak, in 
a little valley which narrows into the canyon 
which is the beginning of the trail up the peak. 
I have never seen a lovelier nook than Mani- 
tou. It just fulfills one's idea of a Bummer 
resort, and one who loves nature could not but 
be happy in such enchanting pleasure-grounds. 
Near by is the Garden of the Gods, a most 
unique place with all sorts of fantastic imagery 
carved by nature in brilliant red sandstone. 
One can easily imagine the representations of 
gods and animals in these grotesque forma- 

Many people make the ascent of the peak, 
but as the trip is a somewhat difficult one for 
those not robust in health, the majority of 
tourists content themselves with rambles and 
rides in the vicinity. There are many interest- 
ing canyons to explore, one of which leads to 
the Cave of the Winds and the Grand Cav- 
erns. A beautiful carriage drive through the 
Ute Pass brings one to the entrance of the 

It would be difficult in so short an article to 
give even a summary of all the beauties that 
surround Manitou, it is so rich in all that nature 
can give of the grand and picturesque. Of 
course, to a lover of the beautiful like myself na- 
ture here is the great attraction, but those who 
go in search of health as well as pleasure find 
in the springs a cure for many things. The 
Soda Springs are nice tasting, and with the ad- 
dition of a little sweet syrup would be a fac- 
simile of the druggist's much advertised "ice- 
cold soda." 

Manitou has an elevation of over 6000 feet. 
Though Manitou is the most beautiful town in 
Colorado, Leadville is certainly the most inter- 
esting. It is a fabulous place, and though 
something of its early wonder and interest has 
passed away it is still to the eye of the Eastern 
tourist a most wondrous place. Sprung up al- 
most within a day, it still bears the impress of 
that sudden rush into life. 

In 1S7S the site of Leadville was marked by 
a few wooden shanties inhabited by a few hun- 
dred people. In less than a year its population 
increased to 5000, and before the close of 1879 
25,000 people were inhabitants of the new town. 

Now it is a thriving city with well-built 
stores and business houses, comfortable resi- 
dences and well-kept streets. To look upon its 
present prosperity and steadily increasing pop- 
ulation, one would never imagine that the town 
was only seven years old. The railroad trains 
coming and going, the stylish equipages on the 
streets, the well-dressed people, are more sug- 
gestive of a sedately grown Eistern town than 
of a mushroom mining camp. It is difficult to 
imagine how short a time has elapsed since the 
only way to Leadville was a mule trail, and the 
mad enthusiasts over gold were forced to en- 
dure the most terrible hardships before they 
reached their goal. 

The climate of Leadville is rather a trying 
1 one, owing to the extreme elevation. As some 

wit has remarked, "It has nine months of win- 
ter and three months late in the fall." The 
summers are exceedingly short, and even in the 
warmest weather the snow peaks so surround 
the place that one, apparently, by a slight ex- 
ertion could throw snow-balls at mid-day. 
However, the sun is quite powerful at noon; and 
though the nights are frosty even in June, the 
mid-hours of the day make one seek the shady 
side of the street. 

People with weak lungs find much difficulty 
in breathing the air of Leadville. The atmos- 
phere is extremely rarefied, and one who desires 
to visit all the mines finds many a hard climb 
before him. The mountains in the vicinity 
seem literally honey-combed with these mines; 
and though fortunes are not made and lost in a 
day, as formerly, the yield of the mines ia some- 
thing marvelous. Notwithstanding all the 
millions that have been taken from the hearts 
of these mountains, there still remains untold 

One cannot help feeling the wonder of this 
town so far removed from the rest of civiliza- 
tion and so high among the clouds, yet fraught 
with the same life, the same interests, that ani- 
mate the commonplace towns of the older or- 
dinary countries. It ia said to be the highest 
town in America, and it ia surely high enough 
to satisfy even the most ambitious mortals. 
Its elevation is over 10,000 feet. 

Leadville is reached by the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railway, which is justly termed the 
scenic route of America. It winds upward 
through the narrow gorges and canyons, reach- 
ing an altitude of 10,000 feet, and one could 
not imagine a grander ride. It is positively 
awe-inspiring. I felt like holding my breath 
when the sturdy engine leaped across the chasmB 
or plunged boldly under the shadow of giant 
mountain cliffs in a mad race with the head- 
waters of the Arkansas. 

Many grand scenes have I looked upon in 
this beautiful land of ours, but never one 
grander than that which greets the startled, 
wonder-stricken gaze of the tourist who is car- 
ried swiftly but surely through the Royal Gorge 
of the Arkansas. 

So high are the rock walls that they seem to 
shut out the light of heaven, and one looks up- 
ward through a semi twilight to the glittering 
line of azure that marks their summit. White- 
sprayed falls leap over the cliffs like showers of 
silver and lose themselves in the foaming stream 
that dashes through the gorge in an angry 
grandeur. Wild flowers fringe the rock masses, 
lifting their pale faces to the narrow cleft of 
light 2000 feet above. The shadow of centuries 
seems to hang over the white-walled chasms, 
and the eloquent voice of the ages seems surg- 
ing in the river as it forces its way with a de- 
termined fury to the calm, shadowless plains 
beyond the mountains. 

But who can describe that which is inde- 
scribable ? As one stands in the Yosemite be- 
reft of speech, so in this grand canyon the heart 
feels that which the lips may never express. 

Perhaps as a rebuke upon our egotism Nature 
sometimes strikes us dumb with the wonder of 
her handiwork. 

Denver, June CSlh. 

A Trip to Monterey. 

[Written for Rural Press by a Native Dauoiitrr.] 

When we first spoke of going to Monterey on 
the Fourth— or, more correctly speaking, the 
Fifth — the distance was an objection raised; 
then thought we were not very patriotic if we 
were afraid of a long ride or a little dust. It 
was quite gloomy when we left home at day- 
light, as a heavy, chilling fog hung over the 
valley. After riding a few miles it cleared off 
and the sun shone out brightly, and our spirits 
rose accordingly. We crossed the Salinas 
river, which is shallow, looking unlike the 
treacherous, booming stream of a few months 
ago. Although the road was rather heavy, it 
was pleasant as we wound through the long 
canyon, coming in sight at last of the beautiful 
bay and quaint old town of Monterey, around 
which so much of the history and romance of 
the early times oling. It looked its beat on the 
pine-fringed hill, with the aparkling bay below, 
on whose tranquil waters the U. S. revenue 
cutter Richard Rush and many yachts were 
anchored. On aeveral streets arches with the 
word " Welcome" were erected, and from every 
building the flags floated, and each vied with 
the other in its decoration of flowers and ever- 
greens. The old custom-house, in its holiday 
garb, seemed a fitting place to raise again the 
flag where 40 years before it was raised for the 
first time. My eyes filled with tearsas I looked 
at the gray-haired veterans and pioneers and 
thought how much we owed to them, and hoped 
the Native Sons, with their bright eyes and un- 
furrowed brows, would appreciate their labors, 
and would not be found wanting, should it be 
needed to follow in the footsteps of the brave 
fathers and mothers. 

The soldiers, in their bright uniform, the 
rumbling of the heavy artillery wagons, boom- 
ing of cannon, the bevy of fair girls who rep- 
resented our States, the thrilling speeches, the 
oft-repeated Declaration of Independence inter- 
spersed with national songs and music, were 
things not soon forgotten. 

I cannot close until I have added a few words 
in praise of the Del Monte. We do not won- 
der Eastern visitors are surprised, seeing it for 
the first time, for we, who are accustomed to 
many wonders in this land of sunshine and 
flowers, cannot fail to find in it new beauties 

each time. It seemed as though we would go 
far before we could find a more lovely spot than 
the beautiful Del Monte, bathed in golden sun- 
light, nestling among the stately pines, around 
whose rugged trunks the ivy and bright-hued 
flowers clung. Each turn brought new won- 
ders to gladden the eye, until we fain would ask 
where were finer views, greener grass, or rarer 
flowers. As I watched the smiling faces of the 
handsomely-dressed men and women, as they 
rode or walked at will, and listened to the 
merry shouts and laughter of the happy chil- 
dren, it seemed a completion to nature's loveli- 
ness. What a transformation ! A few years 
ago we strayed amid a wilderness of pines 
and underbrush gathering cones. 

I know not how long we might have lingered, 
had not the western sun warned us it was time 
to turn our faces homeward. Remembering it 
was the land of my birth, my heart was filled 
with pride, as I repeated those words: "Oh, 
California's the land for me." 

Salinas, Cal. 

What Shall We Women Do? 

[Written tor Ucral Prsss by « Now and Tnis.") 

My husband is a business man — that is, he is 
engaged in mercantile pursuits— dependent, 
like every one similarly situated, upon the pat- 
ronage of the public. I am a delicate woman, 
and cannot do my own work as I used to. I 
for years have had the same China boy— trained 
him myself; he was just the help that suited 
me. The strong anti-Chinese feeling on the 
part of some led us to give up our China boy 
for fear of the " boycotters." Chung was dis- 
charged and a girl Bought for. No. 1 applied; 
did not seem strong. I offered her $20 per 
month, same as I paid China boy. A few days' 
trial convinced her and me that Bhe was not 
what I wanted. She had undertaken what she 
had never been taught. I offered to teach her 
if she would work for less wages. She became 
indignant and left. I was expecting compaoy 
from the East and I was anxious for my old 
China boy to come back until I could get a good 
girl, but others had employed him. 

Iu the meantime my husband made diligent 
inquiry for a good girl. At last No. 2 appeared. 
She wanted to know the exact size of my 
family; any small children; did we entertain 
much company; did I send all my washing out. 
Said Bhe was not very strong, but would try it 
awhile. My husband had to prepare the 
kindling and build the fires and then awaken 
the maid. I really " laughed in my sleeve " 
over this part of anti-Chinese experience. One 
morning she pertly inquired why he did not put 
the teakettle on. Now, be it known unto you, 
my husband is a very " mild-tempered " man, 
notwithstanding he is affected with rheumatism. 
He meekly replied, "Shall I get the breakfast, 
also ? How much do I owe you? " I got the 
breakfast that morning, and a nice hot dinner 
for him also. Next day came an intolerable 
sick headache. 

My husband advertised. No. 3 put in her 
appearance — a bright, rosy-cheeked girl. She 
could do anything— cook, sweep or do plain 
sewing. I thought I had a treasure; bnt she 
was too fond of the sterner sex. I thought her 
young and giddy and made a few motherly sug- 
gestions about her conduct, etc. But one of 
the neighbor boys suggested to my husband I 
had better get rid of her. 

Far be it from me to disparage my own sex; 
but this has been my experience with girls in 
California. I am not harsh or exacting and pay 
them promptly, and I only insist upon their do- 
ing what they contract to do. I have been 
forced to get another China hoy. 

One of our most popular merchants, who has 
never employed a Chinaman, signed a paper 
presented by the boycotters not to employ any 
Chinese, but reserved his mercantile rights. 
Mr. C. has a fine strawberry patch. He had 
been burned out and wished to economize and 
rebuild hie fruit-drier. He employed Chinese 
to help him pick his fruit. The above men- 
tioned merchant wished to handle his fruits on 
account of their extra quality. A committee of 
the boycotters waited upon him and threatened 
to boycott him. Harsh words followed and a 
bad spirit engendered among hitherto friends. 
All or nearly all of our potatoes are grown by 
Chinamen. Shall we boycott the potato deal- 
ers, too? Editors are supposed to know a great 
deal, and I want to know " what we women 
are to do." 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Extinction ok Races.— Attention has lately 
been called to two races of men that must soon 
become extinct. At the present rate of de- 
crease, the Moors, of New Zealand, now re- 
duced to less than 40,000 from 100,000 in Capt 
Cook's day, must have disappeared by the year 
2000. The Laplanders are estimated to be 
.'10,000 in number, and are gradually becoming 
fewer. To the above might be added the North 
American Indians, who are rapidly growing 
fewer, and the time is probably not far distant 
when they will entirely disappear from this 
continent and the world. 

Thk Flight of Swallows. — An experiment 
was made at 1'avia, in Italy, with two swal- 
lows, to determine their speed. Two hen 
birds were taken from their broods, carried to 
Milan and there released at a given hour. 
Both made their way back to their nests in 
13 minutes, which gave their rate of speed at 
87i miles an hour. 

Jolt 17, 1886 ] 


To the Author of "Patchwork." 

[Written for Rural Press by Fannie H. Avery.] 

O youthful mother, wise and sweet, 
That watched thy pretty little maid, 
As she with face all flushed, yet staid, 

Sat making patchwork at thy feet, 

And noted how with earnest brow 

She busied with, and sewed and wrought, 
According to her baby thought, 

The patchwork quilt that's finish'd now. 

The song thou wert inspired to write, 
As thou, with a fond mother's eye, 
Didst view the picture thoughtfully, 

And muse upon the charming sight, 

Doth lead me to invoke for thee 
A long, and, oh, a happy life, 
To guide, and guard from earthly strife 

The little maiden at thy knee, 

And watch her as she puts her deeds 
Together in her own life-work, 
To teach her soul no right to shirk, 
That she may gain the noblest meeds. 
San Francisco. 


"Bill Simpson's Darter." 

No matter how hard and ugly the truth is, 
it is more pleasing than the affectation of what is 
'not real. Exposure is certain to follow people 
who try to go through life behind a mask of 
false pretenses. We have little sympathy for 
people like "Bill Simpson's darter." A gentle, 
man traveling from Buffalo to New York city 
tells the story: 

At Albany two ladies, dressed in the extreme 
of fashion, entered the car. Their manners in- 
dicated great affectation and consequent shal- 

The only unoccupied seat in the car was di- 
rectly behind a quiet-looking lady, evidently 
from the country. Her dress was of calico, her 
bonnet of plain straw, and her gloves were of 
cotton. She could not, however, have looked 
neater, and she had a good, honest face. 

As the fashionable ladies adjusted their drap- 
eries in the unoccupied seat, one of them said 
to the other: "Don't you think it too bad 
that there are such poor accommodations in 
railroad trains now ? " 

" How — in what way ? " asked her companion. 

" Why, here we are crowded up in all classes 
of people, some of them so common. Look at 
that person in front of us." 

" Horrid, isn't she ? " 

".Perfectly dreadful." 

" Looks like a common laborer." 

" How annoying to have to come in contact 
with such people." 

"Belongs to some ordinary family, 
could only exclude one's self from such 
persons when traveling even short dis- 
tances ! I suppose it's horrid in me to 
say it, but I have all my life had such a 
repugnance to common laboring peo- 

The lady in the calico dress must 
have heard a part of this conversation, 
but her face was perfectly composed. 

At that moment an elderly man in 
the homespun and home-made garments 
of a farmer came down the aisle. He 
stopped before the ladies of fashion, 
closely scrutinized the features of the 
one having "such a repugnance to com- 
mon people," and, just as the train 
stopped at the station, cried out loud 
enough to be heard by every person in 
the car: 

"Lookee hyie, hain't you old Bill 
Simpson's darter ? But I know you 
air 'thout askin'. How de do, any- 
how ? You don't change a speck. Got 
the same nose you had when you wor 
a little gal o' 12 or 15 year, trottin' 
b'ar-foot round my old farm in Podunk 

"Yer mind how I youst ter give yer 
two bits a day an' yer dinner fer help- 
in' my younguns dig taters ? Ho! ho! ho!" 

The young lady had dropped her beaded 
veil and was nervously biting at her fan, but 
the old farmer went on heedlessly: 

" Thee's been mighty lucky since then. Your 
pap went out to Coloraday an' made a bigjfortin' 
thar, an' I hear you live in great style. But 
Bill Simpson ain't the man ter fergit old frens, 
an' you tell 'im that you've saw old Jack Billings, 
what used to give him a-menny a day's work 
when he was so pore his fam'ly had ter wait till 
the hens laid 'fore they could hev any breakfast. 
You kin remember that yerself, I reckon. 

J* An' there wa'n't noboddy gladder nor me 
when yer pap did git rich so suddint, for he was 
a mighty hard-workin' blacksmith, an' always 
pore 'cause of bad luck. 

" My wife sez she lost an awful good wash 
woman when yer ma moved, an' — I git off here. 
Good-by ! good-by !" 

The meekest, most subdued person on that 
train during the rest of the trip was " Bill 
Simpson's darter." 

The Biggest Building in the United States 
will be the City Hall of Philadelphia, now in 
process of construction. Between $11,000,000 
and $12,000,000 have been expended upon it 
since 1872. It is estimated to cover 2800 more 
square feet than the Capitol at Washington. 
The tower on the north side will be surmounted 
by a statue of Penn, and its extreme hight 
when completed will be 535 feet. 


Little City Chicks. 

[Written for the Rural Press by K. S. B.] 
As to the care of young chickens in the winter, 
the necessity of keeping them very warm at 
night should be remembered. I have just brought 
one to happy henbood by keeping her near the 
kitchen stove all day, or in the bright sunshine; 
by feeding her on cooked cracked wheat, rice 
and milk (no water), and by keeping the little 
room made for her in a corner very warm by a 
tiny kerosene lamp burning all night, beside her 
shaded bird cage. When she was very young 
I shut her up under cotton batting, in a paste- 
board box with holes in it. It was very amus- 
ing to see her pick at my shoe or dress buttons, 
to have her tap at the window for attention, 
and cluck to me to come, when she found some- 
thing particularly tempting in the grass. One 
friend kept her young orphan chicken every 
night in a covered basket, hung over the bath- 
tub, in which was kept burning a small kero- 
sene lamp; and now he croweth beside my little 

[We rather expect onr Rural young folks 
will laugh at the idea of raising young chickens 
in such ways. They will understand, of course, 
that the chicks were orphans picked up in the 
city streets and were rescued from cats or star- 
vation by tender-hearted people, and evidently 
they were very grateful for the rescue. — Eds. 

The Young Folks' Club. „ 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mrs. J. Hilton.] 
I guessed right, Mr. Editor, when I said that 
surely the Rural's children tended to the 
chicks and other birds, for I have received five 
letters from the dear young folks. I promised 
a card to the first received, thinking I would 
send a large card; but as the letters kept com- 
ing, I could not bear to disappoint any of them, 
so I sent handsome cards that could be put in a 
large letter envelope, to four of them and a tiny 
paper-covered book to the last one. As the 
answers are all so good I send them and hope 
to hear from many more of the dear children, 
and that they will ask questions as well as 
answer. The second letter has a question in it, 

so well. If that does not cure him I would cut off 
part of his spurs. Can the Young People's Poultry 
Club tell me what to do for our big dog's lame foot ? 
It looks like it had been burned, but has been sore 
for two months and don't get better.— Harry Hop- 
kins (age 9 years), Santa Barbara. 

Mrs. J. Hilton: I go to school, but I will try 
and answer these questions. I walk a mile to school, 
and before I go I have to help feed the pigs, calves, 
chickens, and 23 canaries. Don't you think that is 
pretty good for a little girl in her twelfth year ? 

1st. The 1st of July I put in a small pinch of 
saffron and rusty nails in the water for the birds and 
keep them until the 1st of September. 

2d. For chickens getting sick from eating too 
much meat, mix up cayenne pepper and cornmeal 
and make a dough out of it, and feed your hen for 
two or three days. 

3d. When mamma kept fighting roosters she cut 
the spurs just a little, so as they would not bleed, 
and it won't injure them. — Edith M. Mead, Morro, 
San Luis Obispo Co. 

Mrs. J. Hilton: I send these answers to the ques- 
tions in the Rural: 

1st. If the canary bird was mine I think I would 
feed it lots of pepper, cracker and milk, and fish 
bone. 2d. Give the hen soaked bread and milk. 


Guava Jelly. 

Editors Press:— A correspondent recently 
asked for a recipe. When in Nassau, Bahamas, 
I made delicious guava jelly; stewing the fruit 
in a little water, taking the inner pulp and 
seeds for jelly, and the outer, coarse-grained 
part for marmalade, and following the usual 
method of making quince jelly and marmalade 
The most important item to know about it is 
that one must use dry brown sugar to obtain 
the rich, ruby hue— white sugar will give it an 
amber color. K S B 

San Francisco. 

Preserved Strawberries.— A granite or 
earthen kettle should be used, as it is unsafe to 
allow fruit to cool in metal. For each pound 
of carefully plucked fruit, washed and drained, 
allow one pound of sugar. Clarify the sugar by 
allowing half a pint of water to each 
pound of sugar, and boiling until clear, 
removing all the scum that may arise. 
After the sugar is clarified, set the ket- 
tle off the fire and put in the straw- 
berries with great care, pouring the 
syrup over the berries. The fruit must 
not be stirred, as it will suffer. Set 
the kettle aside until the next day, 
when it must be set on the range until 
the contents are hot. When thoroughly 
hot, set the kettle aside until next morn- 
ing, when the same process is to be re- 
peated, being careful never to stir. 
Now the fruit may cool, and when 
cold put it in jars, being careful that 
the fruit is covered with syrup. 

To Clean Glass and Silverware. 
—Eggshells crushed into small bits, 
and shaken well in decanters three 
parts filled with cold water, will not 
only clean them thoroughly, but make 
the glass look like new. By rubbing 
with a flannel dipped in the best whiting 
the brown discoloration may betaken off 
off cups in which custards have been 
baked. Again, all of us are aware that 
emery powder will remove ordinary 
stains from the white ivory knife 
handles, and that the luster of morocco 
leather is restored by varnishing with 
the white of egg. Nothing, it is said, 
is better to clean silver with than alco- 
hol or ammonia, finishing with a little 
whiting on a soft cloth. When putting 
away the silver tea or coffee pot which 
is not in use every day, lay a stick 
across the top under the cover. Tnis 
will allow fresh air to get in, and pre- 
vent the mustiness of the contents fa- 
miliar to boarding-house sufferers. 

Toast.— Many seem to think they 
have made toast when they brown the 
outside of a slice of bread. Have they ? 
The olijfct in making toast is to evap- 
orate all moisture from the bread, and 
holding a slice over the fire to singe 
does not accomplish this ; it only 
warms the moisture, making the inside 
of the bread doughy and decidedly in- 
digestible. The true way of preparing 
it is to cut the bread into slices a quar- 
ter of an inch thick, trim off all crust, 
put the f-lices in a pan or plate, place 
them in the oven — which must not be 
too hot — take them out when a delicate 
brown and butter at once. 


you will observe. The Club's unanswered 
questions were: 

1st. How many eggs is it best to put under 
a hen? (K.) 

2d. Who has hatched the largest number of 
eggs from incubators? (Tom.) 

31. Who has the best luck with hens which 
stf-al their nests? (E. H.) 

4th. What makes my chicks mope about? 
(F. Wood.) 

5th. Who can tell me the best way to care 
for pigeons? (Polly.) 

The Letters 

Dear Madam: In the Rural Press for Tune 
19th I found the unanswered question from Cally C: 
"What shall I feed my bird when it is molting?'" I 
think she will find the following to be very good: 
Boil an egg hard and mix with it a great deal of red 
pepper; give the bird a fresh egg every morning. — 
Geraldine Fitzgerald, Redding, Shasta County, 

Mrs. J. Hilton: You wanted to know what to 
give canaries when they are molting? I would give 
soda crackers and hard-boiled eggs, and I would 
give asafcetida to hens that have eaten too much 
meat. I would take a rasp and dull the spurs of a 
fighting rooster to prevent his hurting the other 
chickens, or cut off his head, but never cut the spurs. 
—From your little friend, Fannie Clapp, Tulare 

Dear Mrs Hilton: Tell Dick H. to give his hen 
a small pill of blue-mass. If X. Y. Z. will take his 
fighting rooster and trim one wing, he cannot fight 

3d. I should cut the spurs of the rooster.- 
ROVVELL, Easlon, Fresno Co, 


[As Mrs. Hilton was so generous as to send 
gifts to all the little people who wrote letters 
to her, the editor thinks he should give them a 
picture, too— so here it is on this page — "The 
Children and the Bird" — dedicated to the 
Young Folks' Poultry Club and to every little 
reader of the Rural Press.] 


As go the boy's pennies and dimes, so very 
likely will go the man's dollars and hundreds, 
by-and-by. Without having the spirit of a 
miser, the person accustomed to save has more 
pleasure in laying up than the spendthrift ever 

The way to keep money is to earn it fairly 
and honestly. Money so obtained is pretty sure 
to abide by its possessor. But money that is 
inherited, or that in any way comes in without 
a fair and just equivalent, is almost certain to 
go as it came. 

Children that have a little money ought to 
practice saving something. Many boys of to- 
day hardly know a higher use for any money 
that comes into their hands than spending it for 
some foolish thing as quickly as possible. To 
such, a lesson of self-denial and economy is im- 

Charlotte Russe. — Dissolve half an 
ounce of gelatine iu half a pint of cold 
water. \V hip a pint of sweet cream to 
a stiff froth and add to it the whites of 
two eggs, beaten until they are firm. 
When the gelatine is dissolved let it 
come almost to a boiling point and 
strain it into the egg and cream ; sweeten all 
with four ounces of powdered sugar, and flavor 
with a dessert-spoonful of vanilla. Beat all to- 
gether and turn into a mould lined with thin 
pieces of sponge cake. Set on the ice for three 
hours and serve. 

Stewed Steak. — Put one pound of tender, 
thick steak, having a little fat, in a saucepan. 
Pour over it two cups of boiling water and a 
finely minced onion, seasoning with salt and 
pepper. Spread a thick layer of mushrooms on 
top of the steak ; cover the saucepan tight and 
set it where it will simmer, about two inches 
above the level of the fire. The saucepan should 
not be uncovered until the steak is to be re- 
moved to the dish. Forty minutes is enough 
time to cook it to a turn. 

Tutti Frutti. — One quart of rich cream, one 
and one-half ounces of sweet almonds, chopped 
fine, one-half pound of sugar; freeze and when 
sufficiently congealed add one-half pound of pre- 
served fruits, with a few white raisins chopped, 
and finely sliced citron. Cut the fruit small and 
mix well with the cream. Freeze like ice cream. 
Keep on ice until required. 

Asparagus Sour. — Boil one bunch of aspara- 
gus and one onion until tender, with one tea- 
spoonful of salt and one of pepper. Pass through 
a colander and mix with one quart of boiling 
milk, a little butter and one egg. Serve imme- 



[July 17, 1886 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

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A. T. DEWRT. W. B. K»ER. O. H. 8TRONO 


Saturday, July 17, 1886. 


EDITORIALS.— The Woolly Aphis; Opening of the 
School Year, 53. The Week; The Coming Wheat 
Crop; They Come to a Healthy State; The O. A. R. 
Encampment; Building Up the City, 60. Experience 
in Fruit Packing; Senator Hearst and Oleomargarine; 
Irrigation Development; Insuring Live Stock, 61 . 

ILLUSTRATIONS. —The Educational Question, 
53- Fashions for July, 65. 

HORTICULTURE. -California Fruit at the East, 
Keeping Lemons; Plum Apricot vs. Black Apricot; 

POULTRY YARD.— Warm Weather Suggestions; 
Wild Oats for Fowls, 54. 

THE GARDEN.— Various Small Fruits and Vege- 
tables; Poor Garden SeoJs, 55. 

THE FIELD.— Wheat Crops and Prospective Market; 

FKUIT MARKETING.— To the Fruit Growcrs of 
California, 55. 

Grange; Legal Honor in the Senate; Stockton Note9; 
Harvest Feast, 56. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES-From the various 
counties of California. 56-57. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.- Revelation; In Colorado; 
A Trip to Monterey; What Shall We Women Do; Ex- 
tinction of Races; The Flight «f Swallows, 58. To 
the Author of "Patchwork;" "Bill Simpson's Darter," 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Little City Chicks; 
The Young Folks' Club; Saving, 59. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Guava Jelly; Preserved 
Strawberries; To Clean Glass and Silverware; Toast; 
Charlotte Russe; Stewed steak; Tutti Frutti; Aspara- 
gus Soup, 59. 

THE VINEYARD — Raisin Making, 62. 

GOOD HEALTH — Food; Inoculability of Yellow 
Fever; Strangely Poisonous Lizards; Imaginary Ills, 

Business Announcements. 

Fruit Shipment— California Fruit Union. 

Cure fur Distemper— K. E. Lockwood, Riverside. 

Goats— Julius Weyand, Liftle Stony, Cal. 

Spectacles— Slotterbek & McCranev. Lakeport, Cal. 

Private Boarding— Mrs. A. M. Tirr'ell. 

Cyclone Windmill — Pacific Manufacturing Co. 

Irrigating Machinery— H. P. Gregory & Co. 

IS" See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Affairs are quite stirring, aside from the ap- 
proach of the great social event — the coming of 
the Grand Army. The markets have assumed 
an activity somewhat unusual for midsummer. 
Wheat, it is true, has difficulty in moving its 
great bulk; but it seems to be gaining strength. 
Wool has been buoyant for some time and holds 
it well; even in the midst of an exciting politi- 
cal campaign the London wool markets show the 
Britons do not propose to go bare-backed what- 
ever happens to Ireland. Hops are true to 
their name, and are skipping up in a way to de- 
light those whom the aphis and mildew has not 
robbed of them. Fortunately, these evils are 
not prominent in California. Fruit is high and 
promises to remain so, for the crop is rather 
streaked and there is demand from several di- 
rections. There promises to be a good deal of 
money brought into the State this year for vari- 
ous products; but unfortunately, the distribu- 
tion of it will not be so general as we could 
wish. Such is often the case, and those who 
lack must patiently bide their turn, 

The G. A. R. Encampment. 

The great event of the year in California is 
rapidly approaching. On Monday, August 2d, 
the various pageants, receptions, exercises and 
excursions of the Twentieth National Encamp- 
ment of the Grand Army of the Republic and the 
National Convention of its associate organiza- 
tion, the Woman's Relief Corps, will begin in 
this city, and until August 12th San Francisco 
and the adjacent towns will be filled with peo- 
ple who meet, not to recall the asperities of the 
war, but to look upon past events through the 
softening medium of the universally beneficent 
results which were attained, and to rejoice to- 
gether over the grand peace and prosperity 
which now bless the whole country. 

Preparations have been in progress for months 
to suitably receive and entertain the thousands 
who will arrive from all parts of the Union, 
and there is every indication that the event 
will reflect credit upon the State in all its 
features. There will be many parts of the 10 
days' exercises which will have a general inter- 
est. Those who find joy in the grandeur of the 
parade and in the strains of martial music will 
have their eyes and ears well employed. There 
will be from day to day excursions to various 
cities which have prepared receptions. We ex- 
pect to publish in our next issue the full pro- 
gram for the Encampment, so that our readers 
at a distance may be able to participate in the 
event by attending such demonstrations as they 
may choose. 

There will be efforts in several counties to 
give the visitors a condensed view of the coun- 
try, as shown by her products, and we hope all 
who have been appealed to to aid in this matter 
may respond generously. In Sacramento they 
are putting forth such a vigorous and wide- 
reaching effort that it very much looks as 
though the capital city would have two State 
Fairs this year. This is quite characteristic of 
California. Her citizens are disposed to get up 
anything which will please and entertain her 

The Coming Wheat Crop. 

We suppose everybody has concluded by this 
time that there will not be nearly so much 
w heat harvested in this State this year as the 
early estimates promised. We opposed these 
estimates from the first because we knew the 
gauntlet of unfavorable conditions which the 
crop had to run before it reached the sack, and 
we always conscientiously oppose figures which 
are put forth merely to serve those who have 
grain to buy or sacks to sell, and are mutually 
served by having the impression go out that the 
State is overflowing with wheat. There are a 
few others who like to have big figures because 
they think it looks well for the State, but are 
unmindful that to gratify their taste for the im- 
mense they minister to the interests of specula- 
tors and tend to the ruin of the producers. We 
have declared our faith in such matters before, 
but we cannot resist the opportunity to enforce 
the lesson again. 

We judge last week that the Sacramento val- 
ley had more than its share of the hot winds 
which did the injury. It was worse toward the 
northern limits of our great grain region; but it 
was bad enough in the lower counties of the 
San Joaquin valley to accomplish quite a re- 
duction of the general output. One of our read- 
ers at ModeBto writes: " The crop is not turn- 
ing out well. One neighbor received 13 bushels 
of wheat where he expected 18, and another 15 
bushels where 20 bushels were expected." This 
is a great reduction. Concerning Stanislaus 
county in general, the Modesto Herald of July 
Sth says: 

The yield in some localities is fully up to ex- 
pectations; but in others it has fallen short 
almost one-half. In estimating the probable 
yield of the whole county for this season, the 
best informed put it at not over 4,000,000 bush- 
els. Information from the west side is that the 
crop will be the largest ever produced there, 
and but for the winds threshing it out, and the 
two or three destructive fireB, it would have 
given the county as large a yield as in 1880. 

The reports from the Sacramento valley show 
that the injury previously noted there was not 
exaggerated. The following from Marysville 
by telegraph, July 12th, gives a sad picture: 

As the threshing season advances, the fact is 
developed that the norther of June 10-12 did 
much greater damage by shelling out grain than 
was estimated by the farmers. This, together 
with other drawbacks of the season, has re- 

duced the yield to less than 50 per cent of an 
average crop in Sutter and Yuba counties. 
This circumstance, in connection with the low 
price of grain, has a depressing effect on the 
farming community and business interests gen- 

What seems to us the best general statement 
of the total wheat prospect in this State is the 
following from the Daily Report, and even thiB 
we regard as fully aa great las the conditions 
will warrant. We consider the figures rather 
over than under-drawn: 

The figures of the wheat crop, as given below, 
are based on assessors' returns of acreage seeded 
to wheat, and the average of the yield per acre 
of the farms threshed up to July 5th. As a 
very large number of fields were cut for hay, an 
allowance of five per cent on the total footing 
of each county has been made. Had it not been 
for the hot winds of June 10th, 11th and 12th, 
this year's crop would have been the largest in 
our history, for the grain in many of the fields 
in the largest wheat-growiug counties were 
threshed out by the wind so as to make it worse 
than folly to harvest that left. Aside from this, 
many fields were so badly threshed out that 
they did not yield within 25 to 75 per cent of 
what they promised on June 9th. Under these 
circumstances, the State's crop is wonderfully 
large, for it is nearly double that of last 

The yield so computed is as follows : 


Alameda 990,000 

Am»dor 23,400 

Butte 1,831,000 

Calavvras 245.000 

Colusa 4,050 000 

Contra Costa 1,490,000 

Fresno 3,015,000 

Kern 230,000 

Los Angeles 3,980,000 

Mariposoa 24,800 

Mendocino 190,000 

Meiced 1,65s 000 

Monteiev 1,250,000 

Napa...' 305,000 

San Benito 710,000 

Sacramento 855,000 

San Bernardino 65,000 

San Diego 350.000 

San Jaaquin 2,595,000 

San Luis Obispo 1,110,000 

San Mateo 160.000 

Santa Barbar* 780,000 

Santa Clara 1,790,000 

Santa Cruz 375,000 

Siskiyou 145,400 

Solano 636,000 

Sonoma 560,000 

Stanislaus , 3,185,000 

Sutter 991,000 

Tehama 1,150,000 

Tulare 6,980,000 

Tuolumne 1 12,000 

Ventura 310,500 

Yolo 3,150,000 

Yuba 320,000 


The unfavorable conditions which affected 
the greater part of the wheat area stopped short 
of Tulare, and a good year with a vast increase 
of development of that county gives it the ban- 
ner for 1886. 

Reports from the grain fields in other States 
are discussed by one of our contributors on 
page 55 of this issue. The latest telegrams en- 
force the conclusions of last week as to the fall- 
ing off in the product east of the Rocky mount- 
ains. The following are the dispatches: 

Washington, July io. — The July report of the 
Agricultural Bureau says: The average condition 
July ist of winter wheat has declined from 92 7 to 
91.2 and of spring wheat from 96 1083. The con- 
dition of spring wheat has declined from 98 in June 
to 83, in consequence of high temperature, drying 
winds and lack of rain. In the principal States the 
decline has been: Wisconsin, from 97 to 75; Minne- 
sota, from 98 10 78; Iowa, from 100 to 90; Nebraska, 
from 97 to 83; Dakota, from 99 to 85. 

Chicago, July 11. — The following crop summary 
will appear in this week's issue of the Farmers' Re- 
view: In portions of Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Iowa the injury to the spring wheat has been 
increased, and has embraced a wider area than was 
noted in the detailed reports of the Ret icle three 
weeks since, when the great danger which threatened 
the crop from blight was fully outlined. In large 
sections of Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 
where the fields were visited by light rains at the 
close of this week, the damage to grain was such as 
to prevent any revival of life, and the injury inflicted 
was complete. In the sections where the drought 
was the most severe the yield will not exceed from 
five to eight bushels to the acre. 

Death of the Stallion Cesar. — We regret 
to learn that Cesar, the promising and famous 
young Percheron stallion, died very suddenly of 
apoplexy on the 2d inst., on the farm of his 
owner, Mr. Wm. B. Collier, at Bridgeton, Mis- 
souri. Our readers will, many of them, remem- 
ber Rosa Bonheur's spirited likeness of this 
fine prize-winner, which appeared in the Press 
of April 4, 1 885. In addition to the honors 
won up to that date, he last year took the 
prize for three year-olds at St. Louis. Mr. Col- 
lier naturally feels saddened, and has our sym- 
pathy m the loss of so noble and valuable a 

The Santa Barbara papers incline to the 
opinion that that city must soon become a port 
of entry, and want a custom house built at the 
earliest convenience of the Government. 

They Come to a Healthy State. 

Now that thousands of visitors are starting 
westward for a sojourn in California, it is grati- 
fying to be able to give public assurance that 
the sanitary condition of the State is good, and 
that our guests need not fear contagion of any 
sort. Dr. Tyrrell, Secretary of the State Board 
of Health, in his report for June, refers to the 
accepted principle that the death-rate of a com- 
munity indicates with unfailing certainty its 
sanitary condition, and thence feels justified in 
inferring a highly favorable state of sanitary 
matters in California. The deaths reported 
number 751, in a population estimated at 582,- 
450— a percentage of 1.3 decedents per 1000, a 
smaller percentage than is usually found at this 
season of the year. Although this indicates 
conditions favorable to health at the present 
time, yet, as the summer advances, all sanitary 
officers Bhould see that the water supply is kept 
free from pollution, that everything likely to 
develop disease is removed, and general clean- 
liness adopted. 

Reports received from every county in the 
State agree that no serious sickness prevails. 
As might be expected, disorders of the bowels 
are experienced in many places, and if cholera 
had invaded our coast would be the cause of 
serious alarm. They can, however, be largely 
traced to the prevailing summer heat, the un- 
wise consumption of fruit, and it may be an in- 
dication that the water supply of those towns, 
where the disease is common, has become pol- 
luted from surface or sewer drainage. With 
the exception of the prevalence of bowel dis- 
orders, the health of the community is excel- 

It is often claimed either that sunstroke is 
never known in California or that it is of ex- 
tremely rare occurrence. The latter statement 
is certainly true, and even in the few cases on 
record there may have been sometimes predis- 
posing causes on the part of the victim. For 
example, it may be claimed that there was a 
case of sunstroke last month, and yet the Sec- 
retary of the State Board claims that alcohol 
was the real slayer. In his report of the case, 
Dr. May Gydison, of Salinas City, says that the 
man so stricken "was an apparently stout, 
healthy fellow, but a hard drinker, aged 27 or 
28 years. He went to work in the field in the 
morning feeling quite well. About 10 a. m. 
he complained of great thirst and dizziness, im- 
mediately became unconscious, and died within 
three-quarters of an hour from the time of seiz- 
ure." As sunstroke is very uncommon in Cali- 
fornia, it is of great interest to collect all avail- 
able and undoubted cases, that a record may be 
kept to ascertain whether the affection is only 
an exceptional occurrence, due to the habits of 
the victim, or is taking its place among the 
regular disorders incident to the climate and in- 
dependent of personal habits or pursuits. 

As it would not be polite to suppose that any 
of our coming guests are guilty of chronic al- 
coholism, we can quite safely assure them all 
immunity from sunstroke. 

Building Up the City. 

San Franciscans are naturally desirous to ex- 
tend the business interests of the metropolis, 
but they often do things which have just the 
opposite effect. The "bag ring," or "bag 
pool," or "bag corner," or whatever aliases the 
undesirable thing goes by, has proved already 
an element to divert trade from San Francisco. 
They grow a very respectable amount of grain 
in Lob Angeles county and the growers are 
good business men, too. When they saw the 
bag interest of San Francisco had laid a trap for 
them they concluded not to walk into it, but 
turned about and ordered bags from the East 
and left the San Francisco people with their 
baga on their hands. 

Who can blame them ? The time has gone 
by when San Francisco can corner the State. 
We rejoice to see the metropolis thrive, be- 
cause we have interest and habitation here; but 
when San Francisco endeavors to take unfair 
advantage of people, we are glad to see them 
assert their independence. Competition be- 
tween San Francisco and other local and East- 
ern points is now more wide and active than 
ever before, and her future will depend much 
upon fair dealing. Things can't be done now 
which were possible when San Francisco was 
off in one corner of the world. 

July 17, 1886.J 

f>ACIFie f^URAb fRESS. 

Experience in Fruit Packing. 

We had an item some weeks ago of fruit sent 
to the Colonies Exposition in London from 
Australia. Although there was much fruit lost, 
some arrived in good condition and attracted 
much attention. We find in our latest received 
files of the Adelaide Observer an interesting 
account of the materials used in packing the 
fruit for the long journey and the results there- 
with. We shall give the points, as it will in- 
terest those who are making experiments with 
preservative packing material in this State. 

Various attempts were made from 1862 on- 
ward in shipping fresh fruits from South Aus- 
tralia to London. This was before steamers 
were fitted up with cold storage chambers. 
Many experiments were made during this early 
period, of which we note the following : Grapes 
were first sent to London packed in sawdust; 
had preserved the shape of the bunches, but 
they were every one of them fermented and had 
a most acrid and unpleasant taste. They were 
absolutely worthless. There was a larger case 
containing six small boxes, lined with earth, and 
the inner boxes had the grapes packed in char- 
coal. They each and all presented the appear- 
ance of black bricks, which, on being broken, 
showed some fossil like remains of grapes. The 
whole of the grapes were packed in hermetic- 
ally sealed boxes, and the conclusion arrived at 
was that the mode of packing should be 

There was another experimental shipment on 
April 11th with Napoleon pears and grapes in 
kiln-dried sawdust, but the grapes were no 
good; the pears, however, were in excellent 
condition, but tasted of sawdust. Sir Arthur 
Blyth, commenting thereon, says : "It seems 
dear that in all fruit shipments sawdust should 
be avoided." 

The conclusion reached seems to be that 
package in cork dust of a coarse character 
gives the best chance of success, and that tin- 
lined or hermetically sealed cases are a mistake. 

The fruit sent in cool storage for the recent 
London Exposition is described as follows: 

The fruit sent comprised apples of the follow- 
ing sorts: Stone pippin, French crab, dessert, 
Dumelow's seedling, golden reinette, Cleopatra 
pomeroy, scarlet nonpareil, Norfolk Beaubn, 
strawberry and raspberry pippins and Gari- 
baldi. Pears — Swan egg, gloux morceaux, Na- 
poleon, large stewing, winter Nelis and assorted 
lots; also other fruits, such as water and sweet 
melons, quinces, grapes, pomegranates, lemons 
and oranges. There were also raisins, currants, 
almonds, filberts and walnuts, of course; but 
the great interest is centered in the fate of the 
perishable fruits. Each steamer took away 
over four tons of South Australian fruits and 
vegetables, and the first shipment was by the 
John Elder on March 8th. The next was by 
the Austral on March 221, the third by the 
Cuzco on April 5th, the fourth by the Liguria 
on April 19th, and the fifth by the Iberia on 
May 3d. The next shipment will be the last. 
The principal shippers of fruit through the 
Colonial and Indian Commission were the Hon. 
R. D. Ross, Mr. J. P. Pascoe, Mr. Robert 
Davenport and Mr. T. Hardy. The apples 
were packed mainly in two different ways. 
Some were merely placed firmly in the case 
after a most careful inspection of each ipple by 
a man whose duty it was to see that none were 
bruised or overripe. Others were placed be- 
tween layers of dried cedar sawdust, the stuff 
being put in while the case was being gently 
shaken, so as to settle the sawdust well down 
between the apples, layer after layer. Pears 
were packed in the same way. Cork dust was 
also tried; but sawdust is considered equally as 
effective, in spite of previous failures, and not 
bo expensive. Some few cases have been sent 
With wheat chaff as a packing. A case of 
grapes packed in wheat chaff was sent to En- 
gland some time ago from Adelaide, and ar- 
rived in excellent condition. It was this suc- 
cess that led to the experiment being tried 

As we have said, the cable dispatches spoke 
of the arrival of some of the Australian fruit in 
good condition. Our contemporary has these 
advices also, but will await full reports by mail 
before concluding whether the experiment is, 
upon the whole, a success or not. 

In this connection we may mention an essay 
recently read by J. P. Torrance before the Nova 
Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, a copy of 
which is kindly sent us by Dr. John Strentzel, 
of Martinez. It seems that Mr. Torrance has 
secured a patent upon what he calls an " Infu- 
sorial Fruit Case." It is a case within a case, 
an inch space between and the space filled with 
" infusorial earth," the fruit in the inner case 
being packed in this same earth, which, it is 
claimed, resists all decay. Infusorial earth is 
sometimes called diatomaceons earth, and there 

are considerable deposits of it on different parts 
of this coast. It is light and white and easily 
reduced to an impalpable powder. We suppose 
it acts just as does fine dry sand or finely ground 
gypsum, both of which have been experimented 
with in this State for fruit keeping. It accom- 
plishes isolation of the fruit, exclusion of germs 
of decay, and in case any single fruit decays, it 
absorbs the juices and prevents the spread of 
decay. It seems to us that infusorial earth 
would be better than sand, free clay or gypsum, 
because of its pure white color and the fact that 
it is so much lighter than the other materials. 
The Nova Scotia inventor expects great things 
from the invention in sending fruits and flowers 
to Great Britain. 

Senator Hearst and Oleomargarine. 

We are gratified to see that Senator Hearst 
has relieved the anxiety of California people. 
He has been telegraphed several times as on 
the oleomargarine side. At first we thought it 
must be a mistake, but the reiteration of the 
statement made us a little anxious lest through 
his vote California might give an uncertain 
sound in defense of the genuine dairy industry. 
Senator Hearst's letter on the subject is, it is 
true, a little diplomatic and somewhat on the 
Delphian oracle style of expression, but we 
propose to understand it as we wish it, and re- 
gard it as a denial that he has any liking for 
the bogus side of the issue. Hia letter is as 
follows : 

United States Senate, . ) 
Washington, D. C, July i, 1886. I 

D. D. Shattuck, Esq., San Francisco, Cat. — My 
Dear Sir: In response to your favor of June 21st, 
permit me to advise you not to be uneasy as to how 
I will vote on the oleomargarine bill, or any other 
measure aff cting the interest of California. 

While the newspapers do many useful services 
they cannot always be relied upon to know in ad- 
vance how I, or any other Senator, propose to vote 
on every measure coming up in the Senate. 

My know'edge of the needs of California, my in- 
terest in the State and the history of my past life 
with reference to my attitude toward the welfare of 
Californii, should satisfy you that I would not vote 
contrary to the best interests of the State. 

Very truly yours, George Hearst. 

From mail advices just received from Wash- 
ington, it seems that the dairymen's measure 
won its first step in the Senate. President 
Reall, under date of July 6th, writes as follows: 

The Senate Committee on Agriculture reported our 
bill Thursday as it pissed the House, without amend- 
ment. There had been great danger that we would 
not get enough votes to report it, or that the tax 
would be reduced to a nominal sum and the licenses 
changed, as there has been terribly strong pressure 
brought to bear against us on the committee, but the 
arguments in favor of the dairymen proved unanswer- 
able. Our own friends on the committee wavered 
for a time on the amount of tax, but finally yielded 
their views in behalf of protection for the farmers. 

This is our fourth great and successive victory. 
The first was in securing a unanimous report from 
the House Committee, the second in passing the bill 
through the House, the third in having it referred to 
the Committee on Agriculture when it came to the 
Senate. Had we failed then the splendid result of^ 
yesterday could not have been achieved. Our last 
victory is no less important than the others. 

Of course the great and final issue will come 
on the passage of the bill by the Senate. We 
suppose the press dispatches in the daily papers 
may be expected to bring news of its progress 
or defeat almost any day. On the other hand, 
action may be considerably delayed. Cer- 
tainly everything which can be done by the 
dairymen to enforce their wishes upon the at- 
tention of Senators should be undertaken. 
It may be worth while to use the telegraph 
freely and to call meetings in all butter 
neighborhoods which might telegraph their ac- 
tion. We understand that Governor Stone- 
man, at the request of some of our city dairy 
merchants, sent a dispatch favoring the meas- 
ure to Senator Hearst last week. Mr. Reall 
suggests as follows: 

It is of the first importance that every Senator be 
convinced of the necessity for this bill. Pleas-, 
therefore, again write all the Senators urgently, pir- 
ticularly thosi from the Southern States. Get your 
fr ends, including your merchants, lawyers and 
physichns, to write also. Send in petitions; hold 
meetings, and adopt resolutions; and, above all, act 
quickly and at once. It is of the grtat'-st impor- 
tance that we should succeed, and succeed com- 
pletely. Insist upon the House Bill with the five- 
cent tax and full licenses. We must have the House 
Bill adopted by the Senate without change or amend- 
ment. Unless it rass-s th re will be ten times more 
butterine made next winter than there was last, and 
the dairy indus ry ruined. The pissage of this bill 
is of more importance to milk producers, butter and 
cheese makers and cattle-breeders than anything 

It is certainly vital that no neglect should 
now allow the issue to fail. Everything which 
seems wise should now be done by those inter- 
ested either in making or eating genuine but- 
ter, and should be done quickly. 

Irrigation Development. 

We have obtained a copy of Vol. I of the 
irrigation report of Wm. Hammond Hall, State 
Eagineer, a handsome book of 622 pages, bear- 
ing the title "Irrigation Development." The 
State of California ordered, by legislative en- 
actment, that Mr. Hall's reports should be 
published by the State printer and sold by the 
Secretary of State at a trifle over the actual 
cost of publication; so this volume can be had 
of Hon. T. L. Thompson, of Sacramento, at 
$2.75 per copy, with 25 cents for postage if the 
book is ordered by mail. 

The State Engineer has certainly produced 
a volume which will yield him much honor and 
be of lasting service to the State. He proposes 
to issue his report on irrigation in three large 
volumes, of which "Irrigation Development" 
is the first. It treats of the history, customs, 
laws and administrative systems relating to 
waters, water-courses and irrigation in France, 
Italy and Spain. Volume II will be entitled 
"Irrigation in California," and will treat of 
water sheds, precipitation and water supply; 
lands requiring irrigation, irrigation districts, 
water rights, riparian interests, works, sys- 
tems, practice and statistics of irrigation in 
California. The closing volume of the series 
will be entitled "The Irrigation Question," and 
will consider the development of this question 
in California, the Mexican civil law, the En- 
glish common law, the Californian customs, the 
conflicts, the questions, review of irrigation 
and water-right laws, a system for California. 
The full report of three volumes will comprise 
an irrigator's library which should be in every 
public and school library, and in as many 
farmers' homes as possible. 

Returning to the volume just issued, "Irri- 
gation Development," of the contents of which 
the following is an outline : 

It is an epitome of a special literature and 
line of data which is, for the most part, inacces- 
sible to all but a very few individuals of those 
for whom the work has been undertaken and is 
particularly intended. 

There are 22 chapters, of which seven are de- 
voted, each, to France, Italy and Spain, and the 
first one to the water laws and customs of the 
Romans, as forming the common foundation for 
those in the modern countries named. Each 
chapter is divided into two, three or four parts, 
according to the matter, and the parts are made 
up of short articles separately devoted each to a 
noticeable point or feature. 

Within this outline the matter is systemat- 
ically arranged and written for popular reading 
by those who take a special interest in the sub- 
ject. While thus popularized as far as possi- 
ble, the work is yet cast and built up as one 
for reference. Accordingly we fiad each chap- 
ter preceded by its table of contents and fol- 
lowed by its list of authorities, and refer- 
ence preserved throughout the text and sub- 
divisions to the pages of authority. And, 
finally, there is a very complete table of con- 
tents and an extended systematized index, 
which commend the work as one for refer- 

It is especially important that this work of 
Engineer Hall should be widely and carefully 
studied now that the irrigation question is para- 
mount in this State. An understanding of the 
wisdom which has been gained by hundreds of 
years of study and experience in countries 
where irrigation has been practiced would do 
much to clear the minds of all who now seem 
to think that we should be governed by the law 
of a country which does not irrigate. Respect 
for precedent is well enough, but one should 
seek precedents established under similar con- 
ditions to those under which he lives and not 
under diverse conditions. Mr. Hall's work is 
an important contribution to the progress of the 

An Electrical Tree has been found in New 
Guinea by two German explorers. When the 
explorers reached a spot 12 days distant from 
the coast they found their compass useless, 
owing to the presence of a tree which so com- 
pletely possessed the properties of a highly 
charged electric battery that one of the travel- 
ers was knocked down when he touched it. 
Analysis showed the tree to consist of almost 
pure amorphous carbon, and it has been named 
clsaBsia electrica. 

Poland China Record. — We have a note 
from John Gilmore, of Vinton, Iowa, Secretary 
American Poland China Record Co., announcing 
that Vol. 7 will be ready for delivery July 
15th. It will be larger than any volume here- 
tofore issued. 

Insuring Live-Stock. 

Although there has been something done in 
insuring the lives of valuable animals, the enter- 
prise has not thus far gained great prominence 
in the thoughts of breeders. It might be ex- 
pected that such an undertaking would progress 
slowly, for we imagine that to secure the sta- 
tistics upon which risk can be learned with 
some degree of trustworthiness will require 
time. However, it may be said that enough 
has been done to warrant the formation of new 
companies. The latest we read about is the 
Central Live Stock Insurance Company, of In- 
diana, which, according to the Indiana Farmer, 
was recently organized at Indianapolis. It is a 
stock company, with capital stock of $100,000, 
articles for which were filed at the office of 
the Auditor of State last week. All the mem- 
bers are either importers and breeders of live- 
stock, or interested in that industry. The 
president, Hon. Clem Studebaker, is an import- 
er and breeder of cattle, and better known as 
the head of the great Studebaker Wagon 
Works, of South Bend, Indiana. The company 
insures horses and cattle against death from 
disease and accident. 

The Phylloxera in Australia. — It is about 
eight years ago, if we remember correctly, since 
the phylloxera was discovered in the Geelong 
district and stamped out by thoroughly uproot- 
ing and burning the vines. We notice that ap- 
plication is now made by the owners of the land 
for permission to plant vines again. The 
phylloxera board recommends that replanting 
be permitted when the following conditions 
have been complied with, namely, that the re- 
maining portion of the infected lands be 
trenched and the vine roots eradicated, and 
that they shall along with the lands that have 
been so treated be laid down with grass; that 
replanting vines be permitted at a distance of 
not less than 100 yards from the old vineyard 
sites; that in case of phylloxera again breaking 
out in the district the whole of the vines be 
destroyed at the expense of the owner, and 
that no compensation be allowed by the Gov- 
ernment for the loss of such vines. The board 
also recommends that where the diseased vine- 
yard sites have been laid down with grass no 
further disturbance of the soil be permitted, 
unless on recommendation of the board; that 
after vine-planting has commenced no vine 
plant, leaf, or cutting, or root of vine, or grapes, 
be permitted to leave the district till it has 
been proclaimed clean. 

Chinese for Peru. — A recent Chinese 
graduate of Yale College is said to have made 
arrangements with the Chinese Six Companies 
of this city for the colonization of about 10,000 
of his countrymen in Peru. He says: "The 
Government at home favors the project, and it 
is probable that it will bear a considerable por- 
tion of the expense. Peru and Chili are the 
objective points. The Six Companies are pow- 
erful and wealthy bodies. Their interests in 
this country, as well as the interests of our 
Government, make it imperative that the 
friendly commercial relations between this Gov- 
ernment and ours shall not be broken or 
strained, as they promise to be by the compli- 
cations constantly ari-ing from the presence of 
so large a number of my countrymen on the 
Western slope. A way out of the difficulty is 
now presented. The climate of Northern Chili 
and Peru is a good one for our people. The 
soil is rich, but undeveloped, and capable of 
producing heavily. The whites of that country 
will not do manual labor, and the natives are 
naturally a commercial people, and would 
rather trade and peddle in a small way than 
anything else. For that reason the Chinese are 
well received there." 

Visit from Professor Henry. — W. A» 
Henry, Professor of Agriculture in the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, and Director of the State 
Agricultural Experiment Station, arrived in 
California about July 1st, on a visit, and for the 
purpose of informing himself, by observation, 
on California resources and agriculture. He 
began his tour of inspection in San Diego, and 
will, no doubt, take occasion to visit many 
parts of the State. Prof. Henry is doing ex- 
cellent work in his home field and indirectly 
for the general advancement of the agriculture 
of the country. We trust his visit may be long 
and pleasant. 



[July 17, 1886 

JIJhe "Vi^ey^rd. 

Raisin Making. 

The following essay, written by Robert Mc- 
Pher80n, of Orange, was read before the Pomo- 
logical Society at its session in Anaheim, July 
1st. Owing to the absence of Mr. McPherson 
in San Francisco, the essay was read by H. 8. 
Knapp. Robert McPherson, of McPherson 
Bros., is regarded as one of the foremost 
raisin-makers of the coast, in point of success 
and volume of fruit packed. The following is 
the essay: 

Raisin Grapes. 

I need not make an apology for not being 
prepared to do justice to the subject, as every 
one acquainted with me knows that I have not 
the leisure to sit down and take the time that 
justice to this subject demands. The impor- 
tance of our raisin industry is such that it should 
command the careful consideration of the best 
minds of our country. This importance is felt 
not only in the fact that it is an industry which 
may support an immense number of people, but 
it now has and will have much to do with the 
health of our whole country. This latter point 
is well worth the examination and study of the 
most scientific minds, as the result of their in- 
vestigation of the subject would be of great 
benefit, by proving the health-giving properties 
of our raisin grapes. It is an established fact 
that where the best raisins are produced there 
is the best place for people suffering from lung 
or bronchial affections. It is known, too, that 
in cases of exhaustion, a handful of raisins will 
do very much to revive sunken energies; and it 
is true, too, that where the nervous system has 
been depressed for a long time, the continued 
use of raisins will very much improve its tone. 
There is high authority on this subject, and 
for the benefit of both producers and consumers 
this subject should be studied and knowledge 
acquired should be diffused all over the coun- 
try. Were this properly understood, the con- 
sumption of raisins would be very much greater 
than at present. Among ourselves and in our 
own families, if we would put them into more 
general use, we would more thoroughly realize 
the benefit. Let any one try them when on a 
camping trip. A handful of raisins, a piece of 
bread and a cup of water is relished; and work 
can be performed on such a diet as easily as 
upon the diet of animal food. I would not 
adopt the vegetarian system, but I believe that 
much benefit would result from a more liberal 
use of raisins in our diet. 

In this essay on the subject of " Kaisin 
Grapes," I do not presume it was intended that 
I should treat particularly of the different vari- 
eties but rather of the characteristics of varie- 
ties, and in doing this I shall not pretend to do 
more than treat lightly of other varieties than 
the Muscatel, or Muscat of Alexandria, so 

The varieties included in the list of raisin 
grapes as cultivated with us here in California 
are the Muscatel (or Muscat of Alexandria), the 
Sultana, the White Corinth, Black Corinth and 
some other varieties not well known and not 
largely cultivated. The Sultana, White Corinth 
and Black Corinth are seedless, and the manner 
of pruning, cultivating and handling differs ma- 
terially from that of the Muscatel; but as these 
varieties are not extensively cultivated among 
us in my section, 1. will only speak briefly of 
them, and that more especially as to the manner 
of pruning, the quantity produced and the 
profit derived from them. These vines require 
canes of considerable length to be left, which 
need to be supported by stakes, growing at the 
same time, from short spurs, wood for the fol- 
lowing year. With us the White Corinth and 
Black Corinth do not produce in sufficient quan- 
tities to make them profitable, though the flavor 
of the fruit is such that, if it did produce large- 
ly, it would be a favorite. 

The Sultana is of very recent planting and 
has not been sufficiently tested here yet to de- 
cide whether it will acquire that degree of per- 
fection that it does in some parts of the coun- 
try where it is grown. 

The Muscat of Alexandria, or Muscatel, is 
considered the raisin grape of the country. It 
is not only the best grape for raisins, but it is 
well adapted to shipping and is used to some 
extent in the manufacture of wine and brandy. 
It is, with us here in the southern portion of 
the State, particularly, the favorite, because 
some of the wine grapes and shipping grapes do 
not do bo well. With us at Orange and vicin- 
ity, including Anaheim, Tustin and Santa Ana, 
and extending up the valley nearly to Los An- 
geles, it seems to be especially at home. The 
growth of the vine is abundant and, when the 
vine has acquired sufficient age, it produces an- 
nually a good quantity of fruit. On the higher 
and warmer lands the fruit ripens considerably 
earlier, giving it an advantage in the curing, 
as at that time we have the long, warm days 
for drying, and the nights are shorter and with 
much less fog. 

In growing the Muscat of Alexandria, during 
the first years of its cultivation, we found that 
we were making a mistake in its pruning — that 
is, pruning it with too few buds, the result be- 
ing that the growth of the wood was too heavy, 
causing the fruit to drop from the stem. This 
falling of the fruit was so extensive that, in the 
earlier years of the raisin business here, it was 
considered somewhat of an uncertainty whether 

the vineyards would set heavy enough to pro- 
duce profitable crops. As time rolled on, 
however, we discovered the fact that the vine 
must not be pruned too closely ; that we must 
leave a sufficient number of spurs, containing a 
sufficient number of buds, so that the canes will 
rot make such excessive g owth as to produce 
this dropping of the fruit. We find that, in 
the earlier years of the vineyards, this dropping 
of fruit is much greater than it is after the 
vines have acquired some considerable age. 
This is proven by the fact that, in all our oldest 
vineyards, the quantity of fruit produced va- 
ries very little from year to year, while that of 
the younger vines is uncertain, making a dif- 
ference, one year with another, of 30 or 40 per 

In leaving spurs on the vines for the pro 
duction of fruit, it is a matter of considerable 
importance what length they are to be grown, 
as it is a fact that the bud nearest the stock is 
the bud that produces the finest fruit, and that 
the one following may produce a larger quanti- 
ty of fruit on the stem, but yet not so good in 
qnality, and as we go far. her from the stock 
the fruit deteriorates in quality; and while 
our section of the country has done much in 
the past to keep up the quality of the grape 
manufactured, we are arriving at a time when 
we may go to the opposite extreme. Vineyard- 
iste, finding that, by more liberal pruning the 
quantity is increasd, the tendency to day is 
that many will prune so liberally that the qual- 
ity of the fruit will be materially affected. 
The true policy would be to prune so that the 
quality is kept up, even if the quantity is not 
so great. 

There is another important point to be ob- 
served in the pruning of our vineyards for rai- 
sins, and that is to keep the vine low, as it is a 
fact that our finest fruit comes from the lowest 
vines. It may be that in localities that require 
much summer irrigation the heads should be 
kept up to protect the fruit from dampness 
caused by irrigating the ground; but, with us at 
Orange, we have no necessity for irrigating our 
vineyards in summer, consequently the surface 
of the ground is sufficiently dry anywhere on 
the warmer lands, even if the fruit lay en- 
tirely upon the ground. On the lowlands this 
would not be safe, yet the heads should be kept 
no higher than is necessary to keep the fruit 
from the effects of the moist soil and escaping 
evaporation from the same. 

I know of no better rule to give a vineyard- 
ist not well up in the knowledge of pruning, in 
regard to the number of buds to leave, than 
this: Whenever the vine produces canes of 
large size (for instance, the size of the thumb) 
it should next year carry a greater number of 
canes. The canes should not grow much larger 
than the little finger, as the fruit does not set 
on the stem when the wood grows too heavy. 

Suckering and Summer Pruning. 

None of us need to be told of the necessity of 
suckering, as we call it, which consists of tak- 
ing off the canes that grow under the ground 
and the canes growing on old wood, or better 
expressed, we leave the canes that have grown 
on one-year-old wood which has itself grown on 
one-year-old wood. Of course, we find it nec- 
essary sometimes to leave some of those canea 
growing in blind bud that we may balance the 
vine, as we should strive to make the spurs of 
our vines form the framework of an imaginary 

There is yet considerable difference of opin- 
ion about the necessity of summer pruning. 
There is a necessity to do some clipping (not 
pinching, as some would advocate, for it is too 
slow), but that is on those canes that are in- 
clined to run out laterally, covering the surface 
of the ground, and making late cultivation, 
which is necessary to secure good fruit, an im- 
possibility. These may even require a second 
cutting, which, like the first, should be done 
before the cane grows woody or before the cane 
carries so much sap that the cutting of the cane 
may throw too much sap where it has not been, 
and where it is not needed. The cutting of 
canes that have advanced too far often causes a 
shock to the vine that seriously affects it to its 


At the present time one who wants to con- 
sider himself an authority on sulphuring should 
not say anything, as there are so many dif- 
ferent opinions on the time and number of ap- 
plications, and where it should be put. I do 
not have any authority to say that grapes 
should be sulphured before the flowering or 
opening of the blossom, but I can say that until 
I commenced the use of sulphur I could get no 
good fruit on account of mildew; but by the 
use of sulphur I have never failed to produce 
large and perfect fruit, and I always apply the 
sulphur before the opening of the blossom. I 
am satisfied also that sulphuring in the open 
blossom will effectually prevent mildew; and I 
have met those of the opinion, and very well 
founded, too, that it is the time to sulphur, 
advancing the theory that couleur is brought 
about by insects, and that the sulphur is an in- 
secticide, and hence the benefit. I have met 
many of that opinion, but, on examination, I 
have never yet seen sufficient evidence to cause 
me to believe that such was the case. I am 
more inclined to believe that the minute insects 
and flies are attracted by the decomposition of 
the blossom snd fruit, and that the webs seen 
there so frequently are put there for the pur- 
pose of catching the flies and insects that gather 
around this decomposition. I consider couleur 
as being caused more by changes and conditions 
of atmosphere than any other cause. Any con- 

siderable variation of temperature between day 
and night produces this result. This can be 
noticed in sections where the fruit does not 
stay on, and is especially noticeable where 
the Muscat is planted on coarse sand, which 
heats up considerably during the middle of the 
day and becomes very cold during the night. 
This class of land does not produce Muscat 
grapes in such quantities as land not subject to 
these conditions. It must not be understood 
that our gravel soils come under this head, as 
they do not cool off to such an extent, as many 
a person has discovered by sleeping upon them 
on a cold night. The manner of applying the 
sulphur the second time also differs a great 
deal, some throwing it in handfuls upon the 
fruit, leaves or anywhere except where it 
should be. While scientists may say that we 
should not throw sulphur on the ground — that 
the ground will absorb it — I say that we can 
throw it on the ground and pats through the 
vineyard and feel that it is not all being ab- 
sorbed, as the air becomes well filled with the 
sulphur vapor, so much so that it will effect- 
ually destroy the fungoid growth when it has 
taken a pretty strong hold. I have seen a crop 
saved by throwing the sulphur on the ground, 
when the owner thought it was ruined. My 
reason for favoring this method is that, if the 
fruit is of considerable size, the sulphur should 
not be thrown on it. I have seen the fruit so 
strongly impregnated with sulphur at the time 
of packing to ship fresh that some men could 
not endure the strong vapor that was escaping 
from it at the time. The quality of the fruit 
for raisins is affected, and it really impairs its 
value in the market. It is much better to avoid 
this error by scattering the sulphur on the 
ground when applied the second time. I do 
not believe that there is danger of mildew even 
with one application, except for the second crop. 

Kind of Sulphur. 

W T e have our choice between the native and 
the French sulphur. We have used the Cali- 
fornia product except two years, and find that 
from 15 to 20 pounds per acre will actually pre- 
vent this growth, and I see no reason why we 
should use the foreign product. The gross sul- 
phur can, with sublimation, contain the useful 
materia), and I see no necessity of going to the 
expense of preparing the native sulphur and re- 
moving this gross material from it, as, if we ap- 
ply it before the opening of the blossom, it does 
not harm the vine; and especially is this the 
case in the second application when it is thrown 
on the ground. 

Approaching Maturity. 

Having uow treated in a very crude and dis- 
jointed manner of the conditions of the vine 
previous to the ripening of the fruit, I will 
touch briefly on the treatment of the grape as it 
approaches maturity. We have read frequently 
that on the low -headed vines of Spain the 
growers dig the dirt away from the 'stock, that 
the fruit may hang around it. This I have 
heard contradicted by what I consider better 
authority. Our present superintendent, Mr. 
E. B. Willis, spent considerable time among 
the vineyards of Spain, visiting the principal 
vineyards around Malaga, Valencia, Denia, 
Alacante and throughout the Granada district. 
He says that, while there may be individual 
growers who pursue this course, yet most of the 
producers of the best raisins raise the soil in 
little mounds around the vine to support the 
grapes. This preserves the clusters in better 
shape and renders them much less liable to in- 
jury in packing. While we cannot afford to 
expend so much labor on the growing crops of 
grapes as the Malaga people do, on account of 
the great difference in the cost of labor (ours 
costing four or five times as much as theirs), we 
nan afford to pay proper attention to a few 
facts. When we Bee one vine growing an un- 
usual amount of fruit, while its neighbor, eight 
feet away, appears much stronger, growing a 
larger amount of wood, we must remember that 
the roots of the stronger vine are thrown out so 
as to take away from the weaker one a part of 
its support (for in common ground they grow 
out roots several times the distance allowed 
them), and we should relieve the vine of its sur- 
plus fruit, else it will not mature properly. 
The growers of grapes at Malaga do much 
more than this. They clip the imperfect 
fruit from the stem while growing, and thus 
they secure more perfect clusters. Our grapes do 
not ripen as early as those of Malaga; hence, 
those who lose any time after the fruit is ripe 
lose a good deal, for it requires much more time 
and trouble to cure raisins that ripen two weeks 
out of season. While 12 days will suffice for 
curing early fruit, it often requires three times 
that period to accomplish the same result later. 
The later fruit will often carry only 10 per cent 
of saccharine matter, while rich, sweet, early 
fruit contains as high as 27 per cent. 

Our method of drying by the use of trays 'is 
very convenient; but there is no question at all 
but that the raisin can be cured more perfectly 
upon the ground if the place selected is free 
from dust. If the ground is used there is need 
of a protection of some kind. In raisins dried 
upon the ground, we find some with the skins 
perfectly smooth on one side and the seeds set- 
tled down near it, having the appearance of rot, 
the air not penetrating between the tray and 
the skin so as to cure the fruit on all sides 

It is unnecessary to give at length any 
method of drying, as we all understand that 
pretty well now. The greatest difference be- 
tween us now is that we do not all understand 
when the grape will do to lay down, as we call 

it. I do not know that I can tell any one not 
experienced what that time ia. The grape 
should have taken on its amber color, the seed 
its natural appearance, and generally the stem 
will show by its drying up near the cane, and 
it should contain sugar enough so that the 
sense of taste will tell us; or if we have a sac- 
chrometer and the sugar is measured, it should 
contain 22 per cent or thereabouts. If the fruit 
is grown on ground not rich enough to make 
this amount, that fact would inevitably show 
itself by the raisin not being plump, the grooves 
would be deep and few, the corresponding 
ridges sharp and the raisin would be imperfect 
and acid. If the fruit is over-ripe, then the 
raisin will be dark and lose some of its rich- 
ness, but nevertheless will be sweet and will 
fill the requirements of a good product; the 
grooves will be numerous and shallow; the 
ridges correspondingly rounded and the raisin 
will have a plump body. It will be pliant and, 
if pressed, will to some extent resume its shape; 
and when the fruit is picked just right it is 
more amber and its flavor richer. 

The Points of a Good Raisin. 

The character of the raisin is made up of a 
number of points, which are about as follows as 
regards importance: On layers — size, flavor, 
bloom, plumpness, thickness of skin, size of 
Beeds, proximity of berries to each other on the 
stem and color of the stem. No fruit is ex- 
pected to possess the most favorable side of all 
these characteristics, but no grape can lay claim 
to superiority that has few of them. Many lo- 
cations can produce raisins of good flavor, bat 
the large bloomy fruit with small seeds and thin 
skin will outsell them, and that really is what 
determines which is superior. Some of those 
points can be improved upon, as: bloom is kept 
on by careful handling; plumpness is secured by 
picking the fruit when fully ripe; size, by cor- 
rect pruning, good cultivation and irrigation, if 
necessary; flavor, by giving the vine all it re- 
quires as the fruit is growing. No raisin can 
attain to perfection if it lacks anything that 
its nature calls for; as, for instance, a climate 
suited to its delicate power of resistance during 
its growing period. If the climate u too severe 
it will adapt itself to such condition by thick- 
ening the skin and growing harder and more 
seeds. If any material of the soil ia too full 
and abundant, either in vegetable or mineral 
matter, the flavor is affected. Too much moist- 
ure in the soil stimulates wood growth and 
fills the fruit with water that has to be dried 
away, leaving the raisin thin and uninviting in 

The method of handling the grape from the 
vine to the raisin is too thoroughly understood 
to need more than a passing mention. I have 
almost entirely left that out of this paper, but 
will refer briefly to the manner of handling the 
fruit when taken from the drying-beds. The 
process called sweating is simply evening the 
cured fruit. It is not equalizing separate sterna 
cured in different degrees of perfection, but the 
dried fruit upon the same stem. If a stem ia 
not cured it should not be taken np from the tray 
or from the ground, but when a portion of the 
stem is wholly cured and some part is not, then 
sweating is necessary in order that one part of 
a cluster may assist in curing the balance of it, 
which suggests that we do not know how much 
curing is done by the escape of moisture through 
the stems. If the weather in curing is not 
extra hot or dry, but little sweating is needed, 
but if hastened by extreme heat or hot weather, 
then the unevenness is greater and the fruit 
will require more time to equalize. If the fruit 
is taken up too green, it may sour, or sugar as 
we call it. In early times they used to tell us 
that our raisins were not so good as others 
because they did not sugar, but that complaint 
is never heard now, as this sugaring is only too 
frequently observed on account of fruit being 
taken up too green. 

Right here it may be mentioned that we are 
putting 20 pounds of fruit into too close quar- 
ters. If our boxes should be made half an inch 
higher, with other dimenaiona the aame, we 
would find that our fruit would keep very much 
better. Last year we increased the size of our 
boxes one-quarter of an inch, and will this year 
add still another quarter of an inch. The 
manufacturera of boxes do not like this, as it 
does not admit of the working up into raisin 
boxes of remnants, not to say refuse stock. 
The time has come when we must insist upon 
good lumber for these boxes, as it haa much to 
do with the price realized. We 8hould not only 
have good boxes, but they should be kept clean 
and neat, as the purchaser will su8pect fruit of 
any brand which he finds in a dirty or slovenly- 
kept package. 

Style of Packing. 
The style of packing now generally adopted 
is to carefully bide the stems, though that style 
is often criticised. It does the party mak- 
ing these criticisms very much good and 
makes him feel that he haa diacovered some- 
thing that no one else haa. The fact is that the 
present style of packing was adopted after very 
severe criticisms on the very style of packing 
which is now advocated in some quarters; that 
is, that the stems should be packed one above 
the other so that they show the exact quality of 
the fruit, size of the stem, and so forth, as they 
appear in the box. I notice that one of our 
San Francisco houses, in writing upon this sub- 
ject lately, sustains the present style of pack- 
ing, hiding the stems. Certainly a box so 
packed presents a much more inviting appear- 
ance than one packed so that the stems show. 

Manner of Grading. 
Perhaps no two packing houses in the State 

Jcly 17, 1886 ] 

fAClFie f^U RAb PRESS. 

grade exactly the same, and no one can present 
himself as authority on this subject; but the 
style adopted by us is: London Layers, layers 
and two grades of Liose Muscatel, with one 
now and then of a higher grade which we term 
Dehesa. It is claimed by some that we should 
have but one grade of layers, which should be 
London Layers, and that all not packed in 
layers should be taken from the stems and 
graded in a Loose Muscatel, making two grades, 
which they would do by using a mill for assort- 
ing, as it is perfectly honest in its work. 

It is becoming common to face Loose Musca- 
tels, by which is meant laying the top of a box 
over with raisins in some design — straight 
rows, circles, or the form of some object, 
adding a cost of about 12A cents per 
box, but making the fruit present a 
much more attractive appearance aud sell for 
enough more in the market to pay for the ex- 
tra work, besides the satisfaction of feeling that 
the goods are placed upon the marktt in a more 
creditable shape. 

I cannot close this essay without making 
some little apology for the crude condition in 
which I am compelled to present it. The press 
of important business has rendered it impos- 
sible for me to prepare it as I should have 
liked, but I submit it in the hope that you will 
take this fact into consideration and be lenient 
in yonr judgment of its merits. 

National Temperance Instruction. 

The following is the text of a bill which 
passed the Senate, unanimously, was adopted 
in the House by a vote of 203 to 8, and was 
signed by the President May 21st: 

A Bill 

To provide for the study of the nature of alco 
holic drinks and narcotics, and of their effects 
upon the human system, in connection with the 
several divisions of the subject of physiology 
and hygiene, by the pupils in the public schools 
of the Territories and of the District of Co- 
lumbia, and in the Military and Naval Acade- 
mies, and Indian and colored schools in the 
Territories of the United States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America, 
in Congress assembled, 

That the nature of alcoholic drinks and nar- 
cotics, and special instruction as to their effects 
upon the human system, in connection with the 
several divisions of the subject of physiology 
and hygiene, shall be included in the branches 
of study taught in the common or public schools, 
and in the Military and Naval Schools, and 
shall be studied and taught as thoroughly and 
in the same manner as other like required 
branches are in said schools, by the use of text 
books in the hands of pupils where other 
branches are thus studied in said schools, and 
by all pupils in said schools throughout the 
Territories, in the Military and Naval Acade- 
mies of the United States, and in the District of 
Columbia, and in all Indian and colored schools 
in the Territories of the United States. 

Section 2. That it shall be the duty of the 
proper officers in control of any school described 
in the foregoing section to enforce the provis- 
ions of this act; and any such officer, school di- 
rector, committee, superintendent or teacher 
who shall refuse or neglect to comply with the 
requirements of this act, or shall neglect or fail 
to make proper provisions for the instruction 
required, and in the manner specified by the 
first section of this act, for all pupils in each 
and every school in his jurisdiction, shall be re- 
moved from office, and the vacancy filled as in 
other cases. 

Section 3. That no certificate shall be 
granted to any person to teach in the public 
schools of the District of Columbia or terri- 
tories after the first day of January, Anno 
Domini eighteen hundred and eighty eight, who 
has not passed a satisfactory examination in 
physiology and hygiene, with special reference 
to the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and 
other narcotics upon the human system. 

Section 4. That this act shall take effect on 
its passage. 

Uncle Sam not to Pay for the Drinks.— On 
the 2d instant, the House being in Committee 
of the Whole, the General Dtficiency bill was 
read for amendments. The clause making an 
appropriation of $363 for the deficiency in the 
expense account of the Board of Visitors to the 
Naval Academy in June, 1885, having been 
reached, Barnes of Missouri sent to the Clerk's 
desk and had read a voucher submitted by the 
disbursing officer at Annapolis giving an item- 
ized statement of the expenses incurred. The 
Clerk read a long list of eatables and drinkables, 
including turtles, spring chickens, old chickens, 
eggs, squash, beer, cognac, Santa Cruz rum and 
apollinaris. Dingley of Maine offered an amend- 
ment providing that none of this sum or other 
appropriation made by Congress for the expenses 
of the Board of Visitors shall be used to pay 
for intoxicating liquors. The amendment was 
adopted— 79 to 49. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not waut it, or beyond the time he inUnde to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A postal 
card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will not know- 
ingly send the paper to anyone who does not wish it, but 
if it is continued, through the failure of the subscriber to 
notify us to discontinue it, or some irresponsible party re 
Quested to Btop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time it is sent. Look carefully at the label on 
YOt;n paper. 


Inducements to Subscribers. 


Oar bodies are made of what we eat. 
An article to be suitable for food must con- 
tain at least one of the elementary substances of 
which the body consists, and this must be ca- 
pable of a ready separation from all other ele- 
ments. The latter, if not poisonous, will be re- 
jected from the system without harm. 

The best kinds of food are such as contain 
the most of the bodily elements. Milk contains 
all, and is hence a perfect food. 

A proper diet is such a combination of articles 
as together furnish all the elements in due pro- 
portion, while at the same time these articles 
please the taste and gratify our love of variety. 
Starvation would result in time if a single one 
of these elements were lacking. Not only must 
muscle, bone, etc., be provided for, but, still 
more, brain, nerve and every secretion. 

The modern fancy for the whitest bread is at 
fault, for such bread is dtficient in the elements 
that make brain, nerves and bones. Hence the 
tendency to nervous diseases, dyspepsia and de- 
caying teeth. Absence of vegetable food gives 
rise to scurvy; the too exclusive use of animal 
food to gout. 

But food must be digested. For this no less 
than five digestive fluids are secreted by appio- 
priate glands — saliva, for starch and sugar; 
gastric juice, for flesh, fish, eggs, etc; bile and 
pancreatic juice, for fat, the latter also aiding 
in the digestion of starch; and the intestinal 
secretions, to complete the process. A defi- 
ciency in any one of these results in some form 
of dyspepsia. 

The digested food must pass from the intes- 
tines into the circulation. Hence myriads of 
hungry mouths seize it from the former. and 
pour it through countless minute vessels, which 
constantly unite and form larger, into the right 
side of the heart. Should these vessels be 
closed up by inflammation the body would 
waste away, however good the appetite and 
vigorous the digestion. 

This imperfect blood does not, however, yet 
go into the full circulation, but passes round 
through the lungs with the venous blood and 
then into the left side of the heart, whence it 
is sent out into the arteries a pure fluid, rich in 
every element. 

But the process of nutrition is not yet fin- 
ished. Those sleepless workers, the ultimate 
cells, whether of brain, or bone, or muscle, or 
membrane, throwing off each moment the waste 
debris, take from the same arterial fluid each 
what it needs. — Ex. 

Inoculability of Yellow Fever. — The 
Brazilian doctor whose discoveries in inocula- 
tion for yellow fever were recently alluded to 
in this column, according to the London Lancet. 
seems to have a rival in Havana. The Lancet 
says: Dr. Carlos Finlay, of Havana, has pub- 
lished the results of several experiments he has 
made on the inoculability of yellow fever. He 
performed the operation, or rather got it per- 
formed for him, by mosquitoes, which he caused 
first to sting a patient suffering from yellow 
fever and shortly afterward a healthy person 
who was to be (with his own consent, of course) 
the subject of the experiment. He found that 
the disease was only inoculable from the third 
to the sixth day. When two mosquitoes were 
employed, so that a double dose was given, the 
symptoms of the experimental disease were 
somewhat more severe than when only a single 
mosquito was used. Of 11 cases of inoculation, 
six were efficacious, one doubtful and four neg- 
ative. The period of incubation varied from 
5 to 14 days; the symptoms consisted of head- 
ache, pyrexia, injection, with sometimes an 
icteric tint of the conjunctiva, and in some 
cases albuminuria. The fever lasted, as in the 
ordinary form, from 5 to 21 days. The author 
believes that this method of producing artificial 
yellow fever will ultimately be found very 
valuable as a prophylactic against the natural 
and dangerous form of the disease. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to those 
who pay fully one year in advance of date, IP requested, 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price $1) $0 25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3. — Dewty's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt 50 

4. — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 25 

5. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 

Rural Press, "good as new " Free 

7. —Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates 
9.— Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, Books and Period- 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 25 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — SI worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 
14.— Dewey's Pat Newspaper FilehoIder(18 to 36in.) . 5 

15-— European Vines Described, 63 pages 05 

19. — Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1500 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23. — Architecture Simplified, 60 pages 15 

Bsautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive, 
35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .25 
Note. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 252 Market St., S. F. 
Send for any further information desired. 
Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 
Sample copies of this paper mailed free to p>ersons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

Strangely Poisonous Lizards.— The helo 
derma is the only poisonous lizard in the 
world, as far as known, and is confined to 
Mexico, Lower California and Arizona. The 
common name is the Gila monster. The poison 
comes from poison glands and the teeth are 
channeled to accelerate its passage into the 
wound. Brandy and whisky are generally an- 
tidotes to rattlesnake poison, but fail in the 
caBe of a bite from this reptile. The poison of 
the heloderma is entirely different from that of 
a snake. The latter kills by paralyzing the 
respiratory center, while the poison of the Gila 
monster paralyzes the heart. Experiments 
have been made showing that subcutaneous in- 
jections cause no local injury, while the action 
of the heart was seriously affected, becoming 
slowly contracted, while the spinal cord is par- 
alyzed. — Salt Lake Tribune. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Jared C Hoah — California. 

J. J. Bartbll — San Joaquin Co. 

O. W. Inoalls — Arizona. 

E. L. Richards— San Diego Co. 

R. G.Huston— Idaho and Montana. 

Geo McDowell— Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Co's 

J. B. Patch, Nevada and Utah. 

M. S. Prime— Shasta Co. 

Frask W. Smith— Oregon and Wash. Ter. 

A. Calder wood— Napa Co. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the jour- 
nal, and making its value more widely known 
to others, and extending its influence in the 
cause it faithfully serves. Subscription rate, 
§3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, | if 
ordered soon enough. If already a subscriber 
please show the paper to others. 

Cheap Money for Farmers. 

Farmers in this State will be glad to learn that 
hey can borrow on mortgage any amount, from 
$5000 to $500,000, from S. £). Hovey, 330 Pine St., 
San Francisco, at 6 to 7 per cent and taxes. ** 

Fruit Drier on Exhibition. 

One of the Meeker Sun Fruit Driers, with all the latest 
improvements suggested by the experience of last season, 
is now on exhibition at the factory, 5th and Bryant 
streets, on and after Monday, Jan. 25th. 

As now arranged we consider it much the most per- 
fect and economical of any of the various driers to which 
the attention of fruit-growers has been called. Its vari- 
ous productions are the perfection of purity and excel- 
lence, and at the same time the most economical in cost 
of production. Fruit-growers are invited to examine and 
test the drier and the fruit prepared in it. Those using 
this drier last season realized handsome profits on their 

Consumption Cured. 

An old physician, retired from practice, having had 
placed in his hanrls by an East India missionary the 
formula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and 
permanent cure of Consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, 
Asthma and all throat and lung affections, also a posi- 
tive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all Nervous 
Complaints, after having tested its wonderful curative 
powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to make 
it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by this 
motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I will 
send, free of charge, to all who desire it, this recipe, Jn 
German, French, or English, with full directions for pre- 
paring and using. Sent by mail by addressing with 
stamp, naming this paper, W. A. Notes, 149 Power's 
Block, Rochester, N. Y. 

Imaginary Ills. — A Philadelphia physician 
says that a great deal of what passes for heart 
disease is only mild dyspepsia; that nervousness 
commonly is bad temper, and that two-thirds of 
so-called malaria is nothing but laziness. Im- 
agination, he says, is responsible for a multi- 
tude of ills; and he gives, as an instance, the 
case of a clergyman, who, after preaching a 
sermon, would take a teaspoonful of sweetened 
water and doze off like a babe, under the im- 
pression that it was a bona fide sedative. 

Easy Binder. 

Dewey's patent elastic binder, for periodicals, music 
and other printed sheets, is the handiest, best and cheap- 
est of all economical and practical file binders. News- 
papers are quickly placed in it and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is durable and so simple a child can 
use it. Price, size of Mining and Scientific Press, Rural 
Press, Watchman, Fraternal Record, Masonic Record, 
Harper's Weekly, and Scientific American, 75 cents; post- 
age, 10 cents. Postpaid to subscribers of this paper, 50 
ceuts. Send for illustrated circular. Agents wanted. 

Artificial Whalebone. — The scarcity of 
whales is seriously felt in reducing the supply 
of whalebone, which has advanced several 
times its price of a few years ago. To meet 
this deficiency several substitutes have recently 
been introduced; the latest is a mode of produc- 
ing a substitute for the quills of geese and 
turkeys. A factory has recently been put in 
operation in Michigan to furnish the article. 

What Natural Gas has Done. — Since the 
introduction of natural gas into Pittsburg, Pa., 
the output of the mills and factories has been 
increased 20 per cent, a large number of new 
plants have bsen erected, and nearly 10,000 
additional men have been given employment. 

About Obtaining Patents. 

Patents are Virtually Contracts. 

The Patent Law provides that in case a patent, which is 
the evidence of the cont uct, is not executed in compliauce 
with the requirement? of the law, it may be annulled and 
rendered void. Hence, it is < f the greatest importance t j 
every inventor that hii patent or contract be skillfully and 
accurately drafted, iu order that it may afford him complete 
protectiou for his invemiou during the life of his pa'.ct. 

Secure a Good Patent. 

An inventor shou'd first ascertain whether or not his im- 
provement has been pitented to another. This requires an 
exhaustive search among all the patents iu the class to 
w*. ich the invention rela'es. If, by this "preliminary ex- 
amination," the improvement is found to have been pre- 
viously i vented, our client will receive, for the small sum of 
'?> for the examination, a verbal or written report showing 
lefinitely wherein his invention has been anticipated, 
thereby saving him further expense aud perhaps much time, 
anxiety, etc. 

To avoid all needless delay, however, and secure patents 
at the earli st mom- nt practicible, inventors will do well to 
forward a mod 1, <* rawing or sketch, with a plain, full and 
comprehensive description of their invention (statiug dis- 
tinctly what the particular points of improvement are), with 
¥15 as a first in tallment of fees. If the improvement ap- 
pears to us to be novel and patentable, the necessary papers 
for an application for a patent will be prepared immediately 
and forwarded to the inventor for his signature. When he 
receives the application and finds it duly prepared, he will 
carefully sign and return the same plainly addressed to us, 
with postal money order or express receipt for our own fee. 
The case will then be promptly filed by us in the Patent 
Office, and vigorously prosecuted to secure the be:t patent 
possible. [This course is the most expeditious and satis- 
fy tory, as no time is lost in transmitting correspondence 
relative to the preliminary steps.] When the patent is 
allowed the inventor will be duly nctitied, and ou sending 
the final Government fee of $20 to us, we will order the 
isBne of the patent, and forward the same as soon as it is 
secured from the Patent Office. 

Th^ payments are thus divided and made easy. We make 
no pretense of doing cheap work, in order to entice custom, 
nor do we afterward make additional charges to bring the 
bill up to a jab compensation. We do our work honeBtly 
and thoroughly, and we never give up a case so long as there 
is a chance of obtaining a patent. The Agency charge, in- 
cluding drawings, rarely exceeds . ^40, aud for this we do a'l 
we can without appealing the case. 

Models and Drawings.', 

Models are now seldom required by the Commissioner of 
Patents, and generally only in intricate cases. Perfect draw- 
ings ■ f practical working machines are more satisfactory to 
the Patent Office than the old cumbersome system of stor- 
ing up an immense bulk i f countless models. * 

Drawings or sketches, sufficient to illustrate the invention 
clearly, w th a description ttat will enable us to make a full 
set of perfect drawings for the Patent Office, is all that we 
require. A model will answer our purpose as well, however. 
In cases where the inventor can more easily furnish it. 

-The value and even the validity of a patent often depends 
on the character, clearness and sufficiency of its drawings. 
There are thousands of existing patents in which the Im- 
provements are but partially or poorly illustrated in the 
drawing? When an attempt is made to dispose of such 
paten' s, the vaguenesi and defects of the drawings oft n 
prejudice capitalists and manufacturers against the inven- 
tion, while in reality it may be of g-eat value, and would 
meet with lead/ sale had it been skillfully, completely and 
a-tistically lortrayed. Iu all cases prepared by us. the 
drawings are made under our personal supervision, by 
skilled draftsmen iu our constant employ, and every precau- 
lion is taken to have the inven ion fully and clearly shown 
hy different views, so that the improvement will be readily 
understood by the Examiners in the Patent Office, and com- 
prehended by the public when the patent is granted. 

Advantages to Inventors on the Pacific 

The firm of Dkwf.y k Co. has edited and published the 
Minino and Scientific Press continuously since 18*jO, 
a period of 26 years. Few agents, who are still engaged in 
the business, have had so long-extended practice in patent 
soliciting. The members of the firm give personal atten- 
tion to the applications intrusted to their care; and their 
familiarity with inventions and with local affairs in the 
Pacific ( tates and Territories, enables them to understand 
the wants of inventors on this coast more readily and 
thoroughly, as we believe, than any other agents in America. 
Thus there is saved a great deal of the time which ordiuarily 
—when d'stant agents are employed - is wastod In prelimi- 
nary writing back and forth. 

Th's happy-combination of Ion? business experience to- 
gether, and wide connections, has placed our firm iu a posi-. 
tion unquestionably most fortunate for affording luventors 
prompt and reliable advice, aud the best facilities for secur- 
ing their full patent rights with sjfety and dispatch at 
uuiformly re.isouable rates. 

Every patenteo of a worthy invf ntion is guaranteed the 
gratuitous publication of a clearly-stated and co rect de- 
scription of his invention, In one or moro of our Influential 
and reliable newspapers, affording just tho circulation best 
calculated to widely inform tho class of readers especially 
interested iu the subject of his invention. 


A Caveat is a confidential communication made to tho 
Patent Office, and is therefore Med within its secret archive-. 
The privilege secured under a cavo:it is, that it entitles tho 
caveator to receive notice, for a period of one year, of any 
application for a patent subsequently filed, which is an- 
judged to bo novel aud is likely to interfere with tho Inven- 
tion described in the caveat, and the caveator is then re- 
quired to complete his application for a patent within three 
i ion' ha from the date of said notice. Caveat papers shoul I 
bo very carefully prepaid. Our fee for the service varies 
from *10 to S2il. Tho Government fee M *10 addn ional. 

To enable us to prepare cave-it papers, we require only a 
sketch ai-d description of tho invention. 

Rejected Applications. 

Inventors who have rejected ca?es (prepared either by 
bhemaehea or for them by other agents) and desire to ascer- 
tain their prospects of by further efforts, are invite. I 
to avail themselves of our unrivaled facilities for securing 
favorable result*. We have been successful in securing Let- 
ters Patent iu many previously abandoned cases. Our terms 
are always reasonable. - , , 

Inventors doing business with ns will be notified of the 
Hate of their application in the Patent Office whenever it is 
possible for us to furnish such inforoiation. 

Patent Solicitors, Office of Scientific Press, 252 Market 
St. Elevator entrance, No. 12 Front St., S. t. 




[July 17, 1886 



The next term of th's well-known Institution will 
commence on 

Wednesday August 4, 1886. 

For Circulars giving particulars, address 


Mi 1- Seminary 1'. 0., Alameda Co., Cal. 


* A Sslsct School for Torso Ladijs.— The next ses- 
sion will begin Monday, August 2, 18S6. For catalogue 
or information address the Principal, Rsv. Edward B. 
ClIURCH, A. M , 1036 Valencia St , Sin Francisco, Cal. 


San Francisco, Cal. 


Young Ladies and Children, 

1222 Pine St., San Francisco. 

Thorough training in practical studies and accomplish- 
ments, and p'easant surroundings, are the priucipal ad- 
vantages offered. 

Fall Term Opens July 26, 1886. 

For Catalogues and particulars, apply to MRS. S. B. 

Rrfbrbncks— Rt. Rev. W. 1. Kip, Bishop of California; 
Rev. C 0. Tillotson, Santa Cruz; Hon. C. H. Hartson, 
Napa; John D. Yost, San Francisco; F. A. Hihn, Sinta 
Cruz; E. J. Wilson, Vallejo; Capt. A. D. Wood, San Fran- 
cisco; Eugene Sherwood, San Francisco. 

California Military Academy, Oakland, Cal. 

Special Feature— Commercial Department. NextTerm 
begins July 19, 1SS6. Send for circular. 

COL. W. H. O'BRIEN, Principal. 


Boarding and Day School, 

1625 Telegraph Ave., 

Oakland, Cal. 

Mrs. Hhrmos Phrry, Miss Katr M. Filler, 

Next Term will begin Monday, Aug. 2, '86 



1020 OAK ST.. - - OAKLAND, 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 28th, 1896. 



First-Class Boarding School far Boys, 

Preparatory, Commercial, and Academic Classes. 

Preparatory Dcp irtment, 830 per s"hool month. Com 
m^rcial and Academic ne,.artment, $35 per school month 

Nexr. Term wia benln Monday. Augus. 
2, 1886. Send for Circular. 

T. STEWART BOWEVS, A. B , T. C. D., Principal 



Fall Session Will Open July 28, 1886. 
Faculty Consists of 12 Members. 


Classiea', Philosophical, and Scientific Courses leading to 
the degrees of A. B., B. Ph., and B. S. 

Preparatory Department Course In Music, 
Art, and Elocution. 

of teachers of experience and ability, chosen with 
special reference to their work. 

The Commercial Department is well provided with 
fac lities for acquiring a Thoroi oh Practical Blsinkss 

Delightful climate, pleasant surroundings, with home 
on grounds where parents may know thit their sins and 
daughters are carefully guarded, and under the direct 
supervision of ttie faculty. 

For Catalogue or information, address 

A. E. LASHER, President. 



REV. H, E JEWETT, M. A., - Principal. 

SIXTEENTH SCHOOL YEAR begins Tuesday morning, 
July 27th, 1886. Boarding and Day Scholars received. 
Send for Catalogue. 



Alameda Co., Cal. 

A Preparatory School for Young Men and Boys. 
jESTNext Term will commence on Monday, July 19, 


Healthful location, pleasant home, and thorough 

School. Send for circular. 

D. P. SACKETT, Principal. 

* Telegraph Institute 

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1r*fis. for College Journal and Circulars, 
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Monday August 2, 1886 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 



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money refunded. I am in every 
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Circular mailed free to any ad- 

State, County and Shop 
Rights for Sale. 



Patented March 23, 1886. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 


Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, Asthma, Sci- 
atica. Gout, Lumbago, 
and Deafness. 

Everybody should have it. 
G. G. BURNETT, Ag't 

827 Montgomery St. , S. F. 
Price, $1.00. Sold by all Drug 

gists. £3~Call an! see 

Oprics— 428 Kearny St. 
San Francisco. 


Late Veterinary Inspector of Cattle for the State 

of Kentucky. 

Operative Surgery and Treatment of 
Chronic Lameness Specialties. 


piiices ■- 

PRESS No. 1 $270 00 

PEESS No. 2 300 00 

The No. 1 Press makes a bale 16x18 inches, vari- 
able length, and presses 8 or 10 tons a day. The 
No. 2 Press makes a bale 18x2°2 inches, variable 
length, and will bale from 10 to 14 tons a day. 

These are unquestionably the BEST MADE and 
FASTEST Perpetual Presses, and are guaranteed 

G25 Sixth Street, San Jfrancisco. v 


El Cajon, Cal., August 1, 1 
We have pressed 400 tons with our Whitman Hay Press. 
We have pressed from M to 14 tons a day; in grass hay, from 
8 to 10 tons jier day with ease: we have presfed in gram hay, 
8 tons in 6 hours. In grain hay, bales run from 180 to 340 
pounds; in grass hay, 1 25 to 1 90. We have pressed 1 90 
pounds with 10 feeds, which the « * • Press cannot do, as 
their feed -box is smaller. Our bales are mu:h smoother and 
more tightly than those made in the * ■ • Press. We 
have averaged 15 tons a day in wild oat hav. 


Write lor Circular. Iam Accnt for this Press. 



Willi Riding 


As shown above, with two rakes 
like this, $175. The cheapest 
stacking outBt. Will stack, 
from swath, 44 or 50 tons per day. 





IN VENTED indorsed by Capt. A. H. B >gardus, Champion of the worl I, and the best shots on this Crast, and 
by old hunters generally. Makes open-sighttd rifle shooting more rapid and accurate than any globe or peep-sight 
ever invented. Price, $2.0D per pair. Discount to the trade. Descriptive Circular, with Testimonials, free. 

SLOTTERBEK St McCRANET, Lafcreport. Cal. 




10 TONS BOX CAR $800 * i 

Puts 10 Tons in a Box Car. 
Bales from 10 to 15 tons per day. 

Any young man can earn more on an invest- 
ment of $600 in this press than can be earned 
in expending $2000 fov any other machine. 

Sold on Easy Payments. Address 


wi sell: 






SlVD FOR Catalooc"s. 


San Jose, Cal. 


A Sure and Cheap Cure tor Pink Eyo and Distemper 

will be sent on receipt of 25 cents. Addresi 


P. O Box 88, hlverslde, 
San Bernardino Co. , Cal. 

JOLIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure-blooded An- 
gora Coats, Litile Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 

American Exchange Hotel, 

Opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, one door from 
Bank of California, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel is in the very center of the business portion 
of the city. The traveling public will find this to be ths 
most convenient as well as the most comfortable and 
respectable Family Hotel in the city. 

Board and Room, $1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 

Per Day, According to Room. 
tfH t and Cold Baths Free. None but most obliging 
white labor employed. Free Coach to and from 
the Hotel. 

MONTGOMERY BROS , Proprietors. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
ce8 _47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety.629 Commercial St.,3. F. 


At Sacramento, Sept. 6th to 18th. 


The Attention of the Farming Community 

of this Slate is particularly called to the Liberal 
Awards, and advantages offered for 


The importance of an exhibit made by separate coun- 
ties, showing the productive qualities of the various see. 
tions of our State, has become more apparent each year 
since the si stem was inaugurated by this Board. Kecog- 
nizing the interest made manifest In the past by both 
tic- public and the exhibitors, through whose energy and 
enterprise valuable agricultural lands have been brought 
to the notice of the world, and counties with small popu- 
lations have increased in a manifold degree, by reason of 
the producer having come forward with l.i- products that 
were of such quality as to enable him to meet all com- 
petitors, the Board have deemed it proper to Increase 
the premiums in this Department, and to that end have 
appropriated $2000 to bedistributed among th various 
counties making displays under the following provisions: 

To those who may have charge of the exhibits, we 
would call their attention to the fact that these awards 
will be made for the most extensive, perfect, and 
varied exhibit of Farm Products (cxclnaive of 
live stock) exhibited as a County Production. 
Thus it will be seen that it is to be wholly devoted to 
the products of the farms located in the county where 
the exhibit is made from, and does not include manu- 
factured goods of any kind or character except those 
grown and raised in the county from whence the display 

For the best display, as per explanation 
above. First premium of $500, cash. The 
remaining exhibits shall receive premiums in pro- 
portion to their excellence, as compared with that re- 
ceiving the First Premium. Competition to be between 
counties only. That is to say, that the entire exhibit 
made by one countymust compete against the entire 
exhibit of another county. The premium awarded to 
each county exhibit will be paid to the committee in 
charge of said exhibit. 

The State Board of Agriculture earnestly desires the 
hearty co-operation of the various subordinate Oranges 
throughout the State, in making this oxhibit'on of Cali- 
fornia's products a success, whereby the varied products 
of different localities may be fully shown We would 
ask the appointment of a committee from the Grange in 
each county to call upon and urge the patrons to make a 
display representing their respective counties. 

Address the Secretary at Sacramento for Premium Lists 
and other information. 

JESSE D. CARR, President. 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Sacramento. 


We will furnish all who desire 
first-class (Imported) French Seed- 
ling stocks of 


For next season's planting, at the 
lowest possible rates. 

J3TA11 orders should be sent in by August 1st to Insure 
early shipments. Correspondence solicited. Address 

Box 101. 

C. W. REED & CO., 

Sacramento, Cal. 


Superior Wood and Metal EngraT- 
■Dg, Electrotyping .m ' Stereotyping 
done at the office of thia paper. 

Jolt 17, 1886.] 




The Latest Fashions. 

Ladies' Costume. 

Fig. I. — Since lace can now be obtained in 
all fashionable colors, and in inexpensive as 
well as costly varieties, the exclusiveness in 
which it has hitherto been kept has been en- 
tered by La, Mode, and its use for and upon 
summer costumes has now become general. It 
is usually arranged over contrasting silk, satin 
or surah, and Bouncings deep enough for full 
draperies are obtainable. The costume here 
illustrated is particularly elegant for lace, and 
is developed in black lace over colored silk, the 
lace being Kursheedt's Standard Malelasse 
Spanish guipure in flouncing, net and edging, 
the edging being used for trimming the neck 
and sleeves. The skirt is shaped so as to hang 
well over a long or short bustle, or without a 
bustle, and is of the popular four-gored style. 
A balayeuse or fine knife-plaiting of the silk is 
the only decoration added to the skirt. The 
draperies are of the flouncing, and are so 
uniquely arranged that the scalloped edge of 
the lace is visible at all the loose edges. The 
front-drapery is laid in deep plaits at the belt 
and falls in straight folds to the edge of the 
skirt at the right side. At the left edge it also 
falls to about the same depth, and three up- 
turning plaits drape it at this edge, some dis- 
tance in front of which and below the belt it is 
caught up in three loose plaits and caught to 
the skirt below an over-falling fullness, this 
draping raising it high in a very picturesque 
fashion. Below these loopings the drapery is 
caught together, and this completes the drap- 
ing. At the back the drapery is deep and very 
full, and is arranged in two seamed houmous 
loops and in many overlapping plaits at the 
belt, the disposal causing the right side to fall 
in handsome jabot folds. The drapery overlaps 
the front-drapery at the right side, and several 
tackings are made to the skirt to retain it in 
permanent elegance. 

The basque is of net over silk, and is superbly 
fitted by single bust darts, under-arm and side- 

Fig. 3. Ladles' Bonnet. 

back gores and a curving center-seam; the side- 
back seams being left open below the waist-line, 
and a triple box-plait underfolded at the end of 
the center seam. Its fronts open in cutaway 
jacket style over a pouch or Fedora vest of the 
silk arranged upon smooth fitting vest-sections 
of lining that close down the center with but- 
ton-holes and buttons and are attached to the 
fronts along the bust darts and above the darts. 
The vest is gathered at the top and 
bottom, bound at the bottom and under- 
faced at the top. The right front is ex- 
tended in a narrow strap at the neck and fast- 
ened to the left front under a rosette-bow of 
ribbon, above which the ends of the standing 
collar meet. The collar is overlaid with a down- 
ward-turning row of lace edging. The sleeves 
are in coat shape and are shortened slightly; 
they are trimmed with revers-like cuffs of the 
silk and frills of the lace edging. 

Wool, cotton and silk laces are equally stylish 
for such costumes, and the silk may be of any 
preferred hue. Black laces over black or 
colored silks are very elegant, and white and 
cream laces are beautiful for afternoon and 
evening wear. Tissues in all colors are also 
handsome over silk, and tulle in black and in 
light and delicate colors is used for very re- 
cherche costumes, and may be embroidered, stud- 
ded with beads or perfectly plain. All varieties 
of seasonable dress goods are adapted to the 
mode, which in soft wool textures and summer 
silks is parlicularly beautiful. 

The hat is a frame covered with silk, which 
is overlaid with the lace net. It is trimmed 
with ribbon and fancy ploomage. 

Girls' Dress. 

Fig. 2. — White nainsook was chosen for the 
dress in this instance, and fine Italian lace is used 
for trimming. In front it has a yoke top 
and a full lower part, while at the back it 
shows the Princess effect. The material is here 
tucked for the yoke, and a frill of lace trims the 
yoke along the lower and arm's-eye edges. A 
narrow band finishes the neck, and inside it is 
sewed a frill of lace. The lower part of the 

front is gathered across the center of the top, 
and a cluster of sbirrings is made at the waist- 
line and secured to a stay arranged under them. 

A long dart removes all fullness under the arms, 
rendering the adjustment smooth and clinging; 
and the seams joining the front and back come 

quite far to the back and are prettily curved. 
The closing is made at the back with button- 
holes and buttons the full depth of the body, 
which reaches only a little below the hips, the 
requisite length being made by a full skirt por- 
tion, which is gathered to the lower edge. A 
broad belt section, pointed at the ends and 
curved prettily at the top and bottom, crosses 
the front a little beyond the darts, and its ends 
overlap and join the gathered ends of wide sash- 
ties, which are arranged in an immense bow at 
the back. The belt section is piped at all its 
edges and trimmed with a ruffle of lace. A 
piping and a ruffle of deeper lace trim the wrists 
of the coat-sleeves. 

All kinds of cotton textures, including 
sateens, cambrics, ginghams, mulls, India and 
Swiss muslins, nainsooks, lawns, etc., also soft 
woolens, such as serges, nun's-veilings, summer 
flannels, etc., will be much used for such 
dresses. The yoke may be of tucked or em- 
broidered material or of lace net, and the sash- 
ties may be of ribbon. Embroidery or lace may 
be ruffled on the skirt or it may be applied in 
one or several rows. 

The pretty hat is simply trimmed with a scarf 
of crepe and ostrich plumage. 

Ladies' Bonnet. 

Fig. 3. — A capote with a tolerably broad 
brim is here shown. The crown is of black 
Spanish lace laid over white silk, while the 
brim is of fine black braid outlined with jet 
beads. In front are loops of black grosgrain 
and a rich cluster of flowers, consisting of white 
chrysanthemums, white roses and maidenhair 
ferns. This trims the bonnet elaborately, giv- 
ing it an essentially dressy air. The ties are of 
black ribbon and start from among the flowers, 
come down each side and are caught in the 
usual way. If the ties prove uncomfortable in 
warm weather, a bridle of black lace could be 
substituted for them; aud it would be quite in 
harmony with the decorations of the bonnet. 

Ladies' Hat. 

Fic. 4. — This hat is decidedly suggestive of a 
poke bonnet aud is of yellow straw. The broad 

Fig. 4- Ladies' Hat. 

brim is underfaced with dark green velvet, and 
a short distance from the edge is outlined with 
small yellow pearl beads. Grosgrain ribbon of 
the new green shade forms the chief decoration. 
It encircles the crown and is arranged in a four- 
looped bow just in front. At the back a band 
of it is drawn to one side of the crown, and ter- 
minates in a series of loops just where a cascade 
of Spanish lace begins, the latter coming down 
the crown close to the front and forming a 
unique and simple decoration. Any color pre- 
ferred may be used instead of the green, which 
is particularly effective on the yellow straw. 

Shooting Spectacles. — We call attention 
to the illustrated advertisement in this issue of 
the "Slotterbeck shooting spectacles," for 
which a patent was obtained through Dewey 
& Co.'s agency. By reference to the engraving 
in the advertisement, it will be seen that a dia- 
phragm is placed in the corner of the glass 
through which one usually looks in taking aim. 
The object of this diaphragm is to arrest the 
stray rays of light which tend to blur the 
sights, and allows only a pure and direct ray to 
enter through the small hole, and thus offers a 
dis'inct image on the retina of the eye. It 
makes the sights and object aimed at very 
distinct; can be used on a bright day with no 
blur, and gives a large field of vision. Aim 
can be taken very quickly with them, as they 
are always in proper position. They also re- 
lieve the eye and enable one to shoot longer 
without weariness. The diaphragm does not 
interfere with the seeing qualities of the glasses, 
so they may be used for general purposes, read- 
ing, as well as hunting. The diaphragm acts 
as a distant glass, combined with reading glass- 
es, makes a reading and distant spectacle in 
one. The manufacturers issue a circular giv- 
ing many testimonials from excellent authori- 

The total value of all property in Sutter 
county, as shown by the assessment roll for 1 880, 
is $7,715,428. Of this amount 10,442,157 is 
the value of all real estate, and $1,273,271 the 
value of all personal property. 

Worker Foundation. — In Mr. Muth-Ras- 
mussen's article in the Rural of June 20th, the 
types say "wooden foundation" in one place. 
It should read "worker foundation." 



f ACIFI6 RURAl* press. 

[Jdly 17, 1886 

breeders' birectory. 

Six lines or leu in this Director}' at 50c per line per month 


Prop'r, Martinez. Cal., imp'er and breeder of the hnest 
strains Wyandottes, P. Kocks, LaDgshans, Houdans, 
Crevecceurs, W. Leghorns, L. Brahmas, Bronze Turkeys. 

E. C. CLAPP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas, 
Plymouth Kocks and Silver Spangled Hamburg's. Fowls 
and Eggs. Ex. and P. O. Money Order offices, Pasadena. 

JA3. T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of I horoughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 

O. J. ALBEB, Santa Clara, Cal., breeder of Langshans, 
Partridge Cochins, Pedigreed Scotch Collies, W. C. B. 
Polish, Wyandottes, B. Leghorns, B B. R. O. Bantams. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouae and Kmbden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 

varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 


sale at all times of all the most popular and profitable 
varieties. Please inclose stamp for new circular and 
price list to R G. Head, Napa, Cal. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St,S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottcs. 

J. N LUND, Box 116, Oakland, Cal. Wyandottes, 
Langshans, L. Brahmas, P. Kocks, B. Leghorns, a B. 
a. Game Bantams, T. Quineas, Hom'g Antwerp Pigeons. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Gatos, Cal. Fancy Poultry' breeder